Do baseball players seeking a new contract perform better in the final year of their current contract?

Submitted by: RBrown 30

Yes.
*Note that the latest study on this question is over 9 years old. A more recent study may provide a more relevant answer.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 3 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 3 studies examining this question

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do baseball players perform worse in years where they perceive themselves to be under-compensated?
6 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 3
Sorted by publication year
1
AUTHORS
Carrie W. Lecrom
Victoria A. Seymour
Trey M. Eggleston
Jason A. Martin
PUBLISHED
2011 in NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture
UNRANKED SOURCE
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
2
The Dynamics of Performance Over the Duration of Major League Baseball Long-Term Contracts
"We re-examine incentives in Major League Baseball contracts by considering performance over the duration of the contract. We consider both the incentive to perform in order to maximize the subsequent contract and the disincentive of a fixed salary. We isolate the effect of the latter by controlling for the probability that the contract is the player's last. We find that players who are less likely to sign a subsequent contract have a large and statistically significant reduction in performance compared to expectations. The incentive to perform well in anticipation of signing the next contract is equally large and offsetting so that players who expect to sign another contract largely perform to expectations. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR"
AUTHORS
John L. Solow
Anthony C. Krautmann
PUBLISHED
2009 in Journal of Sports Economics
High quality source
Yes
Yes
3
AUTHORS
Jahn Karl Hakes
Chad Turner
PUBLISHED
2008 in SSRN Electronic Journal
Preprint
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 26
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do baseball players seeking a new contract perform better in the final year of their current contract?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Fuzzy clustering of baseball statistics
"A previous investigation into the ability of fuzzy clustering to be a sound method for comparing Major League Baseball players' batting averages yielded promising results. Yet, the study involved a rather small sample of 90 batting averages, which were fuzzy clustered into three categories. Furthermore, the primary study focused on batting averages, a statistic that is incapable of reflecting a player's hitting ability on its own, and it certainly does not account for the defensive skill of a player. While the original work highlighted some of the inherent advantages to fuzzy clustering, the small sample size and number of groups did not allow for a complete spectrum to be generated. Without an uncondensed continuum from which to compare the relative overall skills of all players, the original results limited the practical applications of fuzzy clustering in Major League Baseball. The current research aims to greatly improve upon the first study and emphasize the potential gains from the implementation of fuzzy clustering in the practices of Major League Baseball. In an effort to provide a more comprehensive analysis of baseball statistics, this investigation includes two additional hitting statistics, on base percentage and slugging percentage, and incorporates fielding percentage. The three added statistics reflect a player's bat control, power, and defensive reliability, respectively, all of which teams use to gauge a player's skills. All three offensive statistics are averaged to generate an inclusive measure of a player's offensive capabilities, and the corresponding fielding percentage was added as a second dimension into the fuzzy clustering program. The new four-input model is a more developed and more applicable version of the one produced in the original research. Fuzzy clustering of batting averages, on base percentages, slugging percentages, and fielding percentages is an innovative way for teams to compare an individual's skills to that of all pro- fessional players simultaneously, since fuzzy clustering is ideal for establishing relationships between data that would not normally be associated. Baseball statisticians will no longer be forced to merely note the numerical difference between players' three key hitting statistics and a critical defensive measure. Instead, players can be grouped according to their relative production, providing organizations with a more comprehensive view of players' capabilities. In this investigation, 968 Major League Baseball players' selected statistics were fuzzy clustered into nine groups, in an effort to better express the range of baseball skills. The results of the research offer insight into an amount of data that cannot efficiently be processed by an individual, which would make fuzzy clustering of batting averages an invaluable tool for Major League Baseball. Motivational resources are greatly needed in such a mentally and emotionally draining sport, and fuzzy-clustered statistics would provide organizations with such a resource. Players can be greatly uplifted when shown that they rank relatively well among their peers. Successful players can also use their relative groupings to secure better contracts. Owners, however, can save money in contract negotiations and retain desired players that are currently not performing well, according to the fuzzy cluster to which they belong. An additional way for owners to conserve funds is by utilizing fuzzy clustering in the scouting process. Instead of large travel budgets, fuzzy clustering can be used to compare the skill of a prospect among his peers. Finally, the teams that are the quickest to apply fuzzy clustering of baseball data to player trades will gain a competitive edge. Teams will seek trades for players of the same relative skill level, and possibly receive two or more players for one that has slightly better nominal numbers. Major League Baseball is filled with countless amounts of data. Fuzzy clustering of statis"
AUTHOR
B. A. Bushong
PUBLISHED
in Annual Conference of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society - NAFIPS

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The Dynamics of Performance Over the Duration of Major League Baseball Long-term Contracts
"We re-examine incentives in Major League Baseball contracts by considering performance over the duration of the contract. We consider both the incentive to perform in order to maximize the subsequent contract and the disincentive of a fixed salary. We isolate the effect of the latter by controlling for the probability that the contract is the player's last. We find that players who are less likely to sign a subsequent contract have a large and statistically significant reduction in performance compared to expectations. The incentive to perform well in anticipation of signing the next contract is equally large and offsetting so that players who expect to sign another contract largely perform to expectations. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR"
AUTHORS
John L. Solow
Anthony C. Krautmann
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sports Economics

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The dynamics of performance over the duration of major league baseball long-term contracts
"We re-examine incentives in Major League Baseball contracts by considering performance over the duration of the contract. We consider both the incentive to perform in order to maximize the subsequent contract and the disincentive of a fixed salary. We isolate the effect of the latter by controlling for the probability that the contract is the player's last. We find that players who are less likely to sign a subsequent contract have a large and statistically significant reduction in performance compared to expectations. The incentive to perform well in anticipation of signing the next contract is equally large and offsetting so that players who expect to sign another contract largely perform to expectations. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR"
AUTHORS
John L. Solow
Anthony C. Krautmann
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sports Economics

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Common Ground and Cultural Prominence
"Why do well-known ideas, practices, and people maintain their cultural prominence in the presence of equally good or better alternatives? This article suggests that a social-psychological process whereby people seek to establish common ground with their conversation partners causes familiar elements of culture to increase in prominence, independently of performance or quality. Two studies tested this hypothesis in the context of professional baseball, showing that common ground predicted the cultural prominence of baseball players better than their performance, even though clear performance metrics are available in this domain. Regardless of performance, familiar players, who represented common ground, were discussed more often than lesser-known players, both in a dyadic experiment (Study 1) and in natural discussions on the Internet (Study 2). Moreover, these conversations mediated the positive link between familiarity and a more institutionalized measure of prominence: All-Star votes (Study 2). Implications for research on the psychological foundations of culture are discussed."
AUTHORS
George Wu
Chip Heath
Nathanael J. Fast
PUBLISHED

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The effects of repetitive overhead throwing on shoulder rotator isokinetic work-fatigue.
"Background: Muscle strength and endurance of the shoulder rotators is important for overhead throwing performance and dynamic glenohumeral stability. Baseball pitching is distinguished as an intermittent activity with explosive, high intensity muscle contractions separated by periods of rest. Rotator cuff muscle performance could acutely decrease due to fatigue associated with bouts of throwing.

Objective: This study examined the effects of repeated overhead throwing upon isokinetic muscle performance of the shoulder rotators.

Methods: Repeated-measures analyses of vari-ance were used to compare peak torque, total work, and work-fatigue by muscle group, time, and contraction type. Ten collegiate baseball pitchers underwent isokinetic testing of the internal (IR) and external shoulder (ER) rotators one week before and immediately after a throwing protocol of 60 maximal-effort pitches arranged into four innings of 15 pitches per inning. Isokinetic testing consisted of 12 concentric and eccentric repetitions at 300 deg/sec for internal and external rotation of the throwing extremity.

Results: The main effect of time and the interaction of muscle group and contraction type were significant for work-fatigue. Post-hoc analysis revealed that subjects had significantly greater eccentric IR work-fatigue (13.3 + 1%) compared to the pre-test (7.3 + 2%).

Discussion And Conclusions: Throwing-related fatigue affected both muscle groups, especially the IR, which has implications for dynamic glenohumeral stability. Rehabilitation and conditioning programs for competitive baseball pitchers should emphasize eccentric muscle endurance training of the shoulder rotators.

"
AUTHORS
Tim Ogletree
John E Kovaleski
Phillip M Norrell
R Barry Dale
Robert J Heitman
PUBLISHED
2007 in North American journal of sports physical therapy : NAJSPT

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High-Resolution 3-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Shoulder in Nonsymptomatic Professional Baseball Pitcher Draft Picks.
"Objectives: To retrospectively assess the qualitative and quantitative high-resolution 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in nonsymptomatic baseball pitcher draft picks.

Methods: Institutional review board-approved and HIPAA compliant study. Three-Tesla MRI of the dominant shoulder of 19 asymptomatic baseball pitcher draft picks and detailed clinical examination was performed before contract signing. Two radiologists performed independently qualitative and quantitative evaluation of shoulder structures. Descriptive statistics were performed.

Results: Sixty-eight percent (13/19), 32% (6/19), and 21% (4/19) of the baseball pitcher draft picks showed tendinopathy, partial thickness tendon tear of the supraspinatus, and acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis, respectively. Glenohumeral subluxation, glenoid remodeling, and Bennett lesion were present in 53% (10/19), 79% (15/19), and 21% (4/19) of the subjects, respectively. Interclass coefficient was 0.633 to 0.863 and κ was 0.27 to 1.

Conclusions: In asymptomatic baseball pitcher draft picks, 3-T MRI frequently shows abnormalities involving rotator cuff tendons, the coracohumeral, inferior glenohumeral, labrum, and osseous structures.

"
AUTHORS
Andrew Cosgarea
John Wilckens
Sahar Jalali Farahani
Michael Aro
Filippo Del Grande
John A Carrino
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography

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Contract Length and the Return To Performance in Major League Baseball
"This article focuses on the relationship between contract length and compensation in Major League Baseball. Because the best players receive both the highest salaries and the longest contracts, wage regressions that omit length can lead to misleading inferences. Although contract duration is positively related with salaries, the authors find evidence of a negative relationship between contract length and a player's return to performance. These results indicate some type of trade-off going on in the negotiation process that has not been identified in the previous literature on compensating wage differentials."
AUTHORS
Anthony C. Krautmann
Margaret Oppenheimer
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sports Economics

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Baseball Salaries and Income Taxes: The "Home Field Advantage" of Income Taxes on Free Agent Salaries
"In this article, the authors examine the impact on the salaries of free agents in Major League Baseball (MLB) of differences in state and local individual income taxes between major league cities, in an attempt to see if income taxes affect player salaries. This basic specification suggests that each percentage point of an income tax raises free agent salaries by $21,000 to $24,000; other estimates indicate even larger impacts. These findings suggest that the existence of this additional salary demand means that low-tax cities (e.g., Florida, Texas, and Washington) have a “home field advantage” in the baseball free agent market."
AUTHORS
Edward Batte Sennoga
William H. Kaempfer
James Alm
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sports Economics

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Free-Agent Performance in Major League Baseball: Do Teams Get What They Expect?
"Under certain conditions, equity and expectancy theories yield opposite predictions. This study examines one such situation. Performance statistics from a sample of 172 Major League Baseball free agents were collected for the 2 years before and 1 year after each player's free agency filing.

Equity theory suggests that performance decrements will occur when players perceive they are undercompensated in their free-agent year. In contrast, expectancy theory suggests that players' performance wilt be superior when they are tip for new contracts. During the 1st year of a free-agent player's new contract, equity theory predicts that his performance will be superior, whereas expectancy theory predicts that it will be lower.

Free agents' performance tended to decline after they signed contracts with new teams. This study suggests that if Major League Baseball teams pay free agents based on free-agent-year performance, they might not be satisfied with the results. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR"
AUTHORS
James Kennelly
Steven Si
David Ahlstrom
PUBLISHED
1999 in Journal of Sport Management

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Free-agent performance in major league baseball: Do teams get what they expect?
"Under certain conditions, equity and expectancy theories yield opposite predictions. This study examines one such situation. Performance statistics from a sample of 172 Major League Baseball free agents were collected for the 2 years before and 1 year after each player's free agency filing. Equity theory suggests that performance decrements will occur when players perceive they are undercompensated in their free-agent year. In contrast, expectancy theory suggests that players' performance wilt be superior when they are tip for new contracts. During the 1st year of a free-agent player's new contract, equity theory predicts that his performance will be superior, whereas expectancy theory predicts that it will be lower. Free agents' performance tended to decline after they signed contracts with new teams. This study suggests that if Major League Baseball teams pay free agents based on free-agent-year performance, they might not be satisfied with the results. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR"
AUTHORS
J Kennelly
S Si
D Ahlstrom
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sport Management

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The baseball players' labor market reconsidered
"The possibility is examined that the escalation of Major League Baseball player salaries does not necessarily derive from the institution of free agency, but more from the arbitrary configuration of the eligibility requirements that has constrained free agency since its inception. It is argued that because of the limited eligibility for free agency, the acquisition of free-agent talent is a negative-sum game, and that league parity is more likely the result of free agency pulling superior teams apart than improving inferior ones. The unique quality of monopsonistic exploitation and monopolistic inefficiently that segments the baseball players' labor market is reconsidered. In conclusion, it is proposed that the eligibility criteria for free agency be relaxed."
AUTHOR
John Vrooman
PUBLISHED
in Southern Economic Journal

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The economic return to college attendance for major league baseball players
"Using recently collected Major League Baseball free agent data, this study identifies a contract value premium for nonpitchers who attended college. Simultaneous equations and the more traditional earnings regressions are used to report results which support the implications of the human capital model and the schooling-earnings theory. The results also suggest that the labour market for baseball players may not be purely talent driven and that choosing college may slow down a player's accession to the majors. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]"
AUTHOR
Alexandre Olbrecht
PUBLISHED
in Applied Economics Letters

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Performance-Undermining Effects of Baseball Free Agent Contracts
"Research on the effects of extrinsic rewards on subsequent levels of intrinsic motivation and performance has produced conflicting results. In the present study, player statistics were obtained on 33 major league baseball free agents for two seasons prior to, and two seasons after, the signing of the contract. Results suggest that the new contract, particularly its substantial pay raise.

caused a decrease in immediate postcontract performance. In addition, there was some evidence that performance output recovered to its precontract level in the second season postcontract. Findings are discussed with respect to previous work on intrinsic to extrinsic motivational shifts and the overjustification effect."
AUTHORS
Ryan Thibodeau
Ted S. Sturman
PUBLISHED
2001 in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

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Performance-undermining effects of baseball free agent contracts
"Research on the effects of extrinsic rewards on subsequent levels of intrinsic motivation and performance has produced conflicting results. In the present study, player statistics were obtained on 33 major league baseball free agents for two seasons prior to, and two seasons after, the signing of the contract. Results suggest that the new contract, particularly its substantial pay raise. caused a decrease in immediate postcontract performance. In addition, there was some evidence that performance output recovered to its precontract level in the second season postcontract. Findings are discussed with respect to previous work on intrinsic to extrinsic motivational shifts and the overjustification effect."
AUTHORS
R Thibodeau
T S Sturman
PUBLISHED
in Journal of sport & exercise psychology

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Free agents’ impact on the labor market for baseball players
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02685176
AUTHOR
Henry J. Raimondo
PUBLISHED
1983 in Journal of Labor Research

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Free Agency and the Allocation of Labor in Major League Baseball
"An analysis examines the allocation of labor under free agency by developing and testing a model to predict the migration of free agents in major league baseball (MLB). Data for individual players are used in a logit model that estimates the probability that a free agent will change teams as a function of several independent variables. Based on the usual interpretation of Coase's Theorem, most economists conclude that free agency should not have any effect on the allocation of playing talent in MLB. The analysis casts doubt on this interpretation of Coase's Theorem. It finds that the migration decisions of free agents are affected by the preferences of the player, suggesting that the allocation of labor is likely to be different under free agency than under the reserve clause. In addition, the analysis finds that large-market teams are more attractive to potential migrants than small-market teams. Large-market teams have not dominated MLB because of the existence of the draft and the relatively small impact free agents have on team wins."
AUTHORS
Margaret Oppenheimer
Anthony C. Krautmann
PUBLISHED
in Managerial and Decision Economics

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Equity and the performance of major league baseball players: An extension of Lord and Hohenfeld
"The Lord and Hohenfeld assessment of equity effects on the performance of major league baseball players is extended. The sample is expanded to include players in the first three free agent reentry drafts and to include comparisons with teammates and a sample of traded players. Certain equity theory predictions of decrements in performance during a year of undercompensation are not supported. Performance of free agents is also found to be not significantly different from that of either teammates or traded players. Sample differences are identified, and the results are interpreted within an expectancy theory as well as an equity theory framework. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]"
AUTHORS
Arthur G. Jago
Dennis Duchon
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Applied Psychology

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Do Major League Baseball Hitters Engage in Opportunistic Behavior?
"This study focuses on 256 Major League Baseball free agent hitters playing under the 2006–2011 collective bargaining agreement to determine whether players engage in opportunistic behavior in their contract year, i.e., the last year of their current guaranteed contracts. Past studies of professional baseball yield conflicting results depending on the econometric technique applied and choice of performance measure. When testing whether players’ offensive performances increase during their contract year, the omitted variable bias associated with OLS and pooled OLS estimation leads to contrary results compared to fixed effects modeling. Fixed effects regression results suggest players increase their offensive performance subject to controlling for the intention to retire."
AUTHORS
Heather M. O'Neill
Heather M. O’Neill
PUBLISHED
in International Advances in Economic Research

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Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.
"The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school."
AUTHORS
Kiwako Sakamoto
Hiroki Nakata
PUBLISHED
2012 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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Racial Discrimination and Long-term Contracts in Major League Baseball
"The preponderance of studies on salary determination for major league baseball players suggests that significant pay differences do not exist between races. The possibility exists, however, that salary discrimination may be disguised by a racially biased distribution of long-term contracts. This study suggests that nonwhites are not victimized by long-term contract discrimination, which is consistent with the findings of others on pay discrimination in major league baseball."
AUTHOR
Daniel R. Marburger
PUBLISHED
in The Review of Black political economy

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The Economics of Baseball Contraction
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.416760
AUTHOR
Roger G. Noll
PUBLISHED
2003 in SSRN Electronic Journal

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Comments on Baseball Contraction
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1527002503257544
AUTHOR
Clark C. Griffith
PUBLISHED
2003 in Journal of Sports Economics

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Comments on Baseball Contraction
AUTHOR
Clark C. Griffith
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sports Economics

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The Economics of Baseball Contraction
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1527002503257543
AUTHOR
Roger G. Noll
PUBLISHED
2003 in Journal of Sports Economics

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The Economics of Baseball Contraction
AUTHOR
Roger G. Noll
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sports Economics

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Contract Length and the Return to Performance in Major League Baseball
"This article focuses on the relationship between contract length and compensation in Major League Baseball. Because the best players receive both the highest salaries and the longest contracts, wage regressions that omit length can lead to misleading inferences. Although contract duration is positively related with salaries, the authors find evidence of a negative relationship between contract length and a player's return to performance. These results indicate some type of trade-off going on in the negotiation process that has not been identified in the previous literature on compensating wage differentials."
AUTHORS
Margaret Oppenheimer
Anthony C. Krautmann
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sports Economics

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do baseball players perform worse in years where they perceive themselves to be under-compensated?
6 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "Do baseball players seeking a new contract perform better in the final year of their current contract" to consider?