Do driver training programs reduce traffic injuries?

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 13
Sorted by publication year
1
Evaluation of Post-license Advanced Driver Training in Italy
"Post-license advanced driver training addresses different categories of road users such as: novice drivers, professional drivers, company employers and recidivists. These training courses can be carried out on-track or on the road. On-track courses allow participants to gain knowledge on driving physics and experience limits in a safe road environment. On-road courses are more focused on hazard perception and situation awareness. Although extensive research has been done in this field, knowledge of the effects of these courses on road accident risk remains unclear. Previous evaluation of on-track courses did not always show a positive effect on crash rate. For example, post-license training focused on mastery of driving skills can lead to an increase of accident risk, especially on young males. However, research identified several factors that may enhance the effectiveness of driving training. In Europe a new framework for driver education and training has been proposed based on a safe driver hierarchical model (the GADGET model) and the development of a strategy for continuous learning. According to this framework, an evaluation study of on-track post-license advanced driver training has been undertaken in Italy with the main goal of assessing the safety effects of these courses and identifying training aspects to be improved. Besides crash rate, the study aims at assessing also driver behavior, knowledge of risks, self-evaluation and training quality. This paper presents the results of the possible effects of advanced driver training on driving behavior, considering in particular the number and type of violations. For each driver, data on age, gender and driving violations history were extracted from the platform and the national violations database. Three cases were addressed through a before-after analysis with control group. Case 1 considers all drivers who attended an ADT course. Case 2 aimed at understanding the effects of the courses on a specific target group: the traffic violators. Case 3 is similar to Case 2, however the control group was selected in a way that drivers characteristics and the violation rate was similar to the violation rate of the treatment group in the before period. The significance of the differences highlighted was assessed through appropriate statistical tests (i.e. paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The study showed in general a higher propensity to commit traffic violations after attending an ADT course. These results are in contrast to what expected and show the necessity to diversify the training classes according to the different needs of participants."
AUTHORS
Valentino Iurato
Luca Persia
Davide Shingo Usami
PUBLISHED
in Transportation Research Procedia
Q0
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
2
Evaluation of the effect of a novice driver training program on citations and crashes
"Novice driver training programs have been shown to change behaviors known to be linked to increases in crash risks, behaviors such as long glances inside the vehicle and failures to glance towards latent hazards. However, until recently no program had been shown to change the actual frequency of citations and crashes. The one program that has been shown to reduce crashes was delivered once, at the time of licensure, took only 17 minutes in length to complete, and addressed only hazard anticipation. We asked whether a training program that addressed both hazard anticipation and attention maintenance skills, Distractology 101, was roughly twice as long in length, and was delivered once in person and once over the internet would prove at least as effective, not only with drivers who had just received their license, but also drivers who had up to 36 months of experience. The results showed that this training program reduced citations and crashes significantly and similarly across drivers with different driving experience."
AUTHORS
L. Fisher Donald
Siby Samuel
Tracy Zafian
Hugh Thai
Jinzheng Li
Tingru Zhang
PUBLISHED
in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Q0
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
3
Using technology to improve driver training - The Australian experience An adjunct to simulation and com puter-based training
"The experiences faced in the development of a technology to improve driver training and assessment are described. The Brisbane Transport (BT) and State Transit Authority (STA) of New South Wales have independently examined ways to improve driver training as part of their commitment to providing a safe, reliable public transport service. Based on anlysis of the incident history, both authorities considers that drivers trained to drive smoothly could be safer drivers. On-road driver assessment technology has the potential to improve the performance of driver training programmes and reduce the cost of incidents and insurance."
AUTHORS
Leesa Hubbard
Ian Haynes
PUBLISHED
in Public Transport International
Q0
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
4
Novice driver training results and experience with a pc based simulator
"This paper reports on work accomplished subsequent to a pilot study that was presented at the 2001 conference. This current study will eventually involve the training of over 500 novice drivers, and subsequent comparison of real-world accident and violation rates of the simulator trained group with a traditionally trained control group of demographically matched novice drivers. This paper describes the simulator training system and presents some training data for 111 student subjects collected at three sites involving different simulator configurations. These configurations include a desktop system with a single monitor narrow field of view display, a desktop system with wide field of view display and a cab with wide field of view display. The results include performance measures, a measure of simulator sickness and experience involved in implementing driver-training simulators in the high school environment."
AUTHORS
Erik Viirre
Theodore J Rosenthal
Marcia Cook
George Park
R Wade Allen
PUBLISHED
in Proceedings of the Second International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
5
Do driver training programs reduce crashes and traffic violations? - A critical examination of the literature
"This paper reviews the evaluation literature on the effectiveness of classroom and behind-the-wheel driver training. The primary focus is on North America programs as originally taught in high schools but now also by private instructors. Studies from the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Scandinavia are also included. By far the most rigorous study to date was the experimental study in DeKalb, Georgia, U.S.A. This study used a randomized design including a control group and a very large sample size to provide reasonable statistical precision. I reexamine the DeKalb data in detail and conclude that the study did show evidence of small shortterm crash and violation reductions per licensed driver. However, when the accelerated licensure caused by the training is allowed to influence the crash and violation counts, there is evidence of a net increase in crashes. The other studies reviewed present a mixed picture but the better designed quasi-experimental evaluations usually showed no effects on crash rates but almost all suffer from inadequate sample size. I show that as many as 35,000 drivers would be required in a two group design to reliably detect a 10% reduction in crash rates. The advent of GDL laws in North America and other countries has largely remedied the concern over accelerated licensure of high risk teenage drivers by delaying the progress to full licensure. Conventional driver training programs in the U.S. (30 h classroom and 6 h on-the-road) probably reduce per licensed driver crash rates by as little as 5% over the first 6-12 months of driving. The possibility of an effect closer to 0 cannot be dismissed. Some GDLs contain an incentive for applicants to complete an advanced driver training program in return for shortening the provisional period of the GDL. The results of Canadian studies indicate that any effects of the driver training component are not sufficient to offset the increase in accidents due to increased exposure. There is no evidence or reason to believe that merely lengthening the number of hours on the road will increase effectiveness. Programs directed toward attitude change and risk taking better address the underlying cause of the elevated crash risk of young drivers but these behaviors are notoriously resistant to modification in young people. © 2011 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences."
AUTHOR
Raymond C. Peck
PUBLISHED
in IATSS Research
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
6
Novice driver training experience
"This study provided simulator training to over 500 high school students who had not yet received their driver's licenses. The símulator training íncluded an orientatíon to brief the students on standard traffic control devices (signs, signals and markings) and issues ¡nvolved in safe and defensive driving. The students drove simulation scenanos lasting nominally 15 minutes that included hazardous roadway and traffie situations requiring psychomotor and cognitive skills to manage successfully. Students were required to drive at least six of these scenarios, and could 'graduate' on the sixth trial ir they met the performance criteria (no more than one accident and speeding violation, appropriate turn indicator usei. The training was administered in two research laboratorles and three high schools with different simu]ator configurations. Simulator training data show significant driving skill improvement, particular1y in tenns of a speed versus accuracy tradeoff. The drivíng simulator was accepted enthusiasticaHy by high school students and teachers associated with the training programo A second phase of this program involving longitudinal comparison of accident rates between simulator trained novíce drivers and demographicalIy matched novice drivers receiving only traditional training awaits the accumulation of adequate accident data."
AUTHORS
B. L. Aponso
T. J. Rosenthal
G. Park
M. L. Cook
PUBLISHED
in Advances in Transportation Studies
Q3
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
7
The effects of driver training on simulated driving performance
"Given that the beneficial effects of driver training on accident risk may not be an appropriate criterion measure, this study investigates whether professionally trained and experienced drivers exhibit safer driving behaviour in a simulated driving task compared with drivers without professional driver training. A sample of 54 police trained drivers and a sample of 56 non-police trained drivers were required to complete two tasks. Firstly to overtake a slow-moving bus on a hazardous stretch of single-lane road with bends and hills and secondly to follow a lead vehicle travelling at 55 mph in a built-up section with a speed limit of 30 mph. Results showed that in comparison with non-police trained drivers, police drivers were significantly less likely to cross the central division of the road at unsafe locations during the overtaking task and reduced their speed on approach to pedestrians at the roadside in the following task to a greater extent. Police drivers also adopted a more central lane position compared with non-police trained drivers on urban roads and at traffic lights during the following task. Driver group differences in simulated driving performance are discussed with reference to the implications for driver training assessment and skill development. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved."
AUTHORS
David Barker
Lisa Dorn
PUBLISHED
in Accident Analysis and Prevention
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
8
The effectiveness of driver training as a road safety measure: A review of the literature
"There is continuing public and media debate in Australia and overseas about the worth of driver training for car drivers as a means of improving driver behaviour and reducing road crash involvement. In view of this there is a need for road safety professionals , and the public at large, to be well informed about the merits and effectiveness of such training as a crash countermeasure. This paper summarises an extensive review of the international literature on the effectiveness of driver training programs for learner drivers, young/recently licensed drivers and experienced drivers produced for the RACV Public Policy Group in mid 2001. Overall, the paper concludes that driver training could not be considered an effective crash countermeasure. Other approaches such as increased supervision and graduated licensing for novice drivers and traffic law enforcement for all drivers are likely to make greater and more lasting contributions to road safety."
AUTHOR
R. Christie
PUBLISHED
in Alternatives
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
9
European Post Licensing Advanced Driver Training Programs : Why the US Should Pay Attention
"Post license advanced driver training programs in the US and early programs in Europe have often failed to accomplish their stated objectives because, it is suspected, that drivers gain self imagined driving skills that exceed their true skills—leading to increased post training crashes. The consensus from the evaluation of countless advanced driver training programs is that these programs are a detriment to safety, especially for novice, young, male drivers. Some European countries including Sweden, Finland, Austria, Luxembourg, and Norway, have continued to refine these programs, with an entirely new training philosophy emerging around 1990. These 'post-renewal' programs have shown considerable promise, despite various data quality and availability concerns. These programs share in common a focus on teaching drivers about self assessment and anticipation of risk, as opposed to teaching drivers how to master driving at the limits of tire adhesion. The programs focus on factors such as self actualization and driving discipline, rather than low level mastery of skills. Drivers are meant to depart these renewed programs with a more realistic assessment of their driving abilities. These renewed programs require considerable specialized infrastructure including dedicated driver training facilities with driving modules engineered specifically for advanced driver training and highly structured curriculums. They are conspicuously missing from both the US road safety toolbox and academic literature. Given the considerable road safety concerns associated with US novice male drivers in particular, these programs warrant further attention. This paper critically reviews the fundamental principles and empirical evidence surrounding these post licensing advanced driver training programs focused on novice drivers. A clear articulation of differences between the renewed and current US advanced driver training programs is provided. While the individual quantitative evaluations range from marginally to significantly effective in reducing novice driver crash risk, taken collectively the results suggest that these programs deserve serious consideration in the US. A pilot study and evaluation is certainly warranted based on the empirical evidence and alternative teaching pedagogy offered by these programs."
AUTHORS
Cambridge Systematics
Susan Herbel
Robert J Cole
Queensland Transport
Simon Washington
PUBLISHED
in TRB Annual Meeting
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
10
Is there a case for driver training? A review of the efficacy of pre- and post-licence driver training
"Although driver training programs are currently popular, the degree to which they reduce crash involvement remains ambiguous. This paper aims to determine how effective driver training has been in improving young novice drivers' on-road safety and to identify key research limitations. A literature review was undertaken examining evaluations of driver training programs, primarily those published within the past decade (2001-2011). The review utilised peer-reviewed journals, conference proceedings, books, government reports and consultant reports. Both pre- and post-licence training programs were considered. Pre-licence training programs aim to develop the skills that are required to obtain a driver's licence and drive safely, such as basic vehicle control and traffic assessment. Post-licence training programs aim to enhance skills that are considered relevant to crash prevention including skid control, hazard perception and advanced vehicle control skills. The results of the review indicate that some forms of training have been effective for procedural skill acquisition and other programs have been found to improve drivers' hazard perception. Conversely, evidence suggests that traditional driver training programs have not reduced young drivers' crash risk. Caution is urged when interpreting this finding as major methodological flaws were identified in previous evaluation studies, including: no control group; non-random group assignment; failure to control or measure confounding variables; and poor program design. Further, the validity and usefulness of crash rates as an outcome measure is questionable. More robust research should be undertaken to evaluate driver training programs, using more sensitive measures to assess drivers' on-road safety. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Michael G. Lenné
Paul M. Salmon
Natassia Goode
Vanessa Beanland
PUBLISHED
in Safety Science
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
11
Effectiveness and Role of Driver Education and Training in a Graduated Licensing System
"Formal driver education/training programs exist in almost all jurisdictions around the world. They are generally accepted as an efficient and effective means for learning to drive, and, more importantly, for learning to drive safely, although empirical evidence for safety benefits is lacking. Recently, there has been a heightened interest in driver education/training, largely as a result of the adoption of graduated licensing in a few jurisdictions in North America and elsewhere. These jurisdictions have effectively elevated the status of driver education/training by integrating it into the licensing system. Implicitly, this suggests that driver education provides safety benefits. This article provides a contemporary review of the value of driver education/training, particularly in relation to new licensing systems such as graduated ones. The article examines the safety benefits of driver education/training and considers the merits of integrating driver education/training programs with new approaches to the licensing of young drivers."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Susan A Ferguson
Allan F Williams
Herbert M Simpson
Daniel R Mayhew
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Public Health Policy
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
12
The Effect of Cognitive-based Training Interventions on Driver Speed Management Behaviora Driving Simulator Study
"Poor speed management is one of the leading causes of car crashes involving young drivers in Australia. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility of cognitive training methods (Self-explanation, Reflection, and Feedback) in improving young drivers’ speed management behavior. One hundred and two young drivers completed three test drives using a computer-based driving simulator. The results showed that cognitive training methods reduced young drivers’ tendency to exceed the speed limit. These findings have important implications for the development of a new approach to improve young drivers’ speed management behavior."
AUTHORS
Oleksandra Krasnova
Ann Williamson
Brett Molesworth
PUBLISHED
in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
13
Can Younger Drivers Be Trained To Scan for Information That Will Reduce Their Risk in Roadway Traffic Scenarios That Are Hard To Identify As Hazardous?
"Younger drivers (18–21 years) are over-involved in crashes. Research suggests that one of the reasons for this over-involvement is their failure to scan areas of the roadway for information about potential risks in situations that are hazardous, but not obviously so. The primary objective of the present study is to develop and evaluate a training program that addresses this failure. It was hypothesised that PC-based hazard anticipation training would increase the likelihood that younger drivers would scan for potential hazards on the open road. In order to test this hypothesis, 12 trained and 12 untrained drivers' eye movements were measured as they drove a vehicle on local residential, feeder and arterial roads. Overall, the trained drivers were significantly more likely to gaze at areas of the roadway that contained information relevant to the reduction of risks (64.4%) than were the untrained drivers (37.4%). Significant training effects were observed even in situations on the road that were quite different from those shown in training. These findings have clear implications for the type of training of teen drivers that is necessary in order to increase their anticipation of hazards."
AUTHORS
D. L. Fisher
M. Knodler
A. Pollatsek
A. K. Pradhan
PUBLISHED
in Ergonomics
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA







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