Do cloth masks reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?

Submitted by: JAloni 117

Yes. The vast majority of studies in this list came to this conclusion. Note that some studies in this list give us reason to question their conclusions. This may be because they were published in sources that are not peer-reviewed, are low ranked or not ranked at all, which may indicate limited editorial oversight. Alternatively, it may be because they were criticized in a published article or produced by a financially interested or ideologically motivated source. Carefully review the individual study summaries below for more information.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 10 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 10 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

All labels of Literature Reviews and source quality are assigned by State of K. For academic journals, the label "Q[NUMBER]" is an indication of the quality of the publication. The "NUMBER" refer to the best quartile in which the journal appeared among all the subjects in which the journal was ranked by Scimago Institutions Rankings. For example, if a journal was ranked in the third quartile (Q3) in infectious diseases, but in the second quartile in Ebola studies (Q2), you would see "Q2". The best quartile is "Q1". Publications other than academic journals may be labeled as "Highly Regarded Sources". Government sources receive this label as do NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labeled "highly regarded" or "Q1" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label, but these are rough guides to source quality.

Literature Reviews
Although we recommend you consider all of the studies below, we believe the following study is a literature review, which surveys and evaluates many studies on this question:
Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Are cloth masks as effective as surgical masks at reducing the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
6 studies
Submitted by: MChoi 148

Can you contract COVID-19 twice?
5 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 117

Do adults get sick from COVID-19 more often than children?
10 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?
7 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?
6 studies
Submitted by: KKrista 83

Does an N95 mask reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease better than a surgical mask?
17 studies
Submitted by: ELee 65

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 10
Sorted by publication year
1
Textile Masks and Surface Covers - A 'Universal Droplet Reduction Model' Against Respiratory Pandemics
"The main form of COVID-19 transmission is via oral-respiratory droplet contamination (droplet; very small drop of liquid) produced when individuals talk, sneeze or cough. In hospitals, health-care workers wear facemasks as a minimum medical droplet precaution to protect themselves. Due to the shortage of masks during the pandemic, priority is given to hospitals for their distribution. As a result, the availability/use of medical masks is discouraged for the public. However, given that asymptomatic individuals, not wearing masks within the public, can be highly contagious for COVID-19, prevention of environmental droplet contamination (EnDC) from coughing/sneezing/speech is fundamental to reducing transmission. As an immediate solution to promote public droplet safety, we assessed household textiles to quantify their potential as effective environmental droplet barriers (EDBs). The synchronized implementation of a universal community droplet reduction solution is discussed as a model against COVID-19. Using a bacterial-suspension spray simulation model of droplet ejection (mimicking a sneeze), we quantified the extent by which widely available clothing fabrics reduce the dispersion of droplets onto surfaces within 1.8m, the minimum distance recommended for COVID-19 social distancing. All textiles reduced the number of droplets reaching surfaces, restricting their dispersion to <30cm, when used as single layers. When used as double-layers, textiles were as effective as medical mask/surgical-cloth materials, reducing droplet dispersion to <10cm, and the area of circumferential contamination to ~0.3%. The synchronized implementation of EDBs as a community droplet reduction solution (i.e., face covers/scarfs/masks & surface covers) could reduce EnDC and the risk of transmitting or acquiring infectious respiratory pathogens, including COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Theresa Pizarro
Fabio Cominelli
Abigail Basson
Sanja Ilic
Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
2
Efficacy of Cloth Mask in Reducing COVID-19 Transmission: A Literature Review
"Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health concern. Preventive measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment, must be done. In April 2020, the Center for Disease Control stated cloth face mask was recommended to be used by the public. This systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy of cloth face masks in reducing COVID-19 transmission and to compare the fabric material that suits best for a cloth face mask. Journals included were from databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, search engines, and references from other studies. MeSH keywords, such as "cloth mask efficiency", "surgical mask", "COVID-19" and "filtration performance of common fabrics cloth mask" were used. Studies that used particle microorganisms sized ≤ 0.072 m were included in this study. Studies show that cloth face mask still can filter to a certain extent, however, it is inferior compared to surgical mask. Results show that the efficacy of cloth face mask depends on its fabric, and that polyester provides the best filtration efficiency. However, the pressure drop of polyester is unknown and more studies should be done."
AUTHORS
Andree Kurniawan
Saraswati Anindita Rizki
PUBLISHED
2020 in Kesmas: National Public Health Journal
UNRANKED SOURCE
Literature Review
Yes
Yes
3
Potential utilities of mask-wearing and instant hand hygiene for fighting SARS-CoV-2
"The surge of patients in the pandemic of COVID‐19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 may overwhelm the medical systems of many countries. Mask‐wearing and handwashing can slow the spread of the virus, but currently, masks are in shortage in many countries, and timely handwashing is often impossible. In this study, the efficacy of three types of masks and instant hand wiping was evaluated using the avian influenza virus to mock the coronavirus. Virus quantification was performed using real‐time reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction. Previous studies on mask‐wearing were reviewed. The results showed that instant hand wiping using a wet towel soaked in water containing 1.00% soap powder, 0.05% active chlorine, or 0.25% active chlorine from sodium hypochlorite removed 98.36%, 96.62%, and 99.98% of the virus from hands, respectively. N95 masks, medical masks, and homemade masks made of four‐layer kitchen paper and one‐layer cloth could block 99.98%, 97.14%, and 95.15% of the virus in aerosols. Medical mask‐wearing which was supported by many studies was opposed by other studies possibly due to erroneous judgment. With these data, we propose the approach of mask‐wearing plus instant hand hygiene (MIH) to slow the exponential spread of the virus. This MIH approach has been supported by the experiences of seven countries in fighting against COVID‐19. Collectively, a simple approach to slow the exponential spread of SARS‐CoV‐2 was proposed with the support of experiments, literature review, and control experiences."
AUTHORS
Rui-Mei Yang
Gui-Mei Li
Qing-Xia Ma
Hu Shan
Ji-Ming Chen
Hong-Liang Zhang
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Medical Virology
Q2
FUNDERS
Shandong Key Research and Development Program in China , Shandong Team-training Program for Talents of Superior Disciplines at Colleges in China , National Key R&D Program for the 13th Five-Year Plan of China
Yes
Yes
4
Household materials selection for homemade cloth face coverings and their filtration efficiency enhancement with triboelectric charging
"The COVID-19 pandemic is currently causing a severe disruption and shortage in the global supply chain of necessary personal protective equipment (e.g., N95 respirators). The U.S. CDC has recommended use of household cloth by the general public to make cloth face coverings as a method of source control. We evaluated the filtration properties of natural and synthetic materials using a modified procedure for N95 respirator approval. Common fabrics of cotton, polyester, nylon, and silk had filtration efficiency of 5–25%, polypropylene spunbond had filtration efficiency 6–10%, and paper-based products had filtration efficiency of 10–20%. An advantage of polypropylene spunbond is that it can be simply triboelectrically charged to enhance the filtration efficiency (from 6 to >10%) without any increase in pressure (stable overnight and in humid environments). Using the filtration quality factor, fabric microstructure, and charging ability, we are able to provide an assessment of suggested fabric materials for homemade facial coverings."
AUTHORS
Yi Cui
Haotian Wang
Xuanze Yu
Wang Xiao
Lei Liao
Mervin Zhao et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Nano Letters
High quality source
Yes
Yes
5
The Case for Universal Cloth Mask Adoption & Policies to Increase the Supply of Medical Masks for Health Workers
"We recommend the immediate universal adoption of cloth facemasks, including homemade, and accompanying policies to increase the supply of medical masks for health workers. Universal adoption will likely slow the spread of the COVID-19 virus by reducing transmission from asymptomatic individuals. We provide strongly suggestive evidence from cross-country data that facemask use slows the growth rate of cases and deaths. This complements extant scientific data on mask usage. Our analysis suggests each cloth facemask generates thousands of dollars in value from reduced mortality risk. Each medical mask, when used by a healthcare worker, may generate millions of dollars in value, and policies to encourage greater production prioritized for health workers are urgently needed."
AUTHORS
Sten H. Vermund
Albert Ko
Edward H. Kaplan
Judith Chevalier
Jason Abaluck
Howard Forman et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in SSRN
Preprint
Yes
Yes
6
A cluster randomised trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers.
"Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of cloth masks to medical masks in hospital healthcare workers (HCWs). The null hypothesis is that there is no difference between medical masks and cloth masks.Setting: 14 secondary-level/tertiary-level hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam.Participants: 1607 hospital HCWs aged ≥18 years working full-time in selected high-risk wards.Intervention: Hospital wards were randomised to: medical masks, cloth masks or a control group (usual practice, which included mask wearing). Participants used the mask on every shift for 4 consecutive weeks.Main Outcome Measure: Clinical respiratory illness (CRI), influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection.Results: The rates of all infection outcomes were highest in the cloth mask arm, with the rate of ILI statistically significantly higher in the cloth mask arm (relative risk (RR)=13.00, 95% CI 1.69 to 100.07) compared with the medical mask arm. Cloth masks also had significantly higher rates of ILI compared with the control arm. An analysis by mask use showed ILI (RR=6.64, 95% CI 1.45 to 28.65) and laboratory-confirmed virus (RR=1.72, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.94) were significantly higher in the cloth masks group compared with the medical masks group. Penetration of cloth masks by particles was almost 97% and medical masks 44%.Conclusions: This study is the first RCT of cloth masks, and the results caution against the use of cloth masks. This is an important finding to inform occupational health and safety. Moisture retention, reuse of cloth masks and poor filtration may result in increased risk of infection. Further research is needed to inform the widespread use of cloth masks globally. However, as a precautionary measure, cloth masks should not be recommended for HCWs, particularly in high-risk situations, and guidelines need to be updated.Trial Registration Number: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000887077."
AUTHORS
C Raina MacIntyre
Holly Seale
Quanyi Wang
Dominic E Dwyer
Nguyen Tran Hien
Phan Thi Nga et al
PUBLISHED
2015 in BMJ Open
High quality source
No
No
7
Testing the Efficacy of Homemade Masks: Would They Protect in an Influenza Pandemic?
"Objective: This study examined homemade masks as an alternative to commercial face masks.Methods: Several household materials were evaluated for the capacity to block bacterial and viral aerosols. Twenty-one healthy volunteers made their own face masks from cotton t-shirts; the masks were then tested for fit. The number of microorganisms isolated from coughs of healthy volunteers wearing their homemade mask, a surgical mask, or no mask was compared using several air-sampling techniques.Results: The median-fit factor of the homemade masks was one-half that of the surgical masks. Both masks significantly reduced the number of microorganisms expelled by volunteers, although the surgical mask was 3 times more effective in blocking transmission than the homemade mask.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a homemade mask should only be considered as a last resort to prevent droplet transmission from infected individuals, but it would be better than no protection."
AUTHORS
George Kafatos
Allan Bennett
Anna Davies
Jimmy Walker
Katy-Anne Thompson
Karthika Giri
PUBLISHED
2013 in Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Q2
Yes
Yes
8
Simple Respiratory Protection—Evaluation of the Filtration Performance of Cloth Masks and Common Fabric Materials Against 20–1000 nm Size Particles
"A shortage of disposable filtering facepiece respirators can be expected during a pandemic respiratory infection such as influenza A. Some individuals may want to use common fabric materials for respiratory protection because of shortage or affordability reasons. To address the filtration performance of common fabric materials against nano-size particles including viruses, five major categories of fabric materials including sweatshirts, T-shirts, towels, scarves, and cloth masks were tested for polydisperse and monodisperse aerosols (20-1000 nm) at two different face velocities (5.5 and 16.5 cm s⁻¹) and compared with the penetration levels for N95 respirator filter media. The results showed that cloth masks and other fabric materials tested in the study had 40-90% instantaneous penetration levels against polydisperse NaCl aerosols employed in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health particulate respirator test protocol at 5.5 cm s⁻¹. Similarly, varying levels of penetrations (9-98%) were obtained for different size monodisperse NaCl aerosol particles in the 20-1000 nm range. The penetration levels of these fabric materials against both polydisperse and monodisperse aerosols were much higher than the penetrations for the control N95 respirator filter media. At 16.5 cm s⁻¹ face velocity, monodisperse aerosol penetrations slightly increased, while polydisperse aerosol penetrations showed no significant effect except one fabric mask with an increase. Results obtained in the study show that common fabric materials may provide marginal protection against nanoparticles including those in the size ranges of virus-containing particles in exhaled breath."
PUBLISHED
2010 in The Annals of Occupational Hygiene
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
9
Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.
"Background: Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances.Methodology: We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient.Principal Findings: All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head) was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers).Conclusions/Significance: Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission."
AUTHORS
Rob Sabel
Peter Teunis
Marianne van der Sande
PUBLISHED
2008 in PLoS ONE
High quality source
Yes
Yes
10
AUTHORS
Michael E. Hahn
Virginia M. Dato
David Hostler
PUBLISHED
2006 in Emerging Infectious Diseases
High quality source
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 39
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do cloth masks reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Use of cloth masks in the practice of infection control – evidence and policy gaps
"Cloth masks are commonly used in low and middle income countries. It is generally believed that the primary
purpose of cloth masks is to prevent spread of infections from the wearer. However, historical evidence shows
that they have previously been used to protect health care workers (HCWs) from respiratory infections. Currently
there is a lack of evidence on the efficacy of cloth masks. In this paper, we examined the evidence around the
efficacy of cloth masks and discuss the use of cloth masks as a mode of protection from infections in HCWs.
We also reviewed the various approaches implemented to try and improve the effectiveness of cloth masks; for
example; type of fabric, masks design and face fit.
Our results highlight that there is currently no published research on the efficacy of cloth masks. The few
available studies on cloth masks are either descriptive or in-vitro. Studies show that some fabrics may provide
better protection than others, and that in-vitro filtration capacity improves with increasing fineness of fabric
and number of layers. The presence of moisture, distance traveled by the droplets and the design of mask were
identified as other important factors related to the in-vitro filtration efficacy. Cloth masks may provide some
protection and reduce exposure to respiratory aerosols, but this is unproven in the absence of a RCT. Given
that cloth masks are widely used around the world and are not adequately addressed in infection control
guidelines, research is required to test the clinical efficacy of cloth masks. Other future research questions
should include filtration efficacy, length of use, methods of decontamination and fit testing. The use of cloth
masks should be addressed in policy documents to inform best practice in low and middle income countries."
AUTHORS
Chandini Raina MacIntyre
Abrar Ahmad Chughtai
Holly Seale
PUBLISHED
2013 in International Journal of Infection Control

Add to List
Enteric virus survival during household laundering and impact of disinfection with sodium hypochlorite.
"This study was conducted to determine whether enteric viruses (adenovirus, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus) added to cotton cloth swatches survive the wash cycle, the rinse cycle, and a 28-min permanent press drying cycle as commonly practiced in households in the United States. Detergent with and without bleach (sodium hypochlorite) was added to washing machines containing sterile and virus-inoculated 58-cm2 swatches, 3.2 kg of cotton T-shirts and underwear, and a soiled pillowcase designed to simulate the conditions (pH, organic load, etc.) encountered in soiled laundry. The most important factors for the reduction of virus in laundry were passage through the drying cycle and the addition of sodium hypochlorite. Washing with detergent alone was not found to be effective for the removal or inactivation of enteric viruses, as significant concentrations of virus were found on the swatches (reductions of 92 to 99%). It was also demonstrated that viruses are readily transferred from contaminated cloths to uncontaminated clothes. The use of sodium hypochlorite reduced the number of infectious viruses on the swatches after washing and drying by at least 99.99%. Laundering practices in common use in the United States do not eliminate enteric and respiratory viruses from clothes. The use of bleach can further reduce the numbers of enteric viruses in laundry."
AUTHORS
Denise Kennedy
Charles P Gerba
PUBLISHED
2007 in Applied and Environmental Microbiology

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Literature review
Highly regarded source
Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review.
"Objective: To review systematically the evidence of effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses.

Data Sources: Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without restrictions on language or publication. Data selection Studies of any intervention to prevent the transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). A search of study designs included randomised trials, cohort, case-control, crossover, before and after, and time series studies. After scanning of the titles, abstracts and full text articles as a first filter, a standardised form was used to assess the eligibility of the remainder. Risk of bias of randomised studies was assessed for generation of the allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and follow-up. Non-randomised studies were assessed for the presence of potential confounders and classified as being at low, medium, or high risk of bias.

Data Synthesis: 58 papers of 59 studies were included. The quality of the studies was poor for all four randomised controlled trials and most cluster randomised controlled trials; the observational studies were of mixed quality. Meta-analysis of six case-control studies suggested that physical measures are highly effective in preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome: handwashing more than 10 times daily (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.57; number needed to treat=4, 95% confidence interval 3.65 to 5.52), wearing masks (0.32, 0.25 to 0.40; NNT=6, 4.54 to 8.03), wearing N95 masks (0.09, 0.03 to 0.30; NNT=3, 2.37 to 4.06), wearing gloves (0.43, 0.29 to 0.65; NNT=5, 4.15 to 15.41), wearing gowns (0.23, 0.14 to 0.37; NNT=5, 3.37 to 7.12), and handwashing, masks, gloves, and gowns combined (0.09, 0.02 to 0.35; NNT=3, 2.66 to 4.97). The combination was also effective in interrupting the spread of influenza within households. The highest quality cluster randomised trials suggested that spread of respiratory viruses can be prevented by hygienic measures in younger children and within households. Evidence that the more uncomfortable and expensive N95 masks were superior to simple surgical masks was limited, but they caused skin irritation. The incremental effect of adding virucidals or antiseptics to normal handwashing to reduce respiratory disease remains uncertain. Global measures, such as screening at entry ports, were not properly evaluated. Evidence was limited for social distancing being effective, especially if related to risk of exposure-that is, the higher the risk the longer the distancing period.

Conclusion: Routine long term implementation of some of the measures to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses might be difficult. However, many simple and low cost interventions reduce the transmission of epidemic respiratory viruses. More resources should be invested into studying which physical interventions are the most effective, flexible, and cost effective means of minimising the impact of acute respiratory tract infections."
AUTHORS
Ghada A Bawazeer
Lubna A Al-Ansary
Eliana Ferroni
Liz Dooley
Chris Del Mar
Tom Jefferson et al
PUBLISHED
2009 in BMJ : British Medical Journal

Add to List
Highly regarded source
Compliance with the Use of Medical and Cloth Masks Among Healthcare Workers in Vietnam
FUNDERS
Australian Research Council
"Background: Masks are often worn in healthcare settings to prevent the spread of infection from healthcare workers (HCWs) to patients. Masks are also used to protect the employee from patient-generated infectious organisms but poor compliance can reduce efficacy. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing compliance with the use of medical and cloth masks amongst hospital HCWs.

Methods: HCWs compliance with the use of medical and cloth masks was measured over a 4-week period in a randomized controlled trial in Vietnam. HCWs were instructed to record their daily activities in diary cards. Demographic, clinical, and diary card data were used to determine the predictors of compliance and the relationship of compliance with infection outcomes.

Results: Compliance rates for both medical and cloth masks decreased during the 4 weeks: medical mask use decreased from 77 to 68% (P < 0.001) and cloth masks from 78 to 69% (P < 0.001). The presence of adverse events (adjusted RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.95), and performing aerosol-generating procedures (adjusted RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.73-0.82) were negatively associated with compliance, while contact with febrile respiratory illness patients was positively associated (adjusted RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.20). Being compliant with medical or cloth masks use (average use ≥70% of working time) was not associated with clinical respiratory illness, influenza-like illness, and laboratory-confirmed viral infection.

Conclusion: Understanding the factors that affect compliance is important for the occupational health and safety of HCWs. New strategies and tools should be developed to increase compliance of HCWs. The presence of adverse events such as discomfort and breathing problems may be the main reasons for the low compliance with mask use and further studies should be conducted to improve the design/material of masks to improve comfort for the wearer.

"
AUTHORS
Tham Chi Dung
Abrar Ahmad Chughtai
C. Raina MacIntyre
Bayzidur Rahman
Andrew Hayen
Holly Seale
PUBLISHED
2016 in Annals Of Occupational Hygiene

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Literature review
"Childhood" viruses as a cause of pneumonia in adults.
"Respiratory viruses are a common cause of morbidity in childhood. Except in the child with immunodeficiency, the common respiratory viruses rarely pose a serious threat to life. Because infection with most of these viruses in childhood is nearly universal and usually bestows partial immunity, the "childhood respiratory viruses" are not generally thought of as being a cause of disease in adults. However, adults who work around children, who are frequently exposed to other adults and children with respiratory tract infections (as in a hospital clinic setting), or who are military recruits appear to be at risk of infection or reinfection with one of these agents. In addition, adults with immune deficiency are at a significant risk for serious infection. The risk of serious disease can be reduced by maximizing immunity with (re)immunization and optimal treatment of any underlying disorders. Tobacco smoke and respiratory irritants should be avoided and adults at risk for severe disease should avoid contact with infected children and adults as much as possible. Specific chemotherapy for viral pneumonia, when available, may reduce morbidity in selected individuals."
AUTHORS
B K Rubin
E Yang
PUBLISHED
1995 in Seminars in Respiratory Infections

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Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings
"Facemasks are recommended for diseases transmitted through droplets and respirators for respiratory aerosols, yet recommendations and terminology vary between guidelines. The concepts of droplet and airborne transmission that are entrenched in clinical practice have recently been shown to be more complex than previously thought. Several randomised clinical trials of facemasks have been conducted in community and healthcare settings, using widely varying interventions, including mixed interventions (such as masks and handwashing), and diverse outcomes. Of the nine trials of facemasks identified in community settings, in all but one, facemasks were used for respiratory protection of well people. They found that facemasks and facemasks plus hand hygiene may prevent infection in community settings, subject to early use and compliance. Two trials in healthcare workers favoured respirators for clinical respiratory illness. The use of reusable cloth masks is widespread globally, particularly in Asia, which is an important region for emerging infections, but there is no clinical research to inform their use and most policies offer no guidance on them. Health economic analyses of facemasks are scarce and the few published cost effectiveness models do not use clinical efficacy data. The lack of research on facemasks and respirators is reflected in varied and sometimes conflicting policies and guidelines. Further research should focus on examining the efficacy of facemasks against specific infectious threats such as influenza and tuberculosis, assessing the efficacy of cloth masks, investigating common practices such as reuse of masks, assessing compliance, filling in policy gaps, and obtaining cost effectiveness data using clinical efficacy estimates. "
AUTHORS
A. A. Chughtai
C. R. MacIntyre
PUBLISHED
2015 in BMJ

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Respiratory diseases caused by viruses.
You can view the abstract at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14369733
AUTHOR
J H DINGLE
PUBLISHED
1955 in Military Medicine

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Respiratory Diseases Caused by Viruses
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/116.4.252
AUTHOR
John H. Dingle
PUBLISHED
1955 in Military Medicine

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Human quarantine: Toward reducing infectious pressure on chimpanzees at the Taï Chimpanzee Project, Côte d'Ivoire
FUNDERS
Hans Böckler Stiftung , EAZA Ape Conservation Fund , Zoo Leipzig
"Due to their genetic relatedness, great apes are highly susceptible to common human respiratory pathogens. Although most respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rarely cause severe disease in healthy human adults, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in wild great apes habituated to humans for research or tourism. To prevent pathogen transmission, most great ape projects have established a set of hygiene measures ranging from keeping a specific distance, to the use of surgical masks and establishment of quarantines. This study investigates the incidence of respiratory symptoms and human respiratory viruses in humans at a human-great ape interface, the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire, and consequently, the effectiveness of a 5-day quarantine designed to reduce the risk of potential exposure to human respiratory pathogens. To assess the impact of quarantine as a preventative measure, we monitored the quarantine process and tested 262 throat swabs for respiratory viruses, collected during quarantine over a period of 1 year. Although only 1 subject tested positive for a respiratory virus (HRSV), 17 subjects developed symptoms of infection while in quarantine and were subsequently kept from approaching the chimpanzees, preventing potential exposure in 18 cases. Our results suggest that quarantine-in combination with monitoring for symptoms-is effective in reducing the risk of potential pathogen exposure. This research contributes to our understanding of how endangered great apes can be protected from human-borne infectious disease."
AUTHORS
Sophie Köndgen
Kim Grützmacher
Verena Keil
Roman M. Wittig
Arthur Henlin
Floraine Leguillon et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in American Journal of Primatology

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Protecting healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 infection: practical indications
"The World Health Organization has recently defined the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection a pandemic. The infection, that may cause a potentially very severe respiratory disease, now called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has airborne transmission via droplets. The rate of transmission is quite high, higher than common influenza. Healthcare workers are at high risk of contracting the infection particularly when applying respiratory devices such as oxygen cannulas or noninvasive ventilation. The aim of this article is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the correct use of “respiratory devices” in the COVID-19 emergency and protect healthcare workers from contracting the SARS-CoV-2 infection."
AUTHORS
Stefano Nava
Paolo Palange
Lara Pisani
Valentina Leo
Cecilia Cisternino
Martina Ferioli
PUBLISHED
2020 in European Respiratory Review

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A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection
"AbstractThe emergence of the novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China has caused a worldwide epidemic of respiratory disease (COVID-19). Vaccines and targeted therapeutics for treatment of this disease are currently lacking. Here we report a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 (and SARS-CoV). This cross-neutralizing antibody targets a communal epitope on these viruses and offers potential for prevention and treatment of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Dubravka Drabek
Frank J.M. van Kuppeveld
Berend-Jan Bosch
Wentao Li
Chunyan Wang
Bart L. Haagmans et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Systematic Comparison of Two Animal-to-Human Transmitted Human Coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
"After the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the world in 2003, human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been reported as pathogens that cause severe symptoms in respiratory tract infections. Recently, a new emerged HCoV isolated from the respiratory epithelium of unexplained pneumonia patients in the Wuhan seafood market caused a major disease outbreak and has been named the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus causes acute lung symptoms, leading to a condition that has been named as “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and of SARS-CoV caused widespread fear and concern and has threatened global health security. There are some similarities and differences in the epidemiology and clinical features between these two viruses and diseases that are caused by these viruses. The goal of this work is to systematically review and compare between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in the context of their virus incubation, originations, diagnosis and treatment methods, genomic and proteomic sequences, and pathogenic mechanisms."
AUTHORS
Jiabao Xu
Yunlong Wang
Xiangqian Guo
Wan Zhu
Longxiang Xie
Tieshan Teng et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Viruses

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Potent Antiviral Activities of Type I Interferons to SARS-CoV-2 Infection
"The ongoing historic outbreak of COVID-19 not only constitutes a global public health crisis, but also carries a devastating social and economic impact. The disease is caused by a newly identified coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is an urgent need to identify antivirals to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we report the remarkable sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 to recombinant human interferons α and β (IFNα/β). Treatment with IFN-α at a concentration of 50 international units (IU) per milliliter drastically reduces viral titers by 3.4 log or over 4 log, respectively, in Vero cells. The EC50 of IFN-α and IFN-β treatment is 1.35 IU/ml and 0.76 IU/ml, respectively, in Vero cells. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is more sensitive than many other human pathogenic viruses, including SARS-CoV. Overall, our results demonstrate the potent efficacy of human Type I IFN in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 infection, a finding which could inform future treatment options for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Cheng Huang
Slobodan Paessler
Junki Maruyama
Natalya Bukreyeva
Emily K. Mantlo
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Highly regarded source
COVID-19 Pandemic, Corona Viruses, and Diabetes Mellitus
" The pandemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, is causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Older age and presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity significantly increases the risk for hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. In this Perspective, informed by the studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome, MERS-CoV, and the current literature on SARS-CoV-2, we discuss potential mechanisms by which diabetes modulates the host-viral interactions and host-immune responses. We hope to highlight gaps in knowledge that require further studies pertinent to COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. "
AUTHORS
Ranganath Muniyappa
Sriram Gubbi
PUBLISHED
2020 in American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism

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In search of feasible interventions for the prevention and cure of novel Coronavirus disease 2019
"COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical, phytopharmaceutical or traditional medicine for cure or prevention of COVID-19, although it is urgently needed. Based on the current understanding of the disease molecular mechanisms from the closest relatives of SARS-CoV-2 as well as novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, I attempt to translate this knowledge into identifying some naturally occurring plant based substances and Ayurvedic medicinal herbs that could feasibly be used as preventive as well as treatment options for COVID-19."
AUTHOR
Sunil Verma
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
" The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threating respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true. "
AUTHOR
David A. Schwartz
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
"The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threatening respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true."
AUTHOR
Schwartz DA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Literature review
Clinical, Molecular and Epidemiological Characterization of the SARS-CoV2 Virus and the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Comprehensive Literature Review
"Coronaviruses are an extensive family of viruses that can cause disease in both animals and humans. The current classification of coronaviruses recognizes 39 species in 27 subgenera that belong to the family Coronaviridae. From those, at least seven coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. Four of these viruses can cause common cold-like symptoms, while others that infect animals can evolve and become infectious to humans. Three recent examples of this viral jumps include SARS CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS CoV-2 virus. They are responsible for causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the most recently discovered coronavirus disease during 2019 (COVID-19).COVID-19, a respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. The rapid spread of the disease has taken the scientific and medical community by surprise. Latest figures from 14 April 2020 show more than 2 million people had been infected with the virus, causing more than 120,000 deaths in over 210 countries worldwide. The large amount of information we receive every day concerning this new disease is so abundant and dynamic that medical staff, health authorities, academics and the media are not able to keep up with this new pandemic. In order to offer a clear insight of the extensive literature available, we have conducted a comprehensive literature review of the SARS CoV-2 Virus and the Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19)."
AUTHORS
Esteban Ortiz-Prado
Andrés López-Cortés
Naomi Gadian
Rasa Zalakeviciute
Luis Unigarro
Hugo Sanchez-San Miguel et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma using a Coronavirus Antigen Microarray
"The current practice for diagnosis of COVID-19, based on SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing of pharyngeal or respiratory specimens in a symptomatic patient at high epidemiologic risk, likely underestimates the true prevalence of infection. Serologic methods can more accurately estimate the disease burden by detecting infections missed by the limited testing performed to date. Here, we describe the validation of a coronavirus antigen microarray containing immunologically significant antigens from SARS-CoV-2, in addition to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, common human coronavirus strains, and other common respiratory viruses. A comparison of antibody profiles detected on the array from control sera collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic versus convalescent blood specimens from virologically confirmed COVID-19 cases demonstrates complete discrimination of these two groups. This array can be used as a diagnostic tool, as an epidemiologic tool to more accurately estimate the disease burden of COVID-19, and as a research tool to correlate antibody responses with clinical outcomes."
AUTHORS
Jiin Felgner
Algis Jasinskas
Rie Nakajima
Aarti Jain
Rafael R de Assis
Manuel Battegay et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Mutated COVID-19, May Foretells Mankind in a Great Risk in the Future
"Corona virus disease 2019 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a zoonotic virus causing a variety of severe of respiratory diseases. SARS-CoV-2 is closest to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in structure. The highly prevalence of COVID-19 is due to the lack onset of symptoms. Our study aimed to present an overview of the virus in terms of structure, epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. Conduct the differences of whole genome sequence and some viral proteins to determine the gap and the change alternation of nucleotides and amino acids sequences. We evaluate 11 complete genome sequence of different coronavirus using BAST and MAFFT software. We also selected 7 types of structural proteins. We were conclude that COVID-19 might be created new mutations specifically in glycoproteins hence requires caution and complete preparation by health authorities."
AUTHOR
Ali A. Dawood
PUBLISHED
2020 in New Microbes and New Infections

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COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses
"The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize and comparatively analyze the emergence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection and previous human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We also discuss the approaches for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to cope with this viral outbreak."
AUTHORS
Nadia Bashir
Muhammad Adnan Shereen
Abeer Kazmi
Rabeea Siddique
Suliman Khan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Advanced Research

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Literature review
COVID-19 Drug Discovery Using Intensive Approaches
FUNDERS
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development , Japan Society for the Promotion of Science London , Princess Takamatsu Cancer Research Fund
"Since the infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported in China during December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread on a global scale, causing the World Health Organization (WHO) to issue a warning. While novel vaccines and drugs that target SARS-CoV-2 are under development, this review provides information on therapeutics which are under clinical trials or are proposed to antagonize SARS-CoV-2. Based on the information gained from the responses to other RNA coronaviruses, including the strains that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronaviruses and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), drug repurposing might be a viable strategy. Since several antiviral therapies can inhibit viral replication cycles or relieve symptoms, mechanisms unique to RNA viruses will be important for the clinical development of antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Given that several currently marketed drugs may be efficient therapeutic agents for severe COVID-19 cases, they may be beneficial for future viral pandemics and other infections caused by RNA viruses when standard treatments are unavailable."
AUTHORS
Takaaki Hirotsu
Toru Kitagawa
Andrea Vecchione
Ayumu Asai
Masamitsu Konno
Hidetoshi Eguchi et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Molecular Sciences

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Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). To date, no prophylactic vaccines or approved therapeutic agents are available for preventing and treating this highly transmittable disease. Here we report two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cloned from memory B cells of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, and both mAbs specifically bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, block the binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and effectively neutralize S protein-pseudotyped virus infection. These human mAbs hold the promise for the prevention and treatment of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Lilin Ye
Zhirong Li
Jianfang Tang
Xiangyu Chen
Zhaohui Qian
Yang Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Targeting the Endocytic Pathway and Autophagy Process as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy in COVID-19
"Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped, single-stranded positive genomic RNA viruses and some of them are known to cause severe respiratory diseases in human, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the ongoing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). One key element in viral infection is the process of viral entry into the host cells. In the last two decades, there is increasing understanding on the importance of the endocytic pathway and the autophagy process in viral entry and replication. As a result, the endocytic pathway including endosome and lysosome has become important targets for development of therapeutic strategies in combating diseases caused by CoVs. In this mini-review, we will focus on the importance of the endocytic pathway as well as the autophagy process in viral infection of several pathogenic CoVs inclusive of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and the new CoV named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and discuss the development of therapeutic agents by targeting these processes. Such knowledge will provide important clues for control of the ongoing epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection and treatment of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Han-Ming Shen
Naidi Yang
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Biological Sciences

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Performance of fabrics for home-made masks against spread of respiratory infection through droplets: a quantitative mechanistic study
"Respiratory infections may spread through droplets, airborne particles, and aerosols from infected individuals through coughing, sneezing, and speaking. In the case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), droplet spread can occur from symptomatic as well as pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has therefore recently recommended home-made cloth face coverings for use by the general public in areas of significant community-based transmission. Because medical masks and N95 respirators are in short supply, these are to be reserved for healthcare workers. There is, however, little information on the effectiveness of home-made face coverings in reducing droplet dissemination. Here, we ascertained the performance of ten different fabrics, ranging from cotton to silk, in blocking high velocity droplets, using a 3-layered commercial medical mask as a benchmark material. We also assessed their breathability and ability to soak water. We reason that the materials should be as breathable as possible, without compromising blocking efficiency, to reduce air flow through the sides of the mask since such flow would defeat the purpose of the mask. We found that most home fabrics substantially block droplets, even as a single layer. With two layers, blocking performance can reach that of surgical mask without significantly compromising breathability. Furthermore, we observed that home fabrics are hydrophilic to varying degrees, and hence soak water. In contrast, medical masks are hydrophobic, and tend to repel water. Incoming droplets are thus soaked and 'held back' by home fabrics, which might offer an as of yet untapped and understudied advantage of home-made cloth masks. Overall, our study suggests that most double-layered cloth face coverings may help reduce droplet transmission of respiratory infections."
AUTHORS
M Taher A Saif
Md Abul Bashar Emon
Onur Aydin
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Corona kills corona: convalescent sera option for global war against corona virus disease 2019
"On December 31st, 2019 China reported first case of atypical pneumonia in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province. The causative virus was found to be a beta coronavirus, closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) from 2003 and similar to Sarbeco viruses isolated from bats. It was therefore termed SARS-CoV-2 and the disease was named corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The outbreak in Wuhan expanded quickly and led to the lockdown of Wuhan and other parts of China. While the lockdown, at least temporarily, brought the situation under control in China, but SARS-CoV-2 spread globally causing a pandemic with more than 4 lakh infections and about 19000 fatalities (as of March 25, 2020). Nucleic acid tests that detect the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome were quickly developed and are now widely employed to diagnose COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Babita .
Mahavir Jangra
S. K. Jha
Anita Punia
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health

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THE FACTS ABOUT CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): THE CURRENT SCENARIO AND IMPORTANT LESSONS
"This paper discusses the important review about the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and main facts about it. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristic of Patients With COVID-19:The Wuhan city in China, faced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, with extreme acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being the causative agent. The clinical characteristics and the epidemiological criteria for COVID-19 patients were described. Still, the risk factors for mortality and a clear course of the disease clinically, including viral shedding, have not been identified. Corona Virus and its Types: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family which infect animals as well as humans. The name "coronavirus" was developed in 1968, which stemmed from the morphology similar to "corona" or crown-like. The Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV), Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV). Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub-genera or lineages. COVID-19 Strategic Prevention on different levels: In dealing with COVID-19 challenge, most countries are practicing a mix of inclusion and stopping crowds hoping to delay an increased number of affected individuals and minimizing the need for hospital facilities, as well as securing those at higher risk from being infected, especially old age population and people with long-standing illness"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Global Journal of Public Health Medicine

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The novel coronavirus and its possible treatment by vaccines, therapeutics and drug delivery systems: Current status and future perspectives
"In the mid-end of December 2019, several cases of pneumonia outbreak of unknown cause and etiology were identified in Wuhan City of Hubei province in China, a city with a population of over 11 million.Till date(April 2020) around 1,051,635 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and 56,985 confirmed deaths have been reported according to COVID-19 Situation Report – 75 by WHO. On 7th January 2020, the causative agent was identified and named consequently as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) from throat swab samples. Later, on 12th January 2020, this coronavirus was named as 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by World Health Organization (WHO) and in 11th February 2020,it has been declared the epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) as it is spreading rapidly from its origin in Wuhan City to the rest of the world. In this context, the current review provides a landscape of the novel Corona Virus including its origin, transmission, epidemiology, drugs and vaccines in clinical trials for better understanding to the reads and peoples the status and future perspectives of this pandemic disease"
AUTHORS
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy Somanathan Balasubramanian
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Madhurya Kadavakollu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Effect of gamma sterilization on filtering efficiency of various respiratory face-masks
"Three types of respiratory masks viz N95, non-woven fabric and double layer cotton cloth are being used as an essential inhalation protective measure against COVID-19 by suppressing the entry of respiratory droplets. The filtering efficiency of these masks were tested before and after sterilisation using gamma radiation for the two flow rate conditions corresponding normal breath rate (20lpm) and during sneezing/coughing (90lpm).Sterilisation is carried out using a gamma irradiator containing Co-60 source for the two dose exposures viz. 15kGy and 25kGy. The filtering efficiency for surgical (non-woven fabric) and double layer cotton cloth mask is found to vary from 18% to 22% for the cumulative particle of size ≥ 0.3 micron in both un-irradiated and irradiated condition. The filtration efficiency of N95 mask is found to be reduced to 70% for the most penetrating particle size (0.3 micron) with the flow rate of 20lpm and further reduced for particles in the range of 0.1 and 0.2 micron with flow rate of 90 lpm. The reduction in efficiency after gamma sterilization is associated with reduction of electrostatic interaction of filter medium with particles laden in the air stream. Even with reduced filtering efficiency due to gamma sterilisation, the N95 masks are much superior than the surgical and cloth masks. Instead of disposing N95 mask after single use, they can be reused a few times as N70 mask during this pandemic crisis after sterilisation using gamma radiation."
AUTHORS
B. Venkatraman
V. Subramanian
M. Menaka
Ramani Yuvaraj
D. N. Saneetha
Amit Kumar
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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THE FACTS ABOUT CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): THE CURRENT SCENARIO AND IMPORTANT LESSONS Authors
"This paper discusses the important review about the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and main facts about it. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristic of Patients With COVID-19:The Wuhan city in China, faced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, with extreme acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being the causative agent. The clinical characteristics and the epidemiological criteria for COVID-19 patients were described. Still, the risk factors for mortality and a clear course of the disease clinically, including viral shedding, have not been identified. Corona Virus and its Types: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family which infect animals as well as humans. The name "coronavirus" was developed in 1968, which stemmed from the morphology similar to "corona" or crown-like. The Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV), Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV). Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub-genera or lineages. COVID-19 Strategic Prevention on different levels: In dealing with COVID-19 challenge, most countries are practicing a mix of inclusion and stopping crowds hoping to delay an increased number of affected individuals and minimizing the need for hospital facilities, as well as securing those at higher risk from being infected, especially old age population and people with long-standing illness"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Global Journal of Public Health Medicine

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Novel dangerous emergent coronavirus infection
"The genetic diversity of coronaviruses and their variability are provided by high frequency of recombination of their genomic RNA that assists spontaneous emergence of viruses with new characteristics, which potentially may be agents of novel extremely dangerous and exotic infectious diseases. In December 2019 – January 2020 the novel coronavirus disease, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, subsequently named COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019), was revealed in China. The aim of this work is to analyze the possible mechanism of COVID-19 outbreak and the properties of the possible etiological agent of the disease, SARS-CoV-2 virus. A comparison of zoonotic reservoirs of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, agents of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and SARS-CoV-2, as well as the clinical signs of the diseases, caused by them, are presented. The possible mechanism of epidemic outbreaks is considered. The chronology of COVID-19 outbreak (later escalated into a pandemic) from the beginning of December to the end of March, taxonomical and molecular-biological characteristics of ethiological agent of disease, SARS-CoV-2 virus, and its place on phylogenetic tree of coronaviruses are presented. The main directions of the struggle with the spread of the infection are considered"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Пандемия COVID-19

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Literature review
Epidemiology, Treatment and Microbiological Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2
"Coronaviruses (CoV) belong to Coronaviridiae family that cause deadly diseases in humans or animals. These viruses are enveloped and have single stranded positive-sense large RNA genome. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes deadly pandemic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in humans. It is affecting every aspect of humans’ daily life. The symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, loss of smell, shortness of breath, cough, muscles pain, chest pain, and kidney failure that occurs in severe conditions. The virus has spread throughout the world.  In India, the estimated number of infected people is more than 1.5 lakh with less fatality rate 2.87% on May 27, 2020 as per the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare data. The studies suggest that virus has been considered descended from the previous viruses as severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome virus (MERS) human and bat corona viruses. Currently, vaccine developments are under clinical trials. The management of emerging infectious diseases is a challenging task. It requires much improved microbiological surveillance system to track and predict the virus infections. The proper study and predictions based on screening of various sources of infection may help us to manage the challenging infections in future. The present review summarizes the characteristics of virus, disease symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, treatment and microbiological surveillance of pandemic COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Shailendra Kumar
Manikant Tripathi
PUBLISHED
2020 in Annual Research & Review in Biology

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Literature review
A Preliminary Review on Novel Coronavirus Disease: COVID-19
"
:
Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large group of viruses that can cause health disorders ranging from the usual cold to
most severe diseases like Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
(SARS-CoV). These viruses are generally found among animals. In atypical circumstances, it can propagate to humans from
animals. The spikes are protruding from the membrane of the virus seen like the sun's corona hence the name titled as 'coronavirus.' Coronaviruses (CoV) belong to the species of Corona with its high mutation rate from the Coronaviridae. The objective of this review article was to have the good manners of treatment and preliminary analysis concerning the disease, and
prevention in the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak.

"
AUTHORS
Satish Rapaka
Miranji Katta
Jagadeeshwara Rao Emandi
Ramkumar Adireddi
PUBLISHED
2020 in Coronaviruses

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Passive Immunity for Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Commentary on Therapeutic Aspects Including Convalescent Plasma
"AbstractIn the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the novel virus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is infecting a naïve population. The innate immunity of the infected patient is unable to mount an effective defense, resulting in a severe illness with substantial morbidity and mortality. As most treatment modalities including antivirals and anti-inflammatory agents are mostly ineffective, an immunological approach is needed. The mechanism of innate immunity to this viral illness is not fully understood. Passive immunity becomes an important avenue for the management of these patients. In this article, the immune responses of COVID-19 patients are reviewed. As SARS-CoV-2 has many characteristics in common with two other viruses, SARS-CoV that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the experiences learned from the use of passive immunity in treatment can be applied to COVID-19. The immune response includes the appearance of immunoglobulin M followed by immunoglobulin G and neutralizing antibodies. Convalescent plasma obtained from patients recovered from the illness with high titers of neutralizing antibodies was successful in treating many COVID-19 patients. The factors that determine responses as compared with those seen in SARS and MERS are also reviewed. As there are no approved vaccines against all three viruses, it remains a challenge in the ongoing development for an effective vaccine for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Hau C. Kwaan
Glenn Ramsey
Paul F. Lindholm
PUBLISHED
2020 in Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis

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Literature review
Utility of Cloth Masks in Preventing Respiratory Infections: A Systematic Review
"Background: Using face masks is one of the possible prevention methods against respiratory pathogens. A number of studies and reviews have been performed regarding the use of medical grade masks like surgical masks, N95 respirators etc. However, the use of cloth masks has received little attention.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to analyze the available data regarding the use of cloth masks for the prevention of respiratory infections. We intended to use data from both clinical and non-clinical studies to arrive at our conclusion.

Methods: We used PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar as our source databases. Both clinical and non-clinical studies, which had data regarding the efficacy of cloth masks, were selected. Articles not containing analyzable data including opinion articles, review articles etc. were excluded. After screening the search results, ten studies could be included in our review.

Data relevant to our objective was extracted from each study including clinical efficacy, compliance, filtration efficacy etc. Data from some studies were simplified for the purpose of comparison. Extracted data was summarized and categorized for detailed analysis. Qualitative synthesis of the data was performed. But the heterogeneity between the studies did not allow for a meta-analysis.

Discussion: The review was limited by a lack of sufficient clinical studies. Lack of standardization between studies was another limitation.

Although cloth masks generally perform poorer than the medical grade masks, they may be better than no masks at all. Filtration efficacy varied greatly depending on the material used, with some materials showing a filtration efficacy above 90%. However, leakage could reduce efficacy of masks by about 50%. Standardization of cloth masks and appropriate use is essential for cloth masks to be effective. However, result of a randomized controlled trial suggest that they may be ineffective in the healthcare setting."
AUTHORS
Rama Prosad Goswami
Arnavjyoti Das
Agnibho Mondal
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Effect of gamma sterilization on filtering efficiency of various respiratory face-masks
"Abstract
Three types of respiratory masks viz N95, non-woven fabric and double layer cotton cloth are being used as an essential inhalation protective measure against COVID-19 by suppressing the entry of respiratory droplets. The filtering efficiency of these masks were tested before and after sterilization using gamma radiation for the two flow rate conditions corresponding normal breath rate (20 lpm) and during sneezing/coughing (90 lpm). Sterilization is carried out using a gamma irradiator containing Co-60 source for the two dose exposures viz. 15kGy and 25kGy. The filtering efficiency for surgical (non-woven fabric) and double layer cotton cloth mask is found to vary from 18% to 22% for the cumulative particle of size ≥ 0.3µm in both un-irradiated and irradiated condition.The filtration efficiency of N95 mask is found to be reduced to 70% for the most penetrating particle size (0.3 µm) with the flow rate of 20 lpm and further reduced for particles in the range of 0.1 and 0.2µm with flow rate of 90 lpm. The reduction in efficiency after gamma sterilization is associated with reduction of electrostatic interaction of filter medium with particles laden in the air stream.Even with reduced filtering efficiency due to gamma sterilization, the N95 masks are much superior than the surgical and cloth masks.Instead of disposing N95 mask after single use, they can be reused a few times as N70 mask during this pandemic crisis after sterilization using gamma radiation."
AUTHORS
B. Venkatraman
V. Subramanian
M. Menaka
Ramani Yuvaraj
D.N. Sangeetha
Amit Kumar
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Literature review
Pregnancy and Childbirth in COVID-19 Positive/Probable and Suspected Patients: A Comprehensive Review
"Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic disease caused by novel corona virus called SARS-CoV-2. Over 213 countries as of July 15, 2020, 13.1 million people are affected by this deadly virus. More than 100 million women are pregnant worldwide and potentially all are at risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Coronaviruses cause illness ranging in severity from common cold and severe respiratory illness to death. Frequent manifestations of COVID-19 include fever, cough, myalgia, headache, and diarrhoea. Abnormal test result shows abnormalities on chest radiographic imaging, lymphopenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Physiological changes during pregnancy like altered immunity, reduced functional residual volume, pressure on diaphragm by advanced gravid uterus may lead to adverse respiratory outcome in any viral disease. Maternal mortality was very high in other corona viruses like Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). No evidence of in utero transmission was seen in SARS or MERS. Coronavirus disease 2019 might increase the risk of vertical transmission and pregnancy complications. So, meticulous management is necessary for safe maternal and foetal outcome. Early isolation, aggressive infection control procedures, oxygen therapy are the key component of COVID-19 management. In pregnancy multidisciplinary approach should be taken for general and obstetrical management. At present there is no specific treatment for COVID-19. Based on results from observational studies empiric antibacterial and antiviral drugs are used. Very recently a few controlled trials were published that suggest few treatment options. On the basis of published data and recommendations of international health organizations, the aim of this review is to explore effective treatment and care of the pregnant women throughout pregnancy, during childbirth and afterwards in this novel SARS-CoV-2 crisis.&#x0D;
J Bangladesh Coll Phys Surg 2020; 38(0): 91-108"
AUTHORS
Nazia Ehsan
Mosammat Rashida Begum
Azaz Bin Sharif
Mariya Ehsan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Are cloth masks as effective as surgical masks at reducing the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
6 studies
Submitted by: MChoi 148

Can you contract COVID-19 twice?
5 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 117

Do adults get sick from COVID-19 more often than children?
10 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?
7 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?
6 studies
Submitted by: KKrista 83

Does an N95 mask reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease better than a surgical mask?
17 studies
Submitted by: ELee 65

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