Do assault weapons bans reduce mass shootings?

Submitted by: LCheng 132

No answer has been identified for the single study in this list that examines this question.


Chart summary of 2 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

All labels of Literature Reviews and source quality are assigned by State of K. For academic journals, the label "Q[NUMBER]" is an indication of the quality of the publication. The "NUMBER" refer to the best quartile in which the journal appeared among all the subjects in which the journal was ranked by Scimago Institutions Rankings. For example, if a journal was ranked in the third quartile (Q3) in infectious diseases, but in the second quartile in Ebola studies (Q2), you would see "Q2". The best quartile is "Q1". Publications other than academic journals may be labeled as "Highly Regarded Sources". Government sources receive this label as do NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labeled "highly regarded" or "Q1" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label, but these are rough guides to source quality.

Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce firearm homicides?
7 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce firearm suicides?
5 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce mass shootings?
1 study
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce total suicides?
2 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce violent crime?
6 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks on mental illness for firearm purchases reduce total suicides?
1 study
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "Do assault weapons bans reduce mass shootings" to consider?

SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 2
Sorted by publication year
1
The Impact of Mass Shootings on Gun Policy
"There have been dozens of high-profile mass shootings in recent decades. This paper presents three main findings about the impact of mass shootings on gun policy. First, mass shootings evoke large policy responses. A single mass shooting leads to a 15% increase in the number of firearm bills introduced within a state in the year after a mass shooting. This effect increases with the extent of media coverage. Second, mass shootings account for a small portion of all gun deaths, but have an outsized influence relative to other homicides. Third, when looking at bills that were actually enacted into law, the impact of mass shootings depends on the party in power. The annual number of laws that loosen gun restrictions doubles in the year following a mass shooting in states with Republican-controlled legislatures. We find no significant effect of mass shootings on laws enacted when there is a Democrat-controlled legislature, nor do we find a significant effect of mass shootings on the enactment of laws that tighten gun restrictions."
AUTHORS
Deepak K. Malhotra
Christopher Poliquin
Michael Luca
PUBLISHED
2016 in SSRN Electronic Journal
Preprint
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
2
The impact of state and federal assault weapons bans on public mass shootings
"The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of federal and state assault weapons bans on public mass shootings. Using a Poisson effect model and data for the period 1982 to 2011, it was found that both state and federal assault weapons bans have statistically significant and negative effects on mass shooting fatalities but that only the federal assault weapons ban had a negative effect on mass shooting injuries. This study is one of the first studies that looks solely at the effects of assault weapons bans on public mass shootings."
AUTHOR
Mark Gius
PUBLISHED
2015 in Applied Economics Letters
Q3
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 17
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do assault weapons bans reduce mass shootings?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Criminal Use of Assault Weapons and High-Capacity Semiautomatic Firearms: an Updated Examination of Local and National Sources.
"Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban. This study investigates current levels of criminal activity with assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics in the USA using several local and national data sources including the following: (1) guns recovered by police in ten large cities, (2) guns reported by police to federal authorities for investigative tracing, (3) guns used in murders of police, and (4) guns used in mass murders. Results suggest assault weapons (primarily assault-type rifles) account for 2-12% of guns used in crime in general (most estimates suggest less than 7%) and 13-16% of guns used in murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics together generally account for 22 to 36% of crime guns, with some estimates upwards of 40% for cases involving serious violence including murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics appear to be used in a higher share of firearm mass murders (up to 57% in total), though data on this issue are very limited. Trend analyses also indicate that high-capacity semiautomatics have grown from 33 to 112% as a share of crime guns since the expiration of the federal ban-a trend that has coincided with recent growth in shootings nationwide. Further research seems warranted on how these weapons affect injuries and deaths from gun violence and how their regulation may impact public health."
AUTHORS
Natalie Mullins
Ambrozine Ayers
Jordan L Nichols
William D Johnson
Christopher S Koper
PUBLISHED

Add to List
Rampage Nation
"In the past decade, no individual act of violence has killed more people in the United States than the mass shooting. This well-researched, forcefully argued book answers some of the most pressing questions facing our society: Why do people go on killing sprees? Are gun-free zones magnets for deadly rampages? What can we do to curb the carnage of this disturbing form of firearm violence? Contrary to conventional wisdom, the author shows that gun possession often prods aggrieved, mentally unstable individuals to go on shooting sprees; these attacks largely occur in places where guns are not prohibited by law; and sensible gun-control measures like the federal Assault Weapons Ban—which helped drastically reduce rampage violence when it was in effect—are instrumental to keeping Americans safe from mass shootings in the future. To stem gun massacres, the author proposes several original policy prescriptions, ranging from the enactment of sensible firearm safety reforms to an overhaul of how the justice system investigates potential active-shooter threats and prosecutes violent crimes. Calling attention to the growing problem of mass shootings, Rampage Nation demonstrates that this unique form of gun violence is more than just a criminal justice offense or public health scourge. It is a threat to American security. From the Hardcover edition."
AUTHOR
Louis Klarevas
PUBLISHED
2016 by Prometheus Books (Book)

Add to List
THE GUN DEBATE.
"The article offers information on the laws and legislation related to gun control in the U.S. area. It mentions that after the mass shooting incident at the Sandy Hook Elementary School in December 2012, States and U.S. president Barack Obama are seeking alternatives for reforms in gun control and ammunition laws. It mentions that several bills have been introduced including immediate bans on the sale of assault weapon and magazines and bill related to checks on firearms purchasers."
AUTHOR
John Mountjoy
PUBLISHED
2013 in Capitol Ideas

Add to List
Testing the Immunity of the Firearm Industry to Tort Litigation
"In the absence of congressional action to reinstate the federal ban on assault weapons, tort litigation offers an alternative strategy for regulating what have become the weapons of choice in mass shootings. However, opportunities to bring successful claims are limited. To prevail, plaintiffs must show that their suit fits within exceptions to the broad immunity from tort actions that Congress gave the firearm industry in the 2005 Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act. In one particularly high-profile lawsuit, families of victims of the school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 sued the makers and sellers of the military-style rifle used in the attack, alleging negligence and deceptive marketing. The trial court dismissed the case on October 14, 2016, but the plaintiffs plan to appeal. We review the history of tort litigation against the firearm industry, outline the Newtown families' claims, and describe the decision."
AUTHORS
John J. Donohue
David M. Studdert
Michelle M. Mello
PUBLISHED
2017 in JAMA Internal Medicine

Add to List
"Assault weapons" revisited--an analysis of the AMA report.
"The AMA Council on Scientific Affairs did not conduct a rigorous scientific evaluation before supporting a ban on assault weapons. The Council appears to have unquestioningly accepted common misperceptions and even partisan misrepresentations regarding the nature and uses of assault weapons. This article examines the pivotal issues and proposes a rational approach to gun control and more effectual measures to reduce violence in our society."
AUTHOR
E A Suter
PUBLISHED
1994 in Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia

Add to List
An examination of the effects of concealed weapons laws and assault weapons bans on state-level murder rates
"The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of state-level assault weapons bans and concealed weapons laws on state-level murder rates. Using data for the period 1980 to 2009 and controlling for state and year fixed effects, the results of the present study suggest that states with restrictions on the carrying of concealed weapons had higher gun-related murder rates than other states. It was also found that assault weapons bans did not significantly affect murder rates at the state level. These results suggest that restrictive concealed weapons laws may cause an increase in gun-related murders at the state level. The results of this study are consistent with some prior research in this area, most notably Lott and Mustard (1997)."
AUTHOR
Mark Gius
PUBLISHED
2014 in Applied Economics Letters

Add to List
Reducing Gun Violence in America
"The staggering toll of gun violence—which claims 31,000 U.S. lives each year—is an urgent public health issue that demands an effective evidence-based policy response. The Johns Hopkins University convened more than 20 of the world’s leading experts on gun violence and policy to summarize relevant research and recommend policies that are both constitutional and have broad public support. Collected for the first time in one volume, this reliable, empirical research and legal analysis will help lawmakers, opinion leaders, and concerned citizens identify policy changes to address mass shootings, along with the less-publicized gun violence that takes an average of 80 lives every day. Selected recommendations include: • Background checks: Establish a universal background check system for all persons purchasing a firearm from any seller. • High-risk individuals: Expand the set of conditions that disqualify an individual from legally purchasing a firearm. • Mental health: Focus federal restrictions on gun purchases by persons with serious mental illness on the dangerousness of the individual.• Trafficking and dealer licensing: Appoint a permanent director to ATF and provide the agency with the authority to develop a range of sanctions for gun dealers who violate gun sales or other laws. • Personalized guns: Provide financial incentives to states to mandate childproof or personalized guns. • Assault weapons and high-capacity magazines: Ban the future sale of assault weapons and the future sale and possession of large-capacity ammunition magazines.• Research funds: Provide adequate federal funds to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and National Institute of Justice for research into the causes and solutions of gun violence. The book includes an analysis of the constitutionality of many recommended policies and data from a national public opinion poll that reflects support among the majority of Americans—including gun owners—for stronger gun policies. -- Martin O'Malley, Governor of Maryland"
AUTHORS
Jon S. Vernick
Daniel W. Webster
PUBLISHED
2013 by JHU Press (Book)

Add to List
Control
"#1 bestselling author and popular radio and television host Glenn Beck shines a spotlight on today’s culture of violence and provides practical, timely, and fact-based answers to the most commonly heard gun-control arguments. When our founding fathers secured the Constitutional “right of the people to keep and bear arms,” they also added the admonition that this right SHALL NOT BE INFRINGED. It is the only time this phrase appears in the Bill of Rights. So why aren’t more people listening? History has proven that guns are essential to self-defense and liberty—but tragedy is a powerful force and has led many to believe that guns are the enemy, that the Second Amendment is outdated, and that more restrictions or outright bans on firearms will somehow solve everything. They are wrong. In CONTROL, Glenn Beck presents a passionate, fact-based case for guns that reveals why gun control isn’t really about controlling guns at all; it’s about controlling us. In doing so, he takes on and debunks the common myths and outright lies that are often used to vilify guns and demean their owners: The Second Amendment is ABOUT MUSKETS . . . GUN CONTROL WORKS in other countries . . . 40 percent of all guns are sold without BACKGROUND CHECKS . . . More GUNS MEAN more MURDER . . . Mass shootings are becoming more common . . . These awful MASSACRES ARE UNIQUE TO AMERICA . . . No CIVILIAN needs a “weapon of war” like the AR-15 . . . ARMED GUARDS in schools do nothing, just look at Columbine . . . Stop FEARMONGERING, no one is talking about TAKING YOUR GUNS AWAY. Backed by hundreds of sources, this handbook gives everyone who cares about the Second Amendment the indisputable facts they need to reclaim the debate, defeat the fear, and take back their natural rights."
AUTHOR
Glenn Beck
PUBLISHED
2013 by Simon and Schuster (Book)

Add to List
Self-interest, Symbolic Politics, and Public Attitudes Toward Gun Control
"Numerous studies have found that immediate and tangible self-interest has a minimal influence on public attitudes toward many policy issues. We examine public attitudes toward gun control in order to determine whether gun owners exhibit distinctive policy preferences. Our results indicate that self-interest strongly influences public preferences on gun control and that banning handguns evokes stronger self-interest effects than banning assault weapons or imposing a waiting period on purchases of firearms. We conclude by discussing why gun control evokes self-interested calculations among gun owners, the implications of our findings for self-interest theory, and suggestions for further lines of research."
AUTHORS
James G. Gimpel
Robin M. Wolpert
PUBLISHED
1998 in Political Behavior

Add to List
Firearm-related injuries affecting the pediatric population. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. American Academy of Pediatrics.
"This statement reaffirms the 1992 position of the American Academy of Pediatrics that the absence of guns from children's homes and communities is the most reliable and effective measure to prevent firearm-related injuries in children and adolescents. A number of specific measures are supported to reduce the destructive effects of guns in the lives of children and adolescents, including the regulation of the manufacture, sale, purchase, ownership, and use of firearms; a ban on handguns and semiautomatic assault weapons; and expanded regulations of handguns for civilian use. In addition, this statement reviews recent data, trends, prevention, and intervention strategies of the past 5 years."
PUBLISHED

Add to List
Gun Crime in Global Contexts
"Every year around three-quarters of a million people die (directly or indirectly) as a result of gun violence, with most deaths occurring in the poorest, yet also most highly weaponized parts of the world. Firearm proliferation -- 875 million global firearms -- is a direct contributor to both regional conflicts and to crime. This book attempts to understand the inter-related dynamics of supply and demand which are weaponizing the world. Now over ten years after Peter Squires’s Gun Culture or Gun Control?, the issues pertaining to gun violence and gun control have developed dramatically. With Gun Crime in Global Contexts, Peter Squires offers a cutting-edge account of contemporary developments in the politics of gun crime and the social and theoretical issues that surround the problem. This book contains: an innovative political analysis of neo-liberal globalization and weapon proliferation; an overview of recent gun control debates and gang strategies in the UK; an updated analysis of US gun politics: self-defence, race and the ‘culture war’; a critical analysis of US school and rampage shootings, how they have impacted the gun debate and how different societies have responded to mass shootings; an examination of the UN's development of an Arms Trade Treaty (2001--13); a discussion of weapon trafficking; discussions about youth gangs around the world, including those in Brazil, Kenya, West Africa, Mexico and South Africa. With its interdisciplinary perspective and global reach, this book will be important reading for academics and students interested in youth and gang crime, violent crime and comparative criminal justice, as well as peace and security studies and international relations."
AUTHOR
Peter Squires
PUBLISHED
2014 by Routledge (Book)

Add to List
Highly regarded source
Assessing the risk of violent behavior before issuing a license to carry a handgun.
"Handguns are intended to be used for protection, but they can also be used as weapons of assault that may endanger others or inflict self-harm and facilitate suicide. Research has revealed a direct correlation between firearm availability and suicide risk. Gun control is intended to reduce violence through legislation that restricts ownership and use of firearms. How can we ensure that firearms will not reach the hands of individuals who may pose a danger to themselves or to others, without infringing on the rights of other citizens to carry guns for protection, which is in the public interest? The potential to commit a crime will materialize, depending on dynamic interactions among personality factors, environmental factors, and the individual's history of offending. We present illustrative cases involving various aspects of gun control and a description of instruments for the assessment of dangerousness that can facilitate the licensing process for carrying and using firearms."
AUTHORS
Yuval Melamed
Moshe Kalian
Paula Rosca
Arie Bauer
Roberto Mester
PUBLISHED
2011 in The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law

Add to List
Firearm violence and the effects of gun control legislation.
"Two gun control laws designed to reduce different types of violent crimes were evaluated. In 1981, East St. Louis, IL, imposed stricter penalties for individuals who carry firearms outside their homes for protection (individuals could keep firearms in their homes). This law had only a temporary impact in reducing firearm use in assaults and robberies. In Evanston, IL, a slightly different approach was taken with legislation that banned handguns in the entire city (i.e., individuals could not keep handguns within their homes). A temporary reduction in firearm assaults occurred a few months before the gun law took effect. The implications of these findings are discussed."
AUTHORS
R S Jung
L A Jason
PUBLISHED
1988 in American Journal of Community Psychology

Add to List
Changes in US Mass Shooting Deaths Associated With the 1994-2004 Federal Assault Weapon Ban: Analysis of Open-Source Data.
"Background: A federal assault weapons ban has been proposed as a way to reduce mass shootings in the U.S. (U.S). The Federal Assault Weapons Ban (A.W.B.) of 1994 made the manufacture and civilian use of a defined set of automatic and semi-automatic weapons and large capacity magazines illegal. The ban expired in 2004. The period from 1994 to 2004 serves as a single-arm pre-post observational study to assess the effectiveness of this policy intervention.

Methods: Mass shooting data for 1981 to 2017 were obtained from three well-documented, referenced, and open-source sets of data, based on media reports. We calculated the yearly rates of mass shooting fatalities as a proportion of total firearm homicide deaths and per U.S.

Population: We compared the 1994-2004 federal ban period to non-ban periods, using simple linear regression models for rates and a Poison model for counts with a year variable to control for trend. The relative effects of the ban period were estimated with odds ratios.

Results: Assault rifles accounted for 430 or 85.8% of the total 501 mass-shooting fatalities reported (95% CI 82.8, 88.9) in 44 mass-shooting incidents. Mass shootings in the U.S. accounted for an increasing proportion of all firearm-related homicides (coefficient for year = 0.7, p = 0.0003), with increment in year alone capturing over a third of the overall variance in the data (Adjusted R-squared = 0.3). In a linear regression model controlling for yearly trend, the federal ban period was associated with a statistically significant 9 fewer mass shooting related deaths per 10,000 firearm homicides (p = 0.03). Mass-shooting fatalities were 70% less likely to occur during the federal ban period (Relative Rate = 0.30, 95% CI 0.22,0.39).

Conclusions: Mass-shooting related homicides in the U.S. were reduced during the years of the federal assault weapons ban of 1994 to 2004.

Study Type: Observational LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III/IV.

"
AUTHORS
Manish Tandon
Justin Feldman ScD
Noor Shah
Marko Bukur
Jacob Avraham
Michael Klein et al
PUBLISHED
2018 in The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

Add to List
Temporal trends in public mass shootings: high-capacity magazines significantly increase fatality counts, and are becoming more prevalent
"Background: There has been disagreement in the literature regarding whether public mass shootings are becoming more frequent, or more deadly, and whether high-capacity magazine (HCM) weaponry is associated with increased fatalities.
Objective: We examined the 85 non-felony- and non-gang-related mass shootings with at least four people shot and killed that occurred in public places between 1995 to 2018 to examine the frequency and deadliness of public mass shootings, as well as the role of HCM weaponry in fatalities.
Findings: The per-capita rate of public mass shootings with at least four people killed has not significantly increased since 1995 (Negative Binomial linear regression p=0.20), but public mass shootings with at least six people killed have been increasing by 6.9% per year (p=0.01). Public mass shootings are becoming significantly more deadly, with fatalities per incident increasing by 4.5% per year (truncated Negative Binomial log-linear regression p<0.001).
Use of HCM weaponry banned during the 1994 to 2004 Federal Assault Weapons Ban (FAWB) increased fatality counts on average by 1.9 times, and total number shot by 3.3 times (non-parametric bootstrap comparison of means (NPBCM), p < 0.001 in both cases). In these incidents, HCM pistols were as deadly as assault rifles. The fraction of firearms involving HCMs used by perpetrators more than doubled after the lapse of the federal ban, from 25% during the ban to 59% after (Binomial factor regression, p<0.001).
Our online visual analytics application, https://mass-shooting-analytics.shinyapps.io/mass_shootings/, allows interested parties to examine and download our data, replicate our analysis results and explore the analysis with alternate selections.
Policy recommendations: A re-instatement of the federal ban on high-capacity magazines in pistols and rifles, or special taxes on such weaponry, may reduce public mass shooting fatalities.
Keywords: mass shootings; assault weapons; high-capacity magazines; temporal trends; Federal Assault Weapons Ban"
AUTHORS
Sherry Towers
Danielle Wallace
David Hemenway
PUBLISHED
2019 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Add to List

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce firearm homicides?
7 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce firearm suicides?
5 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce mass shootings?
1 study
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce total suicides?
2 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce violent crime?
6 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks on mental illness for firearm purchases reduce total suicides?
1 study
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "Do assault weapons bans reduce mass shootings" to consider?