Do baseball players perform worse in years where they perceive themselves to be under-compensated?

Submitted by: Anonymous

Yes.
*Note that the latest study on this question is over 22 years old. A more recent study may provide a more relevant answer.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 6 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 6 studies examining this question

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Is there really a home-field advantage in sports?
46 studies
Submitted by: THunter 88

Why is there a homefield advantage in baseball?
6 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 117

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 6
Sorted by publication year
1
Fair or Foul?: The Effects of External, Internal, and Employee Equity on Changes in Performance of Major League Baseball Players
"We propose six hypotheses that relate employee,internal, and external inequities to changes inperformance. We test these hypotheses with a sample of362 Major League Baseball players. The findings showed that overpayment (as measured by actualemployee and external inequities) is a significantpredictor of positive performance changes, underpaymentis a significant predictor of negative performancechanges, and employee equity is a greater predictor ofchange in performance than internal equity."
AUTHORS
Neal P. Mero
Steve Werner
PUBLISHED
1999 in Human Relations
High quality source
Yes
Yes
2
Perceived equity, motivation, and final-offer arbitration in major league baseball.
"Final-offer salary arbitration in major league baseball offers a unique institutional arrangement that creates a naturally occurring, non-equivalent-groups, repeated measures research design. The structural arrangements allow for examination of anticipatory expectancy effects and assessment of behavioral responses consistent with equity theory predictions. In addition, equity theory can be tested without the methodological problems inherent in defining the referent other. Performance and mobility were examined for major league baseball position players who won and lost their arbitration hearings. Prearbitration performance significantly predicted arbitration outcome. A significant relationship was noted between losing arbitration and postarbitration performance decline. Losers were significantly more likely to change teams and leave major league baseball. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)"
AUTHORS
Steven L. Thomas
Robert D. Bretz
PUBLISHED
1992 in Journal of Applied Psychology
High quality source
Yes
Yes
3
Equity theory versus expectancy theory: The case of major league baseball free agents.
"Equity theory and expectancy theory make different predictions under conditions of perceived underreward coupled with strong performance-outcome expectancies. A synthesis of these theories is proposed: Equity performance effects depended on the strength of the performance–outcome expectancy. Free-agent nonpitchers in the 1977–1980 baseball seasons were compared with a random sample of nonpitchers. These free agents probably felt underrewarded before entering the free-agent market yet probably also had expectations of higher salaries after becoming free agents. These competing motivations were hypothesized to affect individual performance. Two types of performance were assessed. Batting average, which had a weaker relation to salary outcome declined in the year before free agency, whereas home run ratio, which had a stronger relation with salary outcome, did not decline. These results are consistent with the proposed synthesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)"
AUTHOR
Joseph W. Harder
PUBLISHED
1991 in Journal of Applied Psychology
High quality source
Yes
Yes
4
The Effects of Final-Offer Arbitration on the Performance of Major League Baseball Players: A Test of Equity Theory
"This study examined potential motivational processes of major league baseball players participating in final-offer arbitration. For baseball players, finaloffer arbitration entails both the player and the team management submitting a nonnegotiable salary figure to an impartial arbitrator. Based on the evidence proferred by the respective parties, the arbitrator adopts either the player's or team's salary figure as the player's compensation for the upcoming season. Using an equity theory perspective, we found support for the prediction that postarbitration player performance was linked to the arbitrator's decision and to the discrepancy between the player's salary request and the team's salary offer. The study's results were discussed in terms of general implications for equity-theory research."
AUTHORS
Robert G. Lord
Neil M.A. Hauenstein
PUBLISHED
1989 in Human Performance
High quality source
Yes
Yes
5
Equity and the performance of major league baseball players: An extension of Lord and Hohenfeld.
"Extended R. G. Lord and J. G. Hohenfeld's (see record 1980-13102-001) assessment of equity effects on the performance of major league baseball players. The sample is expanded to include 30 (average age 30.6 yrs) players in the 1st 3 free-agent reentry drafts and to include comparisons with teammates and a sample of 30 (average age 29.5 yrs) traded players. Equity theory predictions of decrements in performance during a year of undercompensation were not supported. Performance of free agents was also found to be not significantly different from that of either teammates or traded players. Sample differences are identified, and results are interpreted within an expectancy theory, as well as an equity theory, framework. (4 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)"
AUTHORS
Arthur G. Jago
Dennis Duchon
PUBLISHED
1981 in Journal of Applied Psychology
High quality source
No
No
6
Longitudinal field assessment of equity effects on the performance of major league baseball players.
"A time-series analysis was used to test predictions based on equity theory in a naturally occurring experiment involving 23 major league baseball players who began the 1976 season without contracts. It was posited that due to historical changes in the reserve system, these players would perceive themselves as undercompensated relative to salient others, and due to substantial reductions in salary as compared to their 1975 compensation, they would also perceive themselves as undercompensated relative to self-referents from the previous year. Such perceptions should produce lower performance. This hypothesis was supported for performance as measured by batting average, home runs, and runs batted in but not for runs scored."
AUTHORS
Jeffrey A. Hohenfeld
Robert G. Lord
PUBLISHED
1979 in Journal of Applied Psychology
High quality source
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 50
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do baseball players perform worse in years where they perceive themselves to be under-compensated?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Longitudinal field assessment of equity effects on the performance of major league baseball players
"A time-series analysis was used to test predictions based on equity theory in a naturally occurring experiment involving 23 major league baseball players who began the 1976 season without contracts. We posited that due to historical changes in the reserve system, these players would perceive themselves as undercompensated relative to salient others; and, due to substantial reductions in salary as compared to their 1975 compensation, they would also perceive themselves as undercompensated relative to self-referents from the previous year. Such perceptions should produce lower performance. This hypothesis was supported for performance as measured by batting average, home runs, and runs batted in but not for runs scored. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]"
AUTHORS
Jeffrey A. Hohenfeld
Robert G. Lord
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Applied Psychology

Add to List
Adolescents' smokeless tobacco susceptibility by perceived professional baseball players' use.
"Objective: Measure associations between adolescent baseball players' perceptions of smokeless tobacco (ST) use by professional baseball players and those adolescents' actual ST use and susceptibility.

Methods: Male baseball players (N = 360) at 25 rural California high schools completed tobacco behavior surveys and reported how likely they believed it was their favorite major league baseball player used ST. We compared ST use and, among ST never-users, willingness and expectations to use ST, according to perceived favorite player's use.

Results: Adolescents responding that their favorite player definitely or probably used ST were significantly more likely to use ST themselves. High school ST never-users who perceived that their favorite player definitely used ST were 2.5 to 3-times more likely to be susceptible to ST initiation than participants responding that their favorite player definitely did not use ST.

Conclusions: Adolescents' ST behaviors and intentions were correlated with their perceptions of professional baseball players' ST use.

"
AUTHORS
Benjamin W Chaffee
Stuart A Gansky
Elizabeth T Couch
PUBLISHED
2018 in Journal of Public Health Dentistry

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Baseball's Emotion Work: Getting Psyched To Play
"The problematic nature of sport contests creates a variety of emotions—anxiety, fear, sadness, joy, anger, disgust, frustration, compassion, and embarrassment. The present study uses an interactionist/interpretive investigation of baseball hitters and pitchers (N=21). Data were gathered by analysis of in-depth semistructured interviews with members of a college baseball team. A photo-elicitation interviewing technique was used with videotapes of the players in game situations. Players were asked to respond to the experience of hitting and pitching while observing the videotapes of themselves. The emotional experiences that emerged from the interviews focused on managing and maintaining their emotions within an optimal level of arousal. The players perceive the optimal level of arousal is necessary for a desirable performance."
AUTHORS
Ronald Ammons
Eldon E. Snyder
PUBLISHED
in Qualitative Sociology

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Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.
"Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance."
AUTHORS
Jonathan Freeston
Kieron Rooney
PUBLISHED
2014 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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Free-Agent Performance in Major League Baseball: Do Teams Get What They Expect?
"Under certain conditions, equity and expectancy theories yield opposite predictions. This study examines one such situation. Performance statistics from a sample of 172 Major League Baseball free agents were collected for the 2 years before and 1 year after each player's free agency filing.

Equity theory suggests that performance decrements will occur when players perceive they are undercompensated in their free-agent year. In contrast, expectancy theory suggests that players' performance wilt be superior when they are tip for new contracts. During the 1st year of a free-agent player's new contract, equity theory predicts that his performance will be superior, whereas expectancy theory predicts that it will be lower.

Free agents' performance tended to decline after they signed contracts with new teams. This study suggests that if Major League Baseball teams pay free agents based on free-agent-year performance, they might not be satisfied with the results. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR"
AUTHORS
James Kennelly
Steven Si
David Ahlstrom
PUBLISHED
1999 in Journal of Sport Management

Add to List
Free-agent performance in major league baseball: Do teams get what they expect?
"Under certain conditions, equity and expectancy theories yield opposite predictions. This study examines one such situation. Performance statistics from a sample of 172 Major League Baseball free agents were collected for the 2 years before and 1 year after each player's free agency filing. Equity theory suggests that performance decrements will occur when players perceive they are undercompensated in their free-agent year. In contrast, expectancy theory suggests that players' performance wilt be superior when they are tip for new contracts. During the 1st year of a free-agent player's new contract, equity theory predicts that his performance will be superior, whereas expectancy theory predicts that it will be lower. Free agents' performance tended to decline after they signed contracts with new teams. This study suggests that if Major League Baseball teams pay free agents based on free-agent-year performance, they might not be satisfied with the results. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR"
AUTHORS
J Kennelly
S Si
D Ahlstrom
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sport Management

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Regimes in baseball players’ career data
"In this paper we investigate how we can use gated Bayesian networks, a type of probabilistic graphical model, to represent regimes in baseball players’ career data. We find that baseball players do indeed go through different regimes throughout their career, where each regime can be associated with a certain level of performance. We show that some of the transitions between regimes happen in conjunction with major events in the players’ career, such as being traded or injured, but that some transitions cannot be explained by such events. The resulting model is a tool for managers and coaches that can be used to identify where transitions have occurred, as well as an online monitoring tool to detect which regime the player currently is in."
AUTHOR
Marcus Bendtsen
PUBLISHED
in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

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Dynamic visual acuity in baseball players is due to superior tracking abilities.
"Purpose: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in baseball players than that in nonplayers. Although the better DVA of baseball players has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects, it might be derived from the ability to perceive an object even in the presence of a great distance between the image on the retina and the fovea (retinal error). However, the ability to perceive moving visual stimuli has not been compared between baseball players and nonplayers.

Methods: To clarify this, we quantitatively measured abilities of eye movement and visual perception using moving Landolt C rings in baseball players and nonplayers.

Results: Baseball players could achieve high DVA with significantly faster eye movement at shorter latencies than nonplayers. There was no difference in the ability to perceive moving object's images projected onto the retina between baseball players and nonplayers.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the better DVA of baseball players is primarily due to a better ability to track moving objects with their eyes rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina. This skill is probably obtained through baseball training.

"
AUTHORS
Daisuke Kudoh
Kazuyuki Kanosue
Yusuke Uchida
Takatoshi Higuchi
Masaaki Honda
PUBLISHED
2013 in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

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Evaluation of safety balls and faceguards for prevention of injuries in youth baseball.
"Context: Safety balls and faceguards are widely used in youth baseball, but their effectiveness in reducing injury is unknown.

Objective: To evaluate the association of the use of faceguards and safety balls and injuries in youth baseball.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Ecological study using a national database of compensated insurance claims maintained by Little League Baseball Incorporated, combined with data on the number of participants in Little League and data from a census of protective equipment usage for youth aged 5 to 18 years participating in Little League Baseball in the United States during 1997-1999.

Main Outcome Measures: Rate of injury and injury rate ratio comparing users with nonusers of protective equipment.

Results: A total of 6 744 240 player-seasons of follow-up and 4233 compensated injury claims were available for analysis. The absolute incidence of compensated injury per 100 000 player-seasons was 28.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.76-29.29) for ball-related injury and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.32-3.11) for facial injury. Overall, use of safety balls was associated with a reduced risk of ball-related injury (adjusted rate ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93). This reduction was essentially due to 1 type of safety ball, known as the reduced-impact ball (adjusted rate ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.91). Use of faceguards reduced the risk of facial injury (adjusted rate ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.98). Metal and plastic guards appeared to be equally effective. Safety balls appeared to be more effective in the minor division (ages 7-12 years) than in the regular division (ages 9-12 years).

Conclusions: Reduced-impact balls and faceguards were associated with a reduced risk of injury in youth baseball. These findings support increased usage of these items; however, it should be noted that the absolute incidence of injury in youth baseball is low and that these equipment items do not prevent all injuries.

"
AUTHORS
Daniel P Kirby
Frederick O Mueller
Stephen W Marshall
Jingzhen Yang
PUBLISHED
2003 in JAMA

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In support of a hot hand in professional basketball and baseball
"Recent studies have found little empirical evidence to suggest that National Basketball Association (NBA) and Major League Baseball (MLB) players have hot streaks. This has led some to suggest that hot hands do not exist and that offensive and defensive strategies adjusting to perceived hot hands are suboptimal. We study the MLB's Home Run Derby and the NBA's 3-point Shootout. When there is no defense, extended time between shots has been removed, and shot or swing selection is constant, we find evidence that player performance is nonstationary. Our results are consistent with beliefs long held by players, coaches, and fans, research on the importance of self-efficacy in sports, and studies that support the existence of hot streaks in sports with no or limited defense. "
AUTHOR
Stephen Shea
PUBLISHED
2013 in PsyCh Journal

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An Analysis of Major League Baseball Attendance, 1969 ??? 1987
"A myriad of issues relating to professional sports require knowledge about the determinants of attendance. As sports expand as a cultural phenomenon, legal battles over franchises, player compensation and rights, and public subsidies for sports stadiums will intensify. While attendance at sporting events plays a crucial role in deciding sports controversies such as these, there is a paucity of theory explaining attendance at professional sporting events. Even though baseball is considered the national pastime, relatively little is known about the determinants of baseball attendance. This paper is an attempt to fill that gap through building on the baseball attendance research of Roger Noll. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]"
AUTHORS
Laura J. Tiehen
Robert A. Baade
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sport & Social Issues

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An Analysis of Major League Baseball Attendance, 1969 - 1987
"A myriad of issues relating to professional sports require knowledge about the determinants of attendance. As sports expand as a cultural phenomenon, legal battles over franchises, player compensation and rights, and public subsidies for sports stadiums will intensify. While attendance at sporting events plays a crucial role in deciding sports controversies such as these, there is a paucity of theory explaining attendance at professional sporting events. Even though baseball is considered the national pastime, relatively little is known about the determinants of baseball attendance. This paper is an attempt to fill that gap through building on the baseball attendance research of Roger Noll. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]"
AUTHORS
Laura J. Tiehen
Robert A. Baade
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sport and Social Issues

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Early Sport Specialization: Effectiveness and Risk of Injury in Professional Baseball Players.
"Background: The rate of early sport specialization in professional baseball players is unknown.

Purpose: To report the incidence and age of sport specialization in current professional baseball players and the impact of early specialization on the frequency of serious injuries sustained during the players' careers. We also queried participants about when serious injuries occurred, the players' current position on the field, and their opinions regarding the need for young athletes to specialize early to play at the professional level.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study.

Methods: A total of 102 current professional baseball players anonymously completed a 7-question written survey. Early sport specialization was defined as "single-sport participation prior to high school." Injury was defined as "a serious injury or surgery that required the player to refrain from sports (baseball) for an entire year." Chi-square tests were used to investigate the risk of injury in those who specialized early in baseball versus those who did not. Independent-sample

Results: Fifty (48%) baseball players specialized early. The mean age at initiation of sport specialization was 8.91 years (SD, 3.7 years). Those who specialized early reported more serious injuries (mean, 0.54; SD, 0.838) during their professional baseball career than those who did not (mean, 0.23; SD, 0.425) (

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of serious injury during a baseball player's professional career in those players who specialized early. Most current professional baseball players surveyed believed that sport specialization was not required prior to high school to master the skills needed to play at the professional level. Our findings demonstrate an increased incidence of serious injuries in professional baseball players who specialized in baseball prior to high school. Youth baseball athletes should be encouraged not to participate in a single sport given the potential for an increased incidence of serious injuries later in their careers. No data are available to suggest that early specialization is needed to reach the professional level.

"
AUTHORS
Andrew Wilhelm
John Deitch
Changryol Choi
PUBLISHED
2017 in Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine

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Sport-Specific Decision-Making in a Go/Nogo Reaction Task: Difference among Nonathletes and Baseball and Basketball Players
"The present study examined whether Go/Nogo reaction time (RT) is a relevant index of the sport expertise relating to sport-specific decision-making. 57 male university students, 20 basketball players, 24 baseball players, and 13 sedentary students as a control group, performed a Simple RT task and Go/NoGo RT task which had baseball specific stimulus-response relations. Participants in baseball and basketball differed further in having high, medium, and low experience in the sports. For comparisons across sports, the basketball and the baseball players had significantly shorter reaction times than the nonathletes in both tasks. In contrast, reaction times varied significantly across experience for the baseball players in the Go/NoGo RT task but not for basketball players. These results suggested that Go/NoGo RT could be used as an index of expertise for sport-specific decision-making, if stimulus-response relation in Go/NoGo RT task has a natural relation for a particular sport-domain."
AUTHORS
Shiro Mori
Hiroki Nakamoto
PUBLISHED
2008 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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Perceived equity, motivation, and final-offer arbitration in major league baseball.
"Final-offer salary arbitration in major league baseball offers a unique institutional arrangement that creates a naturally occurring, non-equivalent-groups, repeated measures research design. The structural arrangements allow for examination of anticipatory expectancy effects and assessment of behavioral responses consistent with equity theory predictions. In addition, equity theory can be tested without the methodological problems inherent in defining the referent other. Performance and mobility were examined for major league baseball position players who won and lost their arbitration hearings. Prearbitration performance significantly predicted arbitration outcome. A significant relationship was noted between losing arbitration and postarbitration performance decline. Losers were significantly more likely to change teams and leave major league baseball. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)"
AUTHORS
Steven L. Thomas
Robert D. Bretz
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Applied Psychology

Add to List
Fair Or Foul?: The Effects of External, Internal, and Employee Equity on Changes in Performance of Major League Baseball Players
"We propose six hypotheses that relate employee,internal, and external inequities to changes inperformance. We test these hypotheses with a sample of362 Major League Baseball players. The findings showed that overpayment (as measured by actualemployee and external inequities) is a significantpredictor of positive performance changes, underpaymentis a significant predictor of negative performancechanges, and employee equity is a greater predictor ofchange in performance than internal equity."
AUTHORS
Neal P. Mero
Steve Werner
PUBLISHED
in Human Relations

Add to List
Equity and the performance of major league baseball players: An extension of Lord and Hohenfeld
"The Lord and Hohenfeld assessment of equity effects on the performance of major league baseball players is extended. The sample is expanded to include players in the first three free agent reentry drafts and to include comparisons with teammates and a sample of traded players. Certain equity theory predictions of decrements in performance during a year of undercompensation are not supported. Performance of free agents is also found to be not significantly different from that of either teammates or traded players. Sample differences are identified, and the results are interpreted within an expectancy theory as well as an equity theory framework. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]"
AUTHORS
Arthur G. Jago
Dennis Duchon
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Applied Psychology

Add to List
The Effects of Final-Offer Arbitration on the Performance of Major League Baseball Players: A Test of Equity Theory
"Examined potential motivational processes of 88 major league baseball players participating in final-offer arbitration. For baseball players, final-offer arbitration entails both the player and the team management submitting a nonnegotiable salary figure to an impartial arbitrator. Based on the evidence proferred by the respective parties, the arbitrator adopts either the player's or team's salary figure as the player's compensation for the upcoming season. Using an equity theory perspective, support was found for the prediction that postarbitration player performance was linked to the arbitrator's decision and to the discrepancy between the player's salary request and the team's salary offer. Results are discussed in terms of general implications for equity-theory research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)"
AUTHORS
Robert G. Lord
Neil M.A. Hauenstein
PUBLISHED
in Human Performance

Add to List
Fair or foul?: The effects of external, internal, and employee equity on changes in performance of Major League Baseball players
"We propose six hypotheses that relate employee, internal, and external inequities to changes in performance. We test these hypotheses with a sample of 362 Major League Baseball players. The findings showed that overpayment (as measured by actual employee and external inequities) is a significant predictor of positive performance changes, underpayment is a significant predictor of negative performance changes, and employee equity is a greater predictor of change in performance than internal equity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)"
AUTHORS
Neal P. Mero
Steve Werner
PUBLISHED
in Human Relations

Add to List
Perceived equity, motivation, and final-offer arbitration in major league baseball.
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.3.280
AUTHORS
Robert D. Bretz
Steven L. Thomas
PUBLISHED
1992 in Journal of Applied Psychology

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Final-offer arbitration in major league baseball: A nonparametric analysis
"Abstract This study extends the non-parametric methodology for empirical efficiency analysis to allow for a double frontier based on perspective and applies the model to final-offer arbitration in major league baseball. Arbitration eligible players perceive their worth relative to other players who earn more with no better performance. Owners, on the other hand, perceive a player's value relative to other players performing as well with lower salaries. The two different perspectives give rise to different perceived frontiers. The purpose of this paper is to analyze arbitration using this approach. "
AUTHORS
John Ruggiero
Lawrence Hadley
PUBLISHED
in Annals of Operations Research

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The Causes of Bargaining Failure: Evidence from Major League Baseball
"Final-offer arbitration in Major League Baseball provides an ideal setting for examining the empirical regularities that are associated with bargaining failure, since final offers, salaries, and ..."
AUTHORS
Victor Stango
Paul Pecorino
Amy Farmer
PUBLISHED
in The Journal of Law and Economics

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Final Offer Arbitration in Major League Baseball
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139016957.027
AUTHOR
Roger D. Blair
PUBLISHED
in Sports Economics (Book)

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Equity and arbitration in major league baseball
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1002/mde.1090
AUTHORS
Lawrence Hadley
Anthony C. Krautmann
John Fizel
PUBLISHED
2002 in Managerial and Decision Economics

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Equity and Arbitration in Major League Baseball
You can view the abstract at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/4150413
AUTHORS
Lawrence Hadley
Anthony C. Krautmann
John Fizel
PUBLISHED
in Managerial and Decision Economics

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A’s vs. Royals, Part I
"This chapter relates the rise in the fortunes of baseball’s Oakland A’s, culminating in their 1972 World Series title. They won despite weak attendance and turmoil under owner Charles Finley. The Kansas City Royals established themselves as a model expansion franchise under owner Ewing Kauffman but still had far to go to match the A’s’ success. Labor unrest engulfed both baseball and the two cities during this period, with baseball players walking off the job not long after lengthy construction strikes in Kansas City and a dockworkers strike against the Port of Oakland. Even as the growing power of the Major League Baseball Players Association transformed baseball, organized labor elsewhere faced an increasingly harsh climate."
AUTHOR
Matthew C. Ehrlich
PUBLISHED
2019 in Kansas City vs. Oakland

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Injuries in Little League Baseball From 1987 Through 1996
"Unlabelled: Baseball is a very popular team sport in the United States, but there has been concern with the number of injuries and fatalities.

Objective: This study describes the incidence of injuries to Little League Baseball, Inc, players from 5 to 12 years old from 1987 through 1996.

Methods: Descriptive statistical analyses of injuries derived from Little League Baseball, Inc, insurance data from 17,221,210 player-years of follow-up in the 10-year study period. An average of 1,722,121 children participated every year.

Results: During the study, there were 29,038 injuries and an injury rate of 1.69 injuries per 1,000 participants per season. Ball-related injuries totaled 15,266, and batters had the greatest number of ball injuries. There were 12,306 facial and teeth injuries, mostly in defensive players. Sliding was associated with 60% of the injuries to base runners. Approximately 25% of the injuries were considered severe (fractures, dislocations, and concussions), and 13 players died.

Conclusion: Based on the data, youth baseball appears to be a very safe sport, but there are areas where injury prevention is possible. Data and additional attention are needed concerning face mask use for players in the field, modified balls for minimizing contact injuries, education on sliding technique, and use of safety bases for runners.

"
AUTHORS
Daniel P. Kirby
Stephen W. Marshall
Frederick O. Mueller
PUBLISHED

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Babies are doing it for themselves
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(05)73291-8
AUTHOR
James Butcher
PUBLISHED
2000 in The Lancet

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Posterior Thigh Pain in a Professional Baseball Player
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200405001-01727
AUTHOR
Clarke Holmes
PUBLISHED
2004 in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

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Baseball-Related Injuries to Children Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments in the United States, 1994-2006
"Objective: To describe the epidemiology of baseball-related injuries among children in the United States.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of data for children younger than 18 years of age from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1994 through 2006. Sample weights provided by the NEISS were used to calculate national estimates of baseball-related injuries. Injury rates were calculated according to age group by using both population and baseball-participation data.

Results: An estimated 1 596 000 (95% confidence interval: 1 330 100-1 861 800) children younger than 18 years were treated in US hospital emergency departments for baseball-related injuries during the 13-year period from 1994 through 2006. During the study period, the annual number of injuries declined by 24.9%, and the annual injury rate for children younger than 18 years decreased significantly (P < .000). The most commonly injured body parts were the face (33.5%) and the upper extremity (32.4%). The most common injury diagnoses were soft tissue injury (34.3%) and fracture (18.4%). The most common mechanism of injury was being hit by the baseball (46.0%). Children in the 9- to 12-year age group had the highest injury rate (2.4 per 1000 population). When injury rates were calculated by using baseball-participation data (2003), children in the 12- to 17-year age group had a higher injury rate (19.8 per 1000 participants) than those in the 6- to 11-year age group (12.1 per 1000 participants).

Conclusions: Youth baseball is a relatively safe sport for children. Although injury rates and the total number of injuries declined during the study period, our findings indicate that there are opportunities for making baseball an even safer sport for children. We recommend that all youth baseball players wear properly fitted mouth guards, that all leagues, schools, and parks install safety bases, that all batters use helmets with face shields, and that all players use safety baseballs.

"
AUTHORS
G. A. Smith
R. D. Comstock
B. R. Lawson
PUBLISHED
2009 in PEDIATRICS

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When ignorance is bliss: weight perception, body mass index and quality of life in adolescents.
"Background/Objectives: Body weight is negatively associated with adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Despite this well-established relationship, some adolescents with obesity do not display the expected HRQoL decreases. This study hypothesised weight perception as a moderator of the association between weight status and adolescent HRQoL.

Subjects/Methods: Subjects were secondary school students from an obesity prevention project in the Barwon South-West region of Victoria, Australia, entitled It's Your Move (N=3040). Measures included standardised body mass index (BMI-z; World Health Organization growth standards), weight perception and HRQoL, measured by the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Linear regression and average marginal effect analyses were conducted on cross-sectional baseline data to determine the significance of any interaction between weight perception and measured weight status in shaping adolescent HRQoL.

Results: The BMI-z/perceived weight status interaction was significantly associated with adolescent HRQoL outcomes. Adolescents with BMI z-scores in the overweight/obesity range who perceived themselves as overweight had lower HRQoL than those who perceived themselves as 'about right.' Conversely, adolescents with BMI scores in the lower end of the normal range or in the thinness range who perceived themselves as underweight had lower HRQoL than those with 'about right' perceptions.

Conclusions: This was the first study to report third-variable impacts of a body-perception variable on the relationship between adolescent weight status and HRQoL. Adolescents' weight perceptions significantly moderated the relationship between overweight/obesity and reduced HRQoL. Adolescents who were outside the normal weight range and misperceived their objectively measured weight status enjoyed a higher HRQoL than adolescents whose weight perception was concordant with their actual weight status. These findings suggest that practitioners may need to exercise caution when educating adolescents about their weight status, as such 'reality checks' may negatively impact on adolescent HRQoL. It is suggested that more research be conducted to examine this potential effect.

"
AUTHORS
A J Lewis
B Swinburn
S Petersen
L Millar
J Hayward
PUBLISHED

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Neck Pain in a Football Player
"The unavailability of a team physician for contact/collision sports such as football can sometimes mean that an injured player will continue in a game. By doing so, the player may risk greater, perhaps even permanent disabling injury. "
AUTHORS
Robert C. Cantu
Douglas B. McKeag
PUBLISHED

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Sport-Related Kidney Injury Among High School Athletes
"Background And Objective: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a "qualified yes" for participation by athletes with single kidneys in contact/collision sports. Despite this recommendation, most physicians continue to discourage participation in contact/collision sports for patients with single kidneys. A major concern is the lack of prospective data quantifying the incidence of sport-related kidney injury. The objective was to quantify the incidence of sport-related kidney injury among high school varsity athletes and compare it with sport-related injuries of other organ systems.

Methods: Data from the National Athletic Trainers' Association High School Injury Surveillance Study, an observational cohort study collected during the 1995-1997 academic years, were used. Incidence rates for sport-specific injuries to select organs were computed and compared.

Results: Over 4.4 million athlete-exposures, defined as 1 athlete participating in 1 game or practice, and 23,666 injuries were reported. Eighteen kidney injuries, none of which were catastrophic or required surgery, were reported compared with 3450 knee, 2069 head/neck/spine, 1219 mild traumatic brain, 148 eye, and 17 testicle injuries. Student athletes incurring kidney injuries were most often playing football (12 injuries) or girls' soccer (2 injuries). Sport-specific rates of kidney injury were significantly lower than sport-specific rates of mild traumatic brain, head/neck/spine, and knee injuries for all sports as well as rates of baseball- and basketball-specific eye injuries (P < .01).

Conclusions: Kidney injuries occur significantly less often than other injuries during sport. These data do not support limiting sport participation by athletes with single kidneys.

"
AUTHORS
K. Butz
K. K. Gurka
V. Norwood
M. M. Grinsell
M. J. Gurka
PUBLISHED
2012 in PEDIATRICS

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Sports Medicine in the Workplace
"Physicians versed in sports medicine may want to look to industry, where primary care skills are increasingly in demand. Aggressive rehab methods honed on athletes can also return workers to the job more quickly. The result? Physicians can expand their practices while helping employers save on worker's compensation costs."
AUTHOR
Jacqueline White
PUBLISHED

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An investigation of home advantage in the Summer Paralympic Games.
"Purpose: There is a paucity of home advantage research set in the context of para-sport events. It is this gap in the knowledge that this paper addresses by investigating the prevalence and size of home advantage in the Summer Paralympic Games.

Methods: Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of nations when competing at home with their own performances away from home in the competition between 1960 and 2016. Both country-level and individual sport-level analyses were conducted for this time frame. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine whether there was a genuine difference in nations' performance under host and non-host conditions. Spearman's rank-order correlation was run to assess the relationship between nation quality and home advantage.

Results: Strong evidence of a home advantage effect in the Summer Paralympic Games was found at country level (

Conclusion: While our results confirm that home advantage is prevalent in the Summer Paralympic Games at an overall country level and within specific sports, they do not explain fully why such an effect does exist. Future studies should investigate the causes of home advantage in the competition and also draw comparisons with the Summer Olympic Games to explore any differences between para-sport events and able-bodied events.

"
AUTHORS
Girish Ramchandani
Darryl Wilson
PUBLISHED

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The Performance of Private Equity
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2009067
AUTHORS
Rüdiger Stucke
Chris Higson
PUBLISHED
2012 in SSRN Electronic Journal

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The Influence of Equity Markets on Firm Financial Performance
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1969667
AUTHOR
Peter N. Rampling
PUBLISHED
2011 in SSRN Electronic Journal

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Global Equity Fund Performance: An Attribution Approach
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2568483
AUTHORS
Geoff Warren
Camille Schmidt
Graham Harman
David R. Gallagher
PUBLISHED
2015 in SSRN Electronic Journal

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Performance of Private Equity Real Estate Funds
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.15396/eres2009_143
AUTHOR
Ilkka Tomperi
PUBLISHED
2009 in 16th Annual European Real Estate Society Conference.

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Baseball Pitches
AUTHOR
Alan M. Nathan
PUBLISHED
1997 in Scientific American

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The cultural encyclopedia of baseball
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.43-3114
PUBLISHED
2006 in Choice Reviews Online

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