Can you contract COVID-19 twice?

Submitted by: JAloni 117

Yes. Note that some studies in this list give us reason to question their conclusions. This may be because they were published in sources that are not peer-reviewed, are low ranked or not ranked at all, which may indicate limited editorial oversight. Carefully review the individual study summaries below for more information.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 5 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 5 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

All labels of Literature Reviews and source quality are assigned by State of K. For academic journals, the label "Q[NUMBER]" is an indication of the quality of the publication. The "NUMBER" refer to the best quartile in which the journal appeared among all the subjects in which the journal was ranked by Scimago Institutions Rankings. For example, if a journal was ranked in the third quartile (Q3) in infectious diseases, but in the second quartile in Ebola studies (Q2), you would see "Q2". The best quartile is "Q1". Publications other than academic journals may be labeled as "Highly Regarded Sources". Government sources receive this label as do NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labeled "highly regarded" or "Q1" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label, but these are rough guides to source quality.

Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 5
Sorted by publication year
1
Robust T cell immunity in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19
"SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells will likely prove critical for long-term immune protection against COVID-19. We systematically mapped the functional and phenotypic landscape of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses in a large cohort of unexposed individuals as well as exposed family members and individuals with acute or convalescent COVID-19. Acute phase SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells displayed a highly activated cytotoxic phenotype that correlated with various clinical markers of disease severity, whereas convalescent phase SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were polyfunctional and displayed a stem-like memory phenotype. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detectable in antibody-seronegative family members and individuals with a history of asymptomatic or mild COVID-19. Our collective dataset shows that SARS-CoV-2 elicits robust memory T cell responses akin to those observed in the context of successful vaccines, suggesting that natural exposure or infection may prevent recurrent episodes of severe COVID-19 also in seronegative individuals."
AUTHORS
Annika Olsson
Jean-Baptiste Gorin
Kristoffer Straling
Olga Rivera-Ballesteros
Andre Perez-Potti
Takuya Sekine et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
No
No
2
Convergent Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Convalescent Individuals
"During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infected millions of people and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. Virus entry into cells depends on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S). Although there is no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection. However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. Here we report on 68 COVID-19 convalescent individuals. Plasmas collected an average of 30 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal neutralizing titers ranging from undetectable in 18% to below 1:1000 in 78%, while only 3% showed titers >1:5000. Antibody cloning revealed expanded clones of RBD-specific memory B cells expressing closely related antibodies in different individuals. Despite low plasma titers, antibodies to distinct epitopes on RBD neutralized at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) as low as few ng/mL. Thus, most convalescent plasmas obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 without hospitalization do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity. Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective."
AUTHORS
Julio Cetrulo Lorenzi
Frauke Muecksch
Christian Gaebler
Davide F. Robbiani
Paul Bieniasz
Zijun Wang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
3
Longitudinal evaluation and decline of antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection
"Antibody (Ab) responses to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in most infected individuals 10-15 days following the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. However, due to the recent emergence of this virus in the human population it is not yet known how long these Ab responses will be maintained or whether they will provide protection from re-infection. Using sequential serum samples collected up to 94 days post onset of symptoms (POS) from 65 RT-qPCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, we show seroconversion in >95% of cases and neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses when sampled beyond 8 days POS. We demonstrate that the magnitude of the nAb response is dependent upon the disease severity, but this does not affect the kinetics of the nAb response. Declining nAb titres were observed during the follow up period. Whilst some individuals with high peak ID50 (>10,000) maintained titres >1,000 at >60 days POS, some with lower peak ID50 had titres approaching baseline within the follow up period. A similar decline in nAb titres was also observed in a cohort of seropositive healthcare workers from Guy′s and St Thomas′ Hospitals. We suggest that this transient nAb response is a feature shared by both a SARS-CoV-2 infection that causes low disease severity and the circulating seasonal coronaviruses that are associated with common colds. This study has important implications when considering widespread serological testing, Ab protection against re-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the durability of vaccine protection."
AUTHORS
Oliver Hemmings
Kathryn J.A. Steel
Sam Acors
Blair Merrick
Carl Graham
Jeffrey Seow et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
4
AUTHORS
Jun Yuan
Fan Zhang
Wei Xu
Yong Zhang
Qin Li
Bo Wu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Nature Medicine
High quality source
FUNDERS
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Yes
Yes
5
Primary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 protects against reinfection in rhesus macaques
"Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic. It currently remains unclear whether convalescing patients have a risk of reinfection. We generated a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that was characterized by interstitial pneumonia and systemic viral dissemination mainly in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Rhesus macaques reinfected with the identical SARS-CoV-2 strain during the early recovery phase of the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection did not show detectable viral dissemination, clinical manifestations of viral disease, or histopathological changes. Comparing the humoral and cellular immunity between primary infection and rechallenge revealed notably enhanced neutralizing antibody and immune responses. Our results suggest that primary SARS-CoV-2 exposure protects against subsequent reinfection in rhesus macaques."
AUTHORS
Jiangning Liu
Linlin Bao
Qiang Wei
Ying Liu
Wei Deng
Xing Liu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science
High quality source
FUNDERS
National key research and development project of China , CAMS Initiative for Innovative Medicine of China , National Mega projects of China for Major Infectious Diseases
No
No







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 30
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Can you contract COVID-19 twice?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Can COVID-19 strike twice?
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-0424-x
AUTHOR
Ashley York
PUBLISHED
2020 in Nature Reviews Microbiology

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Perceived vulnerability to COVID-19 infection from event attendance: Results from Louisiana, USA, two weeks preceding the national emergency declaration
"In response to the mounting threat of COVID-19, we added questions to an ongoing food preference study held at Louisiana State University from March 3-12 of 2020. We asked 356 participants: (1) In your opinion, how likely is it that the spread of COVID-19 (the coronavirus) will cause a public health crisis in the United States? (2) How concerned are you that you will contract COVID-19 by attending events on campus? Participants' estimates of an impending national health crisis increased significantly during the study's second week (March 9-12) while concern about personally contracting COVID-19 from attending campus events increased only marginally during the study's final days. We find those expressing a higher likelihood of an impending national crisis were more concerned about contracting COVID-19 by attending campus events, suggesting a possible transmission from perceptions of national-level events to perceived personal vulnerability via local exposure. However, about 30% of participants perceived that COVID-19 would likely cause a public health crisis yet did not express concern about contracting COVID-19 from event attendance. These participants were significantly more likely to be younger students who agreed to participate in response to recruitment using same-day flyer distribution. Women expressed a higher likelihood of an emerging national health crisis, although they were not more concerned than men that attending campus events would result in virus contraction. Other groups (e.g., white, students younger than 25, highest income group) displayed similar concern about a national-level crisis, yet were significantly less concerned about contracting COVID-19 from attending campus events than others. Also, participants randomly assigned to information emphasizing the national impacts of food waste expressed significantly greater concern of contracting COVID-19 by attending campus events. These results provide some initial insight about how people perceived national and personal risks in the early stages of the COVID-19 crisis in Louisiana."
AUTHORS
Bingchen Yang
Witoon Prinyawiwatkul
Ran Li
Jerrod Penn
Danyi Qi
Brian Roe et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Covid19data.website
"Covid19data.website Project is a website that contains more than 250 Dashboards about the COVID-19 Toll areas affected by the virus. You can follow-up every day using this website the number of COVID-19 cases, deaths, active cases, the shares by 1 Million population, the mortality rate, the active rate in every country, continent, and territory and all States in the United States.

Unlike the other websites, you can also follow-up an estimation of the reproduction number in the previous sixteen days. These statistics tell you how many secondary infections are likely to occur in a specific area.

Furthermore, I provide a classification algorithm of the countries and the affected areas. It's based on the observation during the previous 14 days of six criteria. A global score is then computed, allowing to evaluate the COVID-19 safeness toll of each area."
AUTHOR
dhafer malouche
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Finding COVID-19 from Chest X-rays using Deep Learning on a Small Dataset
"<p>Testing for COVID-19 has been unable to keep up with the demand. Further, the false negative rate is projected to be as high as 30% and test results can take some time to obtain. X-ray machines are widely available and provide images for diagnosis quickly. This paper explores how useful chest X-ray images can be in diagnosing COVID-19 disease. We have obtained 122 chest X-rays of COVID-19 and over 4,000 chest X-rays of viral and bacterial pneumonia. Unfortunately, we missed the fact that the chest X-rays of viral and bacterial pneumonia came from children under 5 years old. So, this work shows that you can tell kids with pneumonia from COVID-19 adult cases which is not anyone's goal. However, data from adult chest X-rays of other causes of lung disease is needed to see if you can tell adult diseases apart.<br></p>"
AUTHORS
Rahul Paul
Dmitry Goldgof
Lawrence Hall
Gregory M. Goldgof
PUBLISHED
2020 in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

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Safely reducing haemodialysis frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic
"Abstract
Background: Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are at higher risk of developing worse outcomes if they contract COVID-19. In our renal service we reduced HD frequency from thrice to twice-weekly in selected patients with the primary aim of reducing COVID 19 exposure and transmission between HD patients.Methods: Dialysis unit nephrologists identified 166 suitable patients (38.4% of our HD population) to temporarily convert to twice-weekly haemodialysis immediately prior to the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in our area. Changes in pre-dialysis weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and biochemistry were recorded weekly throughout the 4-week project. Hyperkalaemic patients (serum potassium > 6.0mmol/L) were treated with a potassium binder, sodium bicarbonate and received responsive dietary advice.Results: There were 12 deaths (5 due to COVID-19) in the HD population, 6 of which were in the twice weekly HD group; no deaths were associated with change of dialysis protocol. A further 19 patients were either hospitalised and/or developed COVID-19 and thus transferred back to thrice weekly dialysis as per protocol. Of 141 eligible patients 113 (80.1%) were still receiving twice-weekly HD by the end of the 4-week project. Indications for transfer back to thrice weekly were; fluid overload (19), persistent hyperkalaemia (4), patient request (4) and compliance (1). There were statistically significant increases in SBP and pre-dialysis potassium during the project. Conclusions: Short term conversion of a large but selected HD population to twice-weekly dialysis sessions was possible and safe. This approach could help mitigate COVID-19 transmission amongst dialysis patients in centres with similar organisational pressures."
AUTHORS
Constantina Chrysochou
Nina Brown
Ibrahim Ali
Helen Alderson
Thilini Abeygunaratne
Michelle da Silva Lodge et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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THE STATE OF THE NATION: A 50-STATE COVID-19 SURVEY Report #2
"THE STATE OF THE NATION: A 50-STATE COVID-19 SURVEY Report #2 https://covidstates.org/ From: The COVID-19 Consortium for Understanding the Public’s Policy Preferences Across States From May 2 to 15 we conducted a large, 50 state survey, the results of which are presented in this report. This is the second report published by the consortium. You can find the first report online at www.covidstates.org."
AUTHORS
James Druckman
Roy H. Perlis
John D. Volpe
David Lazer
Katherine Ognyanova
Matthew Baum et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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THE STATE OF THE NATION: A 50-STATE COVID-19 SURVEY Report #2
"THE STATE OF THE NATION: A 50-STATE COVID-19 SURVEY Report #2 https://covidstates.org/ From: The COVID-19 Consortium for Understanding the Public’s Policy Preferences Across States From May 2 to 15 we conducted a large, 50 state survey, the results of which are presented in this report. This is the second report published by the consortium. You can find the first report online at www.covidstates.org."
AUTHORS
James Druckman
John D. Volpe
Katherine Ognyanova
Matthew Baum
David Lazer
Roy H. Perlis et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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How Can ALSC Help You in Uncertain Times?
"Now, more than ever, ALSC is here for you. Our member-driven organization relies on your passion and commitment to children, families, and their caregivers. But you rely on us as well. These are hard times as we adjust to the impact of COVID-19. There is no sugarcoating how hard your lives are working from home if you’re able to, managing if you’re not. How can ALSC serve you through these dark times and sustain you when this crisis is over?"
AUTHOR
Cecilia McGowan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Children and Libraries

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How you can help with COVID-19 modelling
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42254-020-0175-7
AUTHOR
Julia R. Gog
PUBLISHED
2020 in Nature Reviews Physics

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Character and Student Ability of Covid-19 Understanding in Digital Era in 2020
"The purpose of this research is to describe the character of students towards the understanding of Covid-19 in the digital age, to describe the ability of students to translate understanding of terminology relating to Covid-19 in the digital age, and to describe the effectiveness of digital campus on understanding covid-19 by students in the digital age. The data analysis technique in this research is quantitative descriptive. The result shows that The ability of students to translate intralingually new words that were present during the Covid-19 period is very good and dominant in number. The dominant character of students in putting an interest in the knowledge, learning and translation of new words during the Covid-19 pandemic to deal with the spread of Covid-19 was very good, interested, uplifting and enthusiastic. The level of effectiveness of digital campuss by students when the corona pandemic is very high and dominant. Thank you to the LPPM & PM Universitas Samudra from the DIPA 2020 funds and all those who assisted our research activities so that we can complete the flagship basic research."
AUTHORS
Maria Ulfa
Nuraini Nuraini
Allif Syahputra Bania
PUBLISHED
2020 in Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences

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Physiological and clinical aspects in COVID-19
"There is a new public health crises threatening globally with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel corona virus (COVID-19) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In very recent decade we have seen endemic outbreaks in the form of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Now we again see the emergence of another serious outbreak due to a new strain called the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This SARS-CoV-2 initially presented as pneumonia of unknown etiology with group of symptoms including fever, dry cough and shortness of breath in a cluster of patients in December 2019 Wuhan, China. COVID-19 now has quickly became a health emergency now across worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging human infectious corona virus that causes COVID-19, now this has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March, 2020. Because of the pathogenesis and proliferation pathways of COVID-19 are still unknown the development of vaccine was not developed yet and definitive treatment was not implemented. Therefore, in this article, new potential COVID-19 therapies are briefly reviewed. The world is in emergent need for searching of possible medications for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
S. Jayachandra
J. Sorout
R. Kodidala Satyanath
S. Kacker
A. Gandhi
PUBLISHED
2020 in RUDN Journal of Medicine

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Lactoferrin as potential preventative and treatment for COVID-19
"The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly advancing across the globe despite public and personal health measures. Antivirals and nutritional supplements have been proposed as potentially useful against SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19), but few have been clinically established. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that is orally available as a nutritional supplement and has established in vitro anti-viral efficacy against a wide range of virus including SARS-CoV, a closely related corona virus to SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19). Furthermore, Lf possesses unique immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that maybe especially relevant to the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 cases. We review the underlying biological mechanisms of Lf as antiviral and immune regulator, and propose its unique potential as preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. We hope that further research and development of Lf nutritional supplementation would establish its role for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei-Zen Sun
Raymond Chang
Tzi Bun Ng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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CD4 T cells of prostate cancer patients have decreased immune responses to antigens derived from SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein
"Abstract
The adaptive immune response to severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important for vaccine development and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovery. Men and cancer patients have been reported to be at higher risks of contracting the virus and developing severe COVID-19. Prostate cancer (PCa) may be associated with both of these risks. We show that CD4+ T cells of SARS-CoV-2-unexposed patients with hormone-refractory (HR) metastatic PCa have substantially decreased CD4+ T cell immune responses to antigens from SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein but not from the spiked glycoprotein of the 'common cold'-associated human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) as compared with healthy male volunteers. Moreover, the HCoV-229E spike glycoprotein antigen-elicited CD4+ T cell immune responses cross-reacted with the SARS-CoV-2 spiked glycoprotein antigens. PCa patients may not respond to the vaccination, and the cross-reactivity can mediate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of COVID-19. These findings highlight the potential for increased vulnerability of PCa patients to COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Daniel Smrz
Jirina Bartunkova
Ludek Sojka
Dmitry Stakheev
Zuzana Strizova
Pavla Taborska
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). To date, no prophylactic vaccines or approved therapeutic agents are available for preventing and treating this highly transmittable disease. Here we report two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cloned from memory B cells of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, and both mAbs specifically bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, block the binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and effectively neutralize S protein-pseudotyped virus infection. These human mAbs hold the promise for the prevention and treatment of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Lilin Ye
Zhirong Li
Jianfang Tang
Xiangyu Chen
Zhaohui Qian
Yang Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Literature review
Ensefalitis pada Infeksi Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Sebuah Tinjauan Literatur
"Latar belakang: Infeksi Corona Virus Disesase 2019 (COVID-19) pertama kali terdeteksi pada Desember 2019 di Cina dan telah menyebar dengan cepat ke seluruh dunia. World Health Organization (WHO) baru-baru ini mengumumkan COVID-19 merupakan pandemi dunia dengan lebih dari 180.000 kasus dilaporkan hingga saat ini. Manifestasi neurologis dari COVID-19 berkaitan dengan penyakit serebrovaskular akut, gangguan kesadaran, dan kasus ensefalopati nekrotik hemoragik akut. Tujuan dari tinjauan literatur ini adalah mengkaji secara teori berdasarkan literatur tentang hubungan ensefalitis dan infeksi COVID-19.
Metode: Review literatur
Pembahasan: Ensefalitis dapat menyertai penyakit virus, seperti pada infeksi COVID-19. Ensefalitis virus mempengaruhi anak-anak, dewasa muda, atau pasien lanjut usia. Virus severe acute resporatory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) dapat masuk ke sistem saraf pusat melalui nervus olfaktorius.
Simpulan: Diagnosis ensefalitis COVID-19 dapat ditegakkan dengan anamnesis; pemeriksaan fisik; dan pemeriksaan penunjang berupa laboratorium darah, CT scan kepala, MRI serebral, EEG, analisa cairan serebrospinal, dan pemeriksaan PCR SARS-CoV-2 dari cairan serebrospinal.
Kata Kunci: COVID-19, ensefalitis, neurologi
 
Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection was first detected in December 2019 in China and has spread rapidly throughout the world. World Health Organization recently announced COVID-19 is a world pandemic with more than 180,000 reported cases. Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 were an acute cerebrovascular disease, impaired consciousness, and acute hemorrhagic necrotic encephalopathy. The aim of this literature review is to analyse theoretically based on literature about encephalitis in COVID-19.Methods: A literature reviewDiscussion: Encephalitis can accompany viral diseases, such as COVID-19. Viral encephalitis affects children, young adults, or elderly patients. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the central nervous system via the olfactory nerve.Conclusion: Covid-19 encephalitis can be detected by anamnesis, physical examination, and supporting examination: blood laboratory finding, head CT scan, cerebral MRI, EEG, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and PCR test of SARS-CoV-2 by CSF.
Keywords: COVID-19, encephalitis, neurology"
AUTHORS
Hari Wahono Satrioaji
Dodik ` Tugasworo
Rahmi Ardhini
Yovita Andhitara
Retnaningsih Retnaningsih
Aditya Kurnianto et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Medica Hospitalia : Journal of Clinical Medicine

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Design and Evaluation of Anti-SARS-Coronavirus Agents Based on Molecular Interactions with the Viral Protease
"Three types of new coronaviruses (CoVs) have been identified recently as the causative viruses for the severe pneumonia-like respiratory illnesses, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and corona-virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Neither therapeutic agents nor vaccines have been developed to date, which is a major drawback in controlling the present global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in more than 20,439,814 cases and 744,385 deaths. Each of the 3C-like (3CL) proteases of the three CoVs is essential for the proliferation of the CoVs, and an inhibitor of the 3CL protease (3CLpro) is thought to be an ideal therapeutic agent against SARS, MERS, or COVID-19. Among these, SARS-CoV is the first corona-virus isolated and has been studied in detail since the first pandemic in 2003. This article briefly reviews a series of studies on SARS-CoV, focusing on the development of inhibitors for the SARS-CoV 3CLpro based on molecular interactions with the 3CL protease. Our recent approach, based on the structure-based rational design of a novel scaffold for SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitor, is also included. The achievements summarized in this short review would be useful for the design of a variety of novel inhibitors for corona-viruses, including SARS-CoV-2."
AUTHORS
Kenichi Akaji
Hiroyuki Konno
PUBLISHED
2020 in Molecules

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THE FACTS ABOUT CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): THE CURRENT SCENARIO AND IMPORTANT LESSONS
"This paper discusses the important review about the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and main facts about it. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristic of Patients With COVID-19:The Wuhan city in China, faced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, with extreme acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being the causative agent. The clinical characteristics and the epidemiological criteria for COVID-19 patients were described. Still, the risk factors for mortality and a clear course of the disease clinically, including viral shedding, have not been identified. Corona Virus and its Types: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family which infect animals as well as humans. The name "coronavirus" was developed in 1968, which stemmed from the morphology similar to "corona" or crown-like. The Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV), Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV). Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub-genera or lineages. COVID-19 Strategic Prevention on different levels: In dealing with COVID-19 challenge, most countries are practicing a mix of inclusion and stopping crowds hoping to delay an increased number of affected individuals and minimizing the need for hospital facilities, as well as securing those at higher risk from being infected, especially old age population and people with long-standing illness"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Global Journal of Public Health Medicine

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Air PDAM Melawan Corona
"Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) menyatakan bahwa virus Corona baru (novel Coronavirus) berkaitan dengan virus sebelumnya. Virus yang dinamai SARS-CoV-2 ini masih satu keluarga dengan Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV atau SARS) dan Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV atau MERS). Artinya, virus-virus tersebut memiliki kesamaan sifat fisika dan biokimia. Tetapi yang paling bahaya adalah virus hasil mutasi terakhir seperti Corona ini. Penyakit akibat virus baru ini dinamai CoViD-19, Coronavirus Disease-19, penyakit karena Corona yang muncul tahun 2019."
AUTHOR
Gede H Cahyana
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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COVID-19: ACE-2 Receptor, TMPRSS2, Cathepsin-L/B and CD-147 Receptor
"COVID-19 shows an extremely rapid spreading pattern, classified as SARS-CoV-2, has become a worldwide health problem. Relating to biological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the new viral agent was comprehensively summarized in order to optimize the date research on this novel disease and make adequate therapeutic decisions. The structure of COVID-19 virus is partially similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and to date, the origin is not clearly ruled out in detail. COVID-19 in general shows, without any adequate measurement, an exponential reproductive rate, an incubation of nearly 14 days. The clinical appearance and the pandemic spread of COVID-19 were very similar to earlier SARS epidemics. The occurrence of SARS-CoV-2; previously provisionally referred to as novel coronavirus 2019 or 2019-nCoV (COVID-19) in China in late 2019, has induced a global spreading and is a worldwide public health problem. At the end of January 2020, the World Health Organization described COVID-19 as the sixth international public health emergency. SARS-CoV-2 is similar to severe corona viruses similar to acute respiratory syndrome of bat origin, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. The transmission is based on by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact or stool, whereas the infection seems to have an incubation period of up to 14 days and a reproduction rate of 2.24-3.58. In patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia, fever was the prominent symptom in these patients followed by cough. Currently, stopping the rapid spreading of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention in health care management. However, health authorities should continue to monitor the situation closely."
AUTHOR
Stefan Bittmann
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Regenerative Biology and Medicine

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Mutated COVID-19, May Foretells Mankind in a Great Risk in the Future
"Corona virus disease 2019 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a zoonotic virus causing a variety of severe of respiratory diseases. SARS-CoV-2 is closest to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in structure. The highly prevalence of COVID-19 is due to the lack onset of symptoms. Our study aimed to present an overview of the virus in terms of structure, epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. Conduct the differences of whole genome sequence and some viral proteins to determine the gap and the change alternation of nucleotides and amino acids sequences. We evaluate 11 complete genome sequence of different coronavirus using BAST and MAFFT software. We also selected 7 types of structural proteins. We were conclude that COVID-19 might be created new mutations specifically in glycoproteins hence requires caution and complete preparation by health authorities."
AUTHOR
Ali A. Dawood
PUBLISHED
2020 in New Microbes and New Infections

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Literature review
Association of COVID-19 and Cancer: Risk Statistics and Management of COVID-19 in Cancer Patients
"COVID-19 is extremely lethal disease and almost 190 countries is suffering from the latest pandemic. The literature indicates that COVID-19 is more prevalent in patients with compromised immune systems. Patients with cancer are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 because of immune compromised condition due to immunosuppressive therapy. Immunotherapy results in mixing or overlap of COVID-19 associated pneumonia and immune-related pneumonitis and thus makes the diagnosis process very confusing. On the other side in this pandemic, treating cancer patients in hospital will bring a lot of risk. There is still no strong evidence on the cancer-COVID-19 connection. Yet, in this pandemic, patients with cancer should be treated as special cases. Risk management is highly needed in the critical time of this pandemic. This review highlights the association between COVID-19 and cancer, also the strategy to minimize the risk of COVID-19 in cancer patients."
AUTHORS
Sadeeq Ur Rehman
Khadija Bibi
Rashida Ilyas
Ayyaz Khan
Shah Faisal
Hasnain Jan et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Cardiovascular Forum Journal

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An Insight into the Sex Differences in COVID-19 Patients: What are the Possible Causes?
"Abstract
Studies have reported a sex bias in case fatalities of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, it is observed that men have a higher risk of developing a severe form of the disease compared to women, highlighting the importance of disaggregated data of male and female COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, other factors (eg, hormonal levels and immune functions) also need to be addressed due to the effects of sex differences on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. An insight into the underlying causes of sex differences in COVID-19 patients may provide an opportunity for better care of the patients or prevention of the disease. The current study reviews the reports concerning with the sex differences in COVID-19 patients. It is explained how sex can affect angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), that is a key component for the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and summarized the gender differences in immune responses and how sex hormones are involved in immune processes. Furthermore, the available data about the impact of sex hormones on the immune functions of COVID-19 cases are looked into."
AUTHORS
Bahman Yousefi
Mohammad Ali Mansournia
Zatollah Asemi
Jamal Hallajzadeh
Fatemeh Sadoughi
Parisa Maleki Dana et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Prehospital and Disaster Medicine

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Epstein–Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Patients with COVID-19
"Abstract
BackgroundSince first report of COVID-19 in December 2019, it has spread to a pandemic, making many deaths. Dysfunction of immune function is considered as one of the reasons for high mortality. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in severe patients is thought to be related to immune dysfunction but is not yet known in COVID-19. MethodsWe conducted EBV and CMV real-time PCR confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to our hospitals.ResultsOf the 61 COVID-19 patients, nine EBV and two CMV viremia were found. The group with EBV viremia had a higher probability of progressing to severe COVID-19 infection than the group without, but it was not statistically significant. One out of two people with CMV viremia died and one survived after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation use. ConclusionsOur study suggests immune dysfunction in COVID-19, and further research is needed on the role of EBV/CMV in COVID-19."
AUTHORS
JiHyeon Baek
Moon-Hyun Chung
Hea Yoon Kwon
Jin-Soo Lee
Jae Hyoung Im
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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In silico immune infiltration profiling reveals the role of naïve B cells in lung tissues of COVID-19 patients
"Abstract
COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread to more than 160 countries worldwide since 2020. Despite the tremendous efforts and resources spent around the world trying to explore antiviral drugs, there is still no effective clinical treatment for COVID-19. Approximately 15% of COVID-19 cases progress to pneumonia, patients with severe pneumonia may die from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In addition, further pulmonary fibrosis from SARS-CoV-2 infection causes ARDS that often leads to irreversible impairment of lung function. If the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 infection primarily cause immune responses or immune cell infiltration can be identified, it is possible to alleviate or prevent severe lung damage by modulating the infiltration and activation of specific immune cells to mitigate excessive immunity response.The extent to which subsets of immune cells are significantly altered in the lung tissue of COVID-19 patients remains unclear. This study applied the CIBERSORT method to comprehensively evaluate the immune infiltration landscape in lung tissues of COVID-19 patients, and further compared with the one from lung tissue of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We found several immune cell subtypes; particularly naïve B cells are highly infiltrated in COVID-19 group. A comparison of functional gene set analysis revealed that non-differentiated naïve B cells may be the main cause of the overactive humoral immune response. We further compared several specific COVID-19 cases receiving therapies targeting B cells and found that appropriate suppression of naïve B cells might be a new strategy to alleviate severe symptoms of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Hsing-Fan Lai
Li-Chen Yen
Chih-Hsien Wu
Sheng-Huei Wang
Yi-Ying Wu
Yi-Lin Chiu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Literature review
Literature Review: Risk of Death in Covid-19 Patients
"Covid-19 is a contagious pulmonary infectious disease caused by a new type of coronavirus (SARS-COV-2). Covid-19 is a global pandemic that has infected millions of people and killed thousands of people in the world. Cases of death in Covid-19 patients were first discovered in China in December 2019. In Indonesia, since it was first discovered, cases of death of Covid-19 patients continue to increase and has become one of the countries with the highest fatality rate in the world reaching 9.11 percent. The purpose of this study is to determine risk factors for death in covid-19 patients in China in order to get guidance in preventing death in Covid-19 patients in Indonesia. This type of research is a literature review. The results of the study found five risk factors for death in Covid-19 patients, namely age, Covid-19 complications, the immune system (immunity), concomitant diseases (cormobidity), and treatment facilities. Suggestions of various risk factors for death in Covid-19 patients in China are expected to be a guide in efforts to prevent death in Covid-19 patients that occur in Indonesia."
AUTHORS
Pius Selasa
Pipit Festi Wiliyanarti
Israfil Israfil
PUBLISHED
2020 in Unnes Journal of Public Health

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No indications for overt innate immune suppression in critically ill COVID-19 patients
"At the end of March 2020, there were in excess of 800.000 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. Several reports suggest that, in severe cases, COVID-19 may cause a hyperinflammatory 'cytokine storm'. However, unlike SARS-CoV infection, high levels of anti-inflammatory mediators have also been reported in COVID-19 patients. One study reported that 16% of COVID-19 patients who died developed secondary infection, which might indicate an immune-suppressed state. We explored kinetics of mHLA-DR expression, the most widely used marker of innate immune suppression in critically ill patients, in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU.
Twenty-four confirmed COVID-19 patients were included, of which 75% was male and 79% had comorbidities. All patients were mechanically ventilated and exhibited large high levels of inflammatory parameters such as CRP and PCT. mHLA-DR expression levels were mostly within the normal range of 15000 - 45000 mAb/cell and showed no change over time. COVID-19 patients displayed notably higher mHLA-DR expression levels compared with bacterial septic shock patients. None of the COVID-19 patients developed a secondary infection.
In conclusion, despite a pronounced inflammatory response, mHLA-DR expression kinetics indicate no overt innate immune suppression in COVID-19 patients. These data signify that innate immune suppression as a negative feedback mechanism following PAMP-induced inflammation appears not to be present in COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Matthijs Kox
Hans J.P.M. Koenen
Frank van de Veerdonk
Jeroen Schouten
Tim Frenzel
Peter Pickkers
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Tocilizumab treatment in severe COVID-19 patients attenuates the inflammatory storm incited by monocyte centric immune interactions revealed by single-cell analysis
"ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 40,000 deaths worldwide1. Approximately 14% of patients with COVID-19 experienced severe disease and 5% were critically ill2. Studies have shown that dysregulation of the COVID-19 patients’ immune system may lead to inflammatory storm and cause severe illness and even death3,4. Tocilizumab treatment targeting interleukin 6 receptor has shown inspiring clinical results of severe COVID-19 patients5. However, the immune network with Tocilizumab treatment at single cell resolution has not been uncovered. Here, we profiled the single-cell transcriptomes of 13,289 peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at three longitudinal stages from two severe COVID-19 patients treated with Tocilizumab. We identified a severe stage-specific monocyte subpopulation and these cells centric immune cell interaction network connected by the inflammatory cytokines and their receptors. The over-activated inflammatory immune response was attenuated after Tocilizumab treatment, yet immune cells including plasma B cells and CD8+ T cells still exhibited an intense humoral and cell-mediated anti-virus immune response in recovered COVID-19 patients. These results provided critical insights into the immunopathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and revealed fundamentals of effectiveness in Tocilizumab treatment."
AUTHORS
Dandan Zong
Qiaoni Yu
Xiaofang Wang
Liying Jin
Jianping Weng
Xuyuan Gao et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Age-severity matched cytokine profiling reveals specific signatures in Covid-19 patients
"A global effort is currently undertaken to restrain the COVID-19 pandemic. Host immunity has come out as a determinant for COVID-19 clinical outcome, and several studies investigated the immune profiling of SARS-CoV-2 infected people to properly direct the clinical management of the disease. Thus, lymphopenia, T-cell exhaustion, and the increased levels of inflammatory mediators have been described in COVID-19 patients, in particular in severe cases1. Age represents a key factor in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality2. Understanding age-associated immune signatures of patients is therefore important to identify preventive and therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated the immune profile of COVID-19 hospitalized patients identifying a distinctive age-dependent immune signature associated with disease severity. Indeed, defined circulating factors - CXCL8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-27 and TNF-α - positively correlate with older age, longer hospitalization, and a more severe form of the disease and may thus represent the leading signature in critical COVID-19 patients."
AUTHORS
Silvia Cavinato
Diletta Arcidiacono
Nicole Bertoldi
Fabio Munari
Ricardo Sanchez-Rodriguez
Roberta Angioni et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Covid-19 and Immunity in the Elderly
"Population ageing is an issue of worldwide importance. People are living longer due to advances in education, technology, medicine, food distribution, and public health. While the COVID-19 pandemic has significant global impacts, in many countries the elderlyface threats and challenges that are unique and disproportionately severe. One such threat is that aging results in a decline in immune function, meaning elderly bodies respond more slowly and less effectively to external threats like COVID-19. Responses at individual, family, community and societal levels should take into account the heightened vulnerability of older adults during this pandemic."
AUTHORS
Edwin Rosenberg
Hom Nath Chalise
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Geriatric Medicine

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COVID-19 and Postinfection Immunity
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.7869
AUTHORS
Brian A. King
John T. Brooks
Robert D. Kirkcaldy
PUBLISHED
2020 in JAMA

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