Do driver training programs reduce traffic injuries?

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 13
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1
Evaluation of Post-license Advanced Driver Training in Italy
"Post-license advanced driver training addresses different categories of road users such as: novice drivers, professional drivers, company employers and recidivists. These training courses can be carried out on-track or on the road. On-track courses allow participants to gain knowledge on driving physics and experience limits in a safe road environment. On-road courses are more focused on hazard perception and situation awareness. Although extensive research has been done in this field, knowledge of the effects of these courses on road accident risk remains unclear. Previous evaluation of on-track courses did not always show a positive effect on crash rate. For example, post-license training focused on mastery of driving skills can lead to an increase of accident risk, especially on young males. However, research identified several factors that may enhance the effectiveness of driving training. In Europe a new framework for driver education and training has been proposed based on a safe driver hierarchical model (the GADGET model) and the development of a strategy for continuous learning. According to this framework, an evaluation study of on-track post-license advanced driver training has been undertaken in Italy with the main goal of assessing the safety effects of these courses and identifying training aspects to be improved. Besides crash rate, the study aims at assessing also driver behavior, knowledge of risks, self-evaluation and training quality. This paper presents the results of the possible effects of advanced driver training on driving behavior, considering in particular the number and type of violations. For each driver, data on age, gender and driving violations history were extracted from the platform and the national violations database. Three cases were addressed through a before-after analysis with control group. Case 1 considers all drivers who attended an ADT course. Case 2 aimed at understanding the effects of the courses on a specific target group: the traffic violators. Case 3 is similar to Case 2, however the control group was selected in a way that drivers characteristics and the violation rate was similar to the violation rate of the treatment group in the before period. The significance of the differences highlighted was assessed through appropriate statistical tests (i.e. paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The study showed in general a higher propensity to commit traffic violations after attending an ADT course. These results are in contrast to what expected and show the necessity to diversify the training classes according to the different needs of participants."
AUTHORS
Valentino Iurato
Luca Persia
Davide Shingo Usami
PUBLISHED
in Transportation Research Procedia
Q0
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2
Evaluation of the effect of a novice driver training program on citations and crashes
"Novice driver training programs have been shown to change behaviors known to be linked to increases in crash risks, behaviors such as long glances inside the vehicle and failures to glance towards latent hazards. However, until recently no program had been shown to change the actual frequency of citations and crashes. The one program that has been shown to reduce crashes was delivered once, at the time of licensure, took only 17 minutes in length to complete, and addressed only hazard anticipation. We asked whether a training program that addressed both hazard anticipation and attention maintenance skills, Distractology 101, was roughly twice as long in length, and was delivered once in person and once over the internet would prove at least as effective, not only with drivers who had just received their license, but also drivers who had up to 36 months of experience. The results showed that this training program reduced citations and crashes significantly and similarly across drivers with different driving experience."
AUTHORS
L. Fisher Donald
Siby Samuel
Tracy Zafian
Hugh Thai
Jinzheng Li
Tingru Zhang
PUBLISHED
in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Q0
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3
Using technology to improve driver training - The Australian experience An adjunct to simulation and com puter-based training
"The experiences faced in the development of a technology to improve driver training and assessment are described. The Brisbane Transport (BT) and State Transit Authority (STA) of New South Wales have independently examined ways to improve driver training as part of their commitment to providing a safe, reliable public transport service. Based on anlysis of the incident history, both authorities considers that drivers trained to drive smoothly could be safer drivers. On-road driver assessment technology has the potential to improve the performance of driver training programmes and reduce the cost of incidents and insurance."
AUTHORS
Leesa Hubbard
Ian Haynes
PUBLISHED
in Public Transport International
Q0
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4
Novice driver training results and experience with a pc based simulator
"This paper reports on work accomplished subsequent to a pilot study that was presented at the 2001 conference. This current study will eventually involve the training of over 500 novice drivers, and subsequent comparison of real-world accident and violation rates of the simulator trained group with a traditionally trained control group of demographically matched novice drivers. This paper describes the simulator training system and presents some training data for 111 student subjects collected at three sites involving different simulator configurations. These configurations include a desktop system with a single monitor narrow field of view display, a desktop system with wide field of view display and a cab with wide field of view display. The results include performance measures, a measure of simulator sickness and experience involved in implementing driver-training simulators in the high school environment."
AUTHORS
Erik Viirre
Theodore J Rosenthal
Marcia Cook
George Park
R Wade Allen
PUBLISHED
in Proceedings of the Second International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design
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5
Do driver training programs reduce crashes and traffic violations? - A critical examination of the literature
"This paper reviews the evaluation literature on the effectiveness of classroom and behind-the-wheel driver training. The primary focus is on North America programs as originally taught in high schools but now also by private instructors. Studies from the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Scandinavia are also included. By far the most rigorous study to date was the experimental study in DeKalb, Georgia, U.S.A. This study used a randomized design including a control group and a very large sample size to provide reasonable statistical precision. I reexamine the DeKalb data in detail and conclude that the study did show evidence of small shortterm crash and violation reductions per licensed driver. However, when the accelerated licensure caused by the training is allowed to influence the crash and violation counts, there is evidence of a net increase in crashes. The other studies reviewed present a mixed picture but the better designed quasi-experimental evaluations usually showed no effects on crash rates but almost all suffer from inadequate sample size. I show that as many as 35,000 drivers would be required in a two group design to reliably detect a 10% reduction in crash rates. The advent of GDL laws in North America and other countries has largely remedied the concern over accelerated licensure of high risk teenage drivers by delaying the progress to full licensure. Conventional driver training programs in the U.S. (30 h classroom and 6 h on-the-road) probably reduce per licensed driver crash rates by as little as 5% over the first 6-12 months of driving. The possibility of an effect closer to 0 cannot be dismissed. Some GDLs contain an incentive for applicants to complete an advanced driver training program in return for shortening the provisional period of the GDL. The results of Canadian studies indicate that any effects of the driver training component are not sufficient to offset the increase in accidents due to increased exposure. There is no evidence or reason to believe that merely lengthening the number of hours on the road will increase effectiveness. Programs directed toward attitude change and risk taking better address the underlying cause of the elevated crash risk of young drivers but these behaviors are notoriously resistant to modification in young people. © 2011 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences."
AUTHOR
Raymond C. Peck
PUBLISHED
in IATSS Research
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6
Novice driver training experience
"This study provided simulator training to over 500 high school students who had not yet received their driver's licenses. The símulator training íncluded an orientatíon to brief the students on standard traffic control devices (signs, signals and markings) and issues ¡nvolved in safe and defensive driving. The students drove simulation scenanos lasting nominally 15 minutes that included hazardous roadway and traffie situations requiring psychomotor and cognitive skills to manage successfully. Students were required to drive at least six of these scenarios, and could 'graduate' on the sixth trial ir they met the performance criteria (no more than one accident and speeding violation, appropriate turn indicator usei. The training was administered in two research laboratorles and three high schools with different simu]ator configurations. Simulator training data show significant driving skill improvement, particular1y in tenns of a speed versus accuracy tradeoff. The drivíng simulator was accepted enthusiasticaHy by high school students and teachers associated with the training programo A second phase of this program involving longitudinal comparison of accident rates between simulator trained novíce drivers and demographicalIy matched novice drivers receiving only traditional training awaits the accumulation of adequate accident data."
AUTHORS
B. L. Aponso
T. J. Rosenthal
G. Park
M. L. Cook
PUBLISHED
in Advances in Transportation Studies
Q3
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7
The effects of driver training on simulated driving performance
"Given that the beneficial effects of driver training on accident risk may not be an appropriate criterion measure, this study investigates whether professionally trained and experienced drivers exhibit safer driving behaviour in a simulated driving task compared with drivers without professional driver training. A sample of 54 police trained drivers and a sample of 56 non-police trained drivers were required to complete two tasks. Firstly to overtake a slow-moving bus on a hazardous stretch of single-lane road with bends and hills and secondly to follow a lead vehicle travelling at 55 mph in a built-up section with a speed limit of 30 mph. Results showed that in comparison with non-police trained drivers, police drivers were significantly less likely to cross the central division of the road at unsafe locations during the overtaking task and reduced their speed on approach to pedestrians at the roadside in the following task to a greater extent. Police drivers also adopted a more central lane position compared with non-police trained drivers on urban roads and at traffic lights during the following task. Driver group differences in simulated driving performance are discussed with reference to the implications for driver training assessment and skill development. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved."
AUTHORS
David Barker
Lisa Dorn
PUBLISHED
in Accident Analysis and Prevention
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8
The effectiveness of driver training as a road safety measure: A review of the literature
"There is continuing public and media debate in Australia and overseas about the worth of driver training for car drivers as a means of improving driver behaviour and reducing road crash involvement. In view of this there is a need for road safety professionals , and the public at large, to be well informed about the merits and effectiveness of such training as a crash countermeasure. This paper summarises an extensive review of the international literature on the effectiveness of driver training programs for learner drivers, young/recently licensed drivers and experienced drivers produced for the RACV Public Policy Group in mid 2001. Overall, the paper concludes that driver training could not be considered an effective crash countermeasure. Other approaches such as increased supervision and graduated licensing for novice drivers and traffic law enforcement for all drivers are likely to make greater and more lasting contributions to road safety."
AUTHOR
R. Christie
PUBLISHED
in Alternatives
Q2
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9
European Post Licensing Advanced Driver Training Programs : Why the US Should Pay Attention
"Post license advanced driver training programs in the US and early programs in Europe have often failed to accomplish their stated objectives because, it is suspected, that drivers gain self imagined driving skills that exceed their true skills—leading to increased post training crashes. The consensus from the evaluation of countless advanced driver training programs is that these programs are a detriment to safety, especially for novice, young, male drivers. Some European countries including Sweden, Finland, Austria, Luxembourg, and Norway, have continued to refine these programs, with an entirely new training philosophy emerging around 1990. These 'post-renewal' programs have shown considerable promise, despite various data quality and availability concerns. These programs share in common a focus on teaching drivers about self assessment and anticipation of risk, as opposed to teaching drivers how to master driving at the limits of tire adhesion. The programs focus on factors such as self actualization and driving discipline, rather than low level mastery of skills. Drivers are meant to depart these renewed programs with a more realistic assessment of their driving abilities. These renewed programs require considerable specialized infrastructure including dedicated driver training facilities with driving modules engineered specifically for advanced driver training and highly structured curriculums. They are conspicuously missing from both the US road safety toolbox and academic literature. Given the considerable road safety concerns associated with US novice male drivers in particular, these programs warrant further attention. This paper critically reviews the fundamental principles and empirical evidence surrounding these post licensing advanced driver training programs focused on novice drivers. A clear articulation of differences between the renewed and current US advanced driver training programs is provided. While the individual quantitative evaluations range from marginally to significantly effective in reducing novice driver crash risk, taken collectively the results suggest that these programs deserve serious consideration in the US. A pilot study and evaluation is certainly warranted based on the empirical evidence and alternative teaching pedagogy offered by these programs."
AUTHORS
Cambridge Systematics
Susan Herbel
Robert J Cole
Queensland Transport
Simon Washington
PUBLISHED
in TRB Annual Meeting
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10
Is there a case for driver training? A review of the efficacy of pre- and post-licence driver training
"Although driver training programs are currently popular, the degree to which they reduce crash involvement remains ambiguous. This paper aims to determine how effective driver training has been in improving young novice drivers' on-road safety and to identify key research limitations. A literature review was undertaken examining evaluations of driver training programs, primarily those published within the past decade (2001-2011). The review utilised peer-reviewed journals, conference proceedings, books, government reports and consultant reports. Both pre- and post-licence training programs were considered. Pre-licence training programs aim to develop the skills that are required to obtain a driver's licence and drive safely, such as basic vehicle control and traffic assessment. Post-licence training programs aim to enhance skills that are considered relevant to crash prevention including skid control, hazard perception and advanced vehicle control skills. The results of the review indicate that some forms of training have been effective for procedural skill acquisition and other programs have been found to improve drivers' hazard perception. Conversely, evidence suggests that traditional driver training programs have not reduced young drivers' crash risk. Caution is urged when interpreting this finding as major methodological flaws were identified in previous evaluation studies, including: no control group; non-random group assignment; failure to control or measure confounding variables; and poor program design. Further, the validity and usefulness of crash rates as an outcome measure is questionable. More robust research should be undertaken to evaluate driver training programs, using more sensitive measures to assess drivers' on-road safety. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd."
AUTHORS
Michael G. Lenné
Paul M. Salmon
Natassia Goode
Vanessa Beanland
PUBLISHED
in Safety Science
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11
Effectiveness and Role of Driver Education and Training in a Graduated Licensing System
"Formal driver education/training programs exist in almost all jurisdictions around the world. They are generally accepted as an efficient and effective means for learning to drive, and, more importantly, for learning to drive safely, although empirical evidence for safety benefits is lacking. Recently, there has been a heightened interest in driver education/training, largely as a result of the adoption of graduated licensing in a few jurisdictions in North America and elsewhere. These jurisdictions have effectively elevated the status of driver education/training by integrating it into the licensing system. Implicitly, this suggests that driver education provides safety benefits. This article provides a contemporary review of the value of driver education/training, particularly in relation to new licensing systems such as graduated ones. The article examines the safety benefits of driver education/training and considers the merits of integrating driver education/training programs with new approaches to the licensing of young drivers."
AUTHORS
Susan A Ferguson
Allan F Williams
Herbert M Simpson
Daniel R Mayhew
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Public Health Policy
Q2
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12
The Effect of Cognitive-based Training Interventions on Driver Speed Management Behaviora Driving Simulator Study
"Poor speed management is one of the leading causes of car crashes involving young drivers in Australia. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility of cognitive training methods (Self-explanation, Reflection, and Feedback) in improving young drivers’ speed management behavior. One hundred and two young drivers completed three test drives using a computer-based driving simulator. The results showed that cognitive training methods reduced young drivers’ tendency to exceed the speed limit. These findings have important implications for the development of a new approach to improve young drivers’ speed management behavior."
AUTHORS
Oleksandra Krasnova
Ann Williamson
Brett Molesworth
PUBLISHED
in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
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13
Can Younger Drivers Be Trained To Scan for Information That Will Reduce Their Risk in Roadway Traffic Scenarios That Are Hard To Identify As Hazardous?
"Younger drivers (18–21 years) are over-involved in crashes. Research suggests that one of the reasons for this over-involvement is their failure to scan areas of the roadway for information about potential risks in situations that are hazardous, but not obviously so. The primary objective of the present study is to develop and evaluate a training program that addresses this failure. It was hypothesised that PC-based hazard anticipation training would increase the likelihood that younger drivers would scan for potential hazards on the open road. In order to test this hypothesis, 12 trained and 12 untrained drivers' eye movements were measured as they drove a vehicle on local residential, feeder and arterial roads. Overall, the trained drivers were significantly more likely to gaze at areas of the roadway that contained information relevant to the reduction of risks (64.4%) than were the untrained drivers (37.4%). Significant training effects were observed even in situations on the road that were quite different from those shown in training. These findings have clear implications for the type of training of teen drivers that is necessary in order to increase their anticipation of hazards."
AUTHORS
D. L. Fisher
M. Knodler
A. Pollatsek
A. K. Pradhan
PUBLISHED
in Ergonomics
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ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 19
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do driver training programs reduce traffic injuries?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

On the road again after traumatic brain injury: driver safety and behaviour following on-road assessment and rehabilitation
"Purpose: To examine pre- and post-injury self-reported driver behaviour and safety in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who returned to driving after occupational therapy driver assessment and on-road rehabilitation.

Method: A self-report questionnaire, administered at an average of 4.5 years after completing an on-road driver assessment, documenting pre- and post-injury crash rates, near-crashes, frequency of driving, distances driven, driving conditions avoided and navigation skills, was completed by 106 participants, who had either passed the initial driver assessment (pass group n = 74), or required driver rehabilitation, prior to subsequent assessments (rehabilitation group n = 32).

Results: No significant difference was found between pre- and post-injury crash rates. Compared to pre-injury, 36.8% of drivers reported limiting driving time, 40.6% drove more slowly, 41.5% reported greater difficulty with navigating and 20.0% reported more near-crashes. The rehabilitation group (with greater injury severity) was significantly more likely to drive less frequently, shorter distances, avoid: driving with passengers, busy traffic, night and freeway driving than the pass group.

Conclusions: Many drivers with moderate/severe TBI who completed a driver assessment and rehabilitation program at least 3 months post-injury, reported modifying their driving behaviour, and did not report more crashes compared to pre-injury. On-road driver training and training in navigation may be important interventions in driver rehabilitation programs.

Implications For Rehabilitation: Driver assessment and on-road retraining are important aspects of rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Many drivers with moderate/severe TBI, reported modifying their driving behaviour to compensate for ongoing impairment and continued to drive safely in the longer term. Navigational difficulties were commonly experienced following TBI, suggesting that training in navigation may be an important aspect of driver rehabilitation.

"
AUTHORS
Pamela Ross
Jennie L. Ponsford
Gershon Spitz
Marilyn Di Stefano
Judith Charlton
PUBLISHED
2015 in Disability and Rehabilitation

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Literature review
Preventing motor vehicle-occupant and pedestrian injuries in children and adolescents.
"Injuries to young motor vehicle occupants and pedestrians continue to be a leading cause of childhood and adolescent mortality and morbidity. Recent articles relevant to childhood traffic injuries are reviewed here. Topics include infant passengers traveling on lap, effectiveness of seat belts for 4 to 14 year olds, passengers riding in the back of pickup trucks, and characteristics of young drivers. Socioecologic and geographic factors in pedestrian injuries are also discussed, along with parents' expectations of their children's street-crossing skills, the efficacy of a school-based pedestrian training program, and children's abilities to estimate safe intervals between traffic when crossing streets."
AUTHORS
S Shock
M H Wilson
PUBLISHED
1993 in Current Opinion in Pediatrics

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The disabled driver: an unmet challenge.
"A survey was undertaken to determine if driving impairment secondary to a disabling injury is addressed in state licensing laws and training programs. In 35 states drivers submit voluntarily to reevaluation after disabling injuries, but no provision is made for reporting such individuals. Only 15 states authorize physicians to report impaired drivers, and only seven require such reporting. Based on a survey of licensing bureaus in the capital or a major city of every state, clerks (who are likely to be the source of information to injured persons) are generally not aware of reporting requirements and supervisors are only slightly better informed. Of the 100 rehabilitation centers surveyed, only 36 provided on-site training for disabled drivers. Voluntary submission for reevaluation after head injury does not often occur. Despite being asked to do so, none of the 35 head injured patients, followed up to two years post-onset, sought reevaluation, although 21 had resumed regular driving. Two of the 21 were involved in subsequent traffic accidents. Common guidelines need to be established across states to ensure reevaluation of individuals with disabling conditions, delivery of accurate information concerning licensing, and availability of training programs."
AUTHORS
T A Novack
R D Pidikiti
PUBLISHED

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Risk factors for being the at-fault driver: A case–control study
"Objective: It is estimated that road traffic accidents are globally responsible for approximately 1.2 million deaths and 20 to 50 million injuries. About 70% of traffic incidences (TIs) occur in developing countries and among countries with high TI rates; Iran is the first. The aim of this study was to measure the association between being responsible for a traffic accident and some vehicle, human; and environmental related factors in Yasuj, a city with a high incidence of road traffic injuries and deaths in Iran.

Methods: This is a time-, date-, and place-matched case-control study conducted in 2015 using all traffic accidents registered and investigated by police during 2012. In total, 194 drivers were considered the at-fault driver in a traffic accident and the 194 drivers in the same collisions were included in the analysis.

Results: Based on the results from multivariate conditional logistic regression, significant associations between vehicle maneuver (OR

Conclusion: Driver behavior-related interventions including training and law enforcement seem to be more effective in reducing road traffic accidents in Iran.

"
AUTHORS
Seyed Javad Sadat
Zahra Sedaghat
Mohammad Fararouei
Gholamhossein Shahraki
PUBLISHED
2016 in Traffic Injury Prevention

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Contributing factors of crash injury severity at public highway-railroad grade crossings in the U.S.
"Introduction: The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21) includes a separate program that supports safety improvements to reduce the number of fatalities and injuries at public highway-railroad grade crossings (HRGCs). This study identifies the significant factors affecting crash injury severity at public HRGCs in the United States.

Method: Crashes from 2009 through 2013 on 5,528 public HRGCs, extracted from the Federal Railroad Administration database, were used in the analysis. A comprehensive list of risk factors was explored. Examples include predictors related to geographic region of crash, geometry (e.g., area type and pavement marking type), railroad (e.g., warning device type and railroad class), traffic (e.g., train speed and vehicles annual average daily traffic "AADT"), highway user (e.g., driver age and gender), and environment (e.g., lighting and weather conditions). The study used the mixed logit model to better capture the complex highway user behavior at HRGCs.

Results: Female highway users were at higher risk of involvement in injuries and fatalities compared to males. Higher train speeds, very old drivers, open areas, concrete road surface types, and railroad equipment striking highway users before crash, were all found to increase the injury likelihood. On the other hand, young and middle-age drivers, non-passing of standing vehicles at HRGCs, industrial areas, and presence of warning bells were found to reduce injuries and fatalities.

Conclusions: The mixed logit model succeeded in identifying contributing factors of crash severity at public HRGCs and potential countermeasures to reduce both fatalities and injuries are suggested.

Practical Applications: It is important to install warning bells at public HRGCs, especially at those with high number of injury and fatality crashes. Enforcement of traffic nearby HRGCs is necessary to prevent vehicles from overtaking of standing vehicles.

"
AUTHORS
Kirolos Haleem
Albert Gan
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Safety Research

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Visual attention and the transition from novice to advanced driver
"Inexperienced drivers are particularly vulnerable to road traffic accidents, and inattention emerges as a factor in these accidents. What do these drivers attend to and how can their observation skills be developed? When drivers scan the road around them, differences are observed as function of driving experience and training, with experienced drivers increasing their visual scanning on roadways of increasing complexity. Trained police drivers showed this effect of increased scanning even more than experienced drivers. This suggests that the driver's understanding of the task develops with experience, such that roads that demand increased monitoring (e.g. interweaving traffic on a multi-lane highway) receive more extensive scanning than roads that are simpler (e.g. light traffic on a straight rural road). Novice drivers do not show this sensitivity to road complexity, suggesting that they fail to attend to potential dangers involving the behaviour of other road users. Encouragingly, a simple training intervention can increase the visual scanning of novices."
AUTHOR
G. Underwood
PUBLISHED
2007 in Ergonomics

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Use of a Fixed-Base Driving Simulator to Evaluate the Effects of Experience and PC-Based Risk Awareness Training on Drivers' Decisions
"Driver education classes were once seen as a remedy for young drivers' overinvolvement in crashes, but research results from the early 1970s were disappointing. Few changes in the content or methods of instruction occurred until recently, but this could change rapidly. Personal computers (PCs) can now present videos or photorealistic simulations of risky, cognitively demanding traffic scenarios that require quick responses without putting the participant at risk. As such programs proliferate, evaluating their effectiveness poses a major challenge. We report the use of a fixed-base driving simulator to study the effects of both experience on the road and PC-based risk awareness training on younger drivers' part-task simulator driving performance in risky traffic scenarios. We ran three groups of drivers on the simulator: one group first trained on the PC (younger, inexperienced drivers) and two groups who received no PC training (younger, inexperienced and experienced drivers). Overall, the younger, inexperienced drivers who were trained on a PC operated their vehicles in risky scenarios in ways that differed measurably from those of the untrained younger, inexperienced drivers and, more important, in ways that we believe would decrease their exposure to risk considering that, on average, their behavior was more similar to the behavior of the untrained, experienced drivers. More research is needed to demonstrate whether these findings apply on the open road to the larger population of younger drivers. However, at least initially, the research suggests that PC-based risk awareness training programs have the potential to reduce the high crash rate among younger, inexperienced drivers."
AUTHORS
Nancy E. Laurie
Susan A. Duffy
Donald L. Fisher
Robert Glaser
Alexander Pollatsek
John Brock et al
PUBLISHED
2002 in Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

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Motorcycle helmet use and legislation: a systematic review of the literature.
"Although there has been a marked improvement in the safety profiles of cars and in car crash outcomes, there has been a marked worsening in outcomes of motorcycle collisions. Motorcycles account for only 2% of vehicle registrations in the United States, but motorcycle collisions account for 10% of traffic deaths. Further, motorcycle riders are 34 times more likely to die in a traffic collision than automobile drivers. Motorcycle helmet use has been suggested to be an effective way to reduce death and disability after traffic collisions, and enactment of universal helmet laws has been suggested as a means to enforce helmet use. This article presents findings from an analysis of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data and studies in the medical literature on the impact of motorcycle helmet use and helmet legislation on the risk of death or injury in motorcycle accidents. The authors found voluminous support for motorcycle helmet use as a way to prevent severe traumatic brain injury and traffic fatalities."
AUTHORS
Matthew Byrnes
Susan Gerberich
PUBLISHED
2012 in Minnesota Medicine

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The peculiar features of conducting comprehensive expertises of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment
"The present article deals with the problem of forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during motor vehicle accidents. The authors place special emphasis on the fact of a significant increase in the number of road traffic accidents (RTA) with such consequences throughout the world. The modern automobile industry pays much attention to the enhancement of the car safety features by significantly improving the design of passenger compartments. It accounts for a change in the traditional character of the injuries to both the driver and the passengers resulting from motor vehicle accidents. This, in turn, creates difficulties for the forensic medical experts as regards personality identification of the subjects who happened to be inside the car at the moment of the collision especially in the case of unascertainable circumstances of the accident and/or the involvement of several victims. The authors describe peculiarities of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during road traffic accidents including such that result from bringing the driver and the passengers closer to the construction elements of the car (stage I), their direct contact with these elements (stage II), and subsequent displacement (stage III). "
AUTHORS
S. A. Smirenin
V. A. Fetisov
A. A. Gusarov
PUBLISHED
2016 in Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza

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[Automobile Traffic Accident Death Case Analysis of Characteristics of Driver Injury].
"Objectives: To distinguish the injury characteristic changes on the drivers between the injuries of drivers and passengers in traffic accidents, and to provide scientific evidence for confirming the identity of driver in traffic accidents.

Methods: Data of 126 automobile traffic accident death cases in the reclamation areas of Heilongjiang province from 2006-2014 were retrospectively studied. The injury characteristics on the drivers of automobile traffic accident death cases were analyzed and the forensic identification problem in the injuries of drivers and passengers were discussed.

Results: Injuries were frequently observed on driver's neck, chest and abdomen. The characteristic injuries caused by auto parts were also found, which appeared at the places of passenger's head, face and limbs contacted with automobile. Such characteristic injuries were not found at other places.

Conclusions: The location and type of injury are associated with the identity of the deceased.

"
AUTHORS
W L Zhang
Y L Du
PUBLISHED
2017 in Fa yi xue za zhi

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[Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].
"Multiple injuries are frequently observed over the whole body of traffic victims in medico-legal autopsy cases. The assessment of a traffic casualty must include not only the victim but also the vehicle and the circumstances of the accident. Only consideration of all available data permits a better assessment of the mechanism of the crash and causation of injuries. J. M. Thevenet drove the first car carried from France to Japan on February 6, 1898. On October 28th, 1905, the first death by a road traffic accident occurred in Osaka. We performed a retrospective analysis of 279 traffic fatalities examined by medico-legal autopsy in Niigata that occurred over a twenty-two-year period from 1980 to 2001. All persons who had an ICD-10 code were grouped by 153 pedestrians, 43 pedal cyclists, 20 motorcycle riders, 45 car occupants, 11 occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 4 occupants of heavy transport vehicles and 3 others. The average of ISS (injury scale score) is 40.7 in pedestrians, 26.7 in pedal cyclists, 32.4 in motorcycle riders, 25.1 in car occupants, 16.5 in occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 24.0 in heavy transport vehicles and 69.0 in others. Rib fractures were observed in 170 cases (60.9%) and the frequency of other injuries was shown in Table 2. Criminal Punishment for drivers involved in 261 traffic accidents amounted to 35 sentences of imprisonment (13.4%), 46 suspension of execution of sentence (17.6%) and 60 sentence of fine (23.0%). Forty prone pedestrians run over by cars showed high ethanol levels in their blood. It was necessary to identify the driver of a vehicle in twelve car accidents and simulation with a computer is very useful. The average of ISS was 34.0 in ten drivers and 22.0 in fourteen fellow passengers. Four sudden natural deaths of drivers at the wheel, eight cases of death immediately after and from one day to five months after road traffic accidents, nine suicides and one intentional accident are excluded from traffic death. Both a medico legal and scientific compensation approach to automobile accident is now necessary."
AUTHOR
Haruo Yamanouchi
PUBLISHED
2002 in Nihon hoigaku zasshi = The Japanese journal of legal medicine

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Risk factors for the severity of injury incurred in crashes involving on-duty police cars
"Objective: This article explores the risk factors associated with police cars on routine patrol and/or on an emergency run and their effects on the severity of injuries in crashes.

Methods: The binary probit model is used to examine the effects of important factors on the risk of injuries sustained in crashes involving on-duty police cars.

Results: Several factors significantly increase the probability of crashes that cause severe injuries. Among those causes are police officers who drive at excessive speeds, traffic violations during emergency responses or pursuits, and driving during the evening (6 to 12 p.m.) or in rainy weather. Findings also indicate some potential issues associated with an increase in the probability of crashes that cause injuries. Younger police drivers were found to be more likely to be involved in crashes causing injuries than middle-aged drivers were. Distracted driving by on-duty police officers as well as civilian drivers who did not pull over to let a police car pass in emergency situations also caused serious crashes.

Conclusions: Police cars are exempted from certain traffic laws under emergency circumstances. However, to reduce the probability of being involved in a crash resulting in severe injuries, officers are still obligated to drive safely and follow safety procedures when responding to emergencies or pursuing a car. Enhancement of training techniques for emergency situations or driving in pursuit of an offender and following the safety procedures are essential for safety in driving during an emergency run by police.

"
AUTHOR
Hsing-Chung Chu
PUBLISHED
2015 in Traffic Injury Prevention

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Literature review
[The mechanism of injuring of front-seat passengers in head-on motor vehicle collisions: forensic issues].
"Forensic pathologists sometimes need to determine seating positions of automobile occupants after road traffic accidents as accurately as possible. That could be of essential significance particularly in regard to the question of guilt both in the criminal and civil law. So far, medical surveys have implied the specific injury which would undoubtedly point at the allocation of the seating positions of fatally injured car occupant. Some of the injuries could occur by both direct and indirect force action. Same type of injury of the specific body region in both drivers and front seat passengers could occur by different mechanism and in different phases of the accident. Sometimes neither the order of injury occurrence remains unclear, nor whether some of the injuries are post-mortal. What makes it even harder is the fact that same body regions, i.e. head and thorax, are most affected in both drivers and front seat passengers, and that these injuries are often fatal. Even if the victim survives the accident for some time and later dies in hospital, the possibility of accident reconstruction and determination of car occupants seating position at the moment of accident declines with the time length of survival period. Examining the victims' clothes, searching for biological traces, technical expert inspection of the vehicle, traffic expert analysis of the site, enables adequate reconstruction of the traffic accident. All this implies that in such cases the knowledge of underlying mechanism of car occupants' injury is insufficient, and that a close cooperation between forensic pathologists and the team of other forensic technical experts is necessary."
AUTHORS
Veljko Strajina
Vladimir Zivković
Slobodan Nikolić
PUBLISHED
2013 in Srpski Arhiv Za Celokupno Lekarstvo

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Compliance With Traffic Laws by Traffic Police Officers, Non-Traffic Police Officers, and Civilian Drivers
"Objective: The policy of a public organization, such as police, may shape the norms and the behavior of the citizens. In line with this, police officers are expected by the public to comply with traffic laws and serve as an example for the citizenry. This study used on-site observations of civilian and police driver, comparing police officers' compliance with traffic laws to that of civilians.

Methods: We compared driver compliance with traffic laws for drivers in 3 groups of vehicles: traffic police cars, non-traffic police cars, and civilian cars. Four hundred sixty-six vehicles were observed and compared by vehicle type and whether a uniform was worn by the driver. We observed safety belt usage, signaling before turning, cellular phone usage, and giving way to traffic (measured by merging time).

Results: We found evidence that generally drivers in police cars use seat belts while driving more that drivers in civilian cars do. In particular, more traffic police car drivers used seat belts than non-traffic police car drivers do. In addition, drivers in civilian cars and non-traffic police cars waited longer periods of time before merging right into traffic compared to traffic police car drivers.

Conclusions: Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public.

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AUTHORS
Amotz Perlman
Tova Rosenbloom
Avihu Pereg
PUBLISHED
2014 in Traffic Injury Prevention

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Predicting injury risk with "New Car Assessment Program" crashworthiness ratings.
"The relationship between crashworthiness ratings produced by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and the risk of incapacitating injury or death for drivers who are involved in single-car, fixed-object, frontal collisions was examined. The results are based on 6,405 such crashes from the Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident file of the Texas Department of Highways and Public Transportation. The risk of injury was modeled using logistic regression taking into account the NCAP test results for each individual model of car and the intervening effects of car mass, age of the driver, restraint use, and crash severity. Three measures of anthropometric dummy response, Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Chest Deceleration (CD), and femur load were used to indicate vehicle crash test performance. The results show that there is a significant relationship between the results of the NCAP tests and the risk of serious injury or death in actual single-car frontal accidents. In terms of overall injury, chest deceleration was a better predictor than the Head Injury Criterion. For restrained drivers, crash severity, driver age, and chest deceleration were significant parameters for predicting risk of serious injury or death; the risk of injury decreased as chest deceleration decreased. The results were similar for unrestrained drivers although vehicle mass and femur load were also significant factors in the model. The risk of overall injury decreased as chest deceleration decreased but appeared to decrease as femur load increased."
AUTHORS
R A Whitfield
I S Jones
PUBLISHED
1988 in Accident; analysis and prevention

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PREVENTION OF FACIAL TRAUMA IN AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS.
"Automobiles do not protect passengers from the forces generated in traffic accidents. Although some compensatory protection can be provided by restraining devices, seat belts are not enough and must be supplemented by upper torso restraints. Cars should be designed with a view to better protection of passengers against injury from striking against hard surfaces or protuberances."
AUTHOR
A NAHUM
PUBLISHED
1963 in California medicine

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Intelligent Decision Support System for Automobiles
"Intelligent decision support system is a system that mimics human like thinking. There are situation where every time a presence of human is contradictory so in order to reduce the human MANPOWER we present the intelligent decision support system that gives the impression of the human-like thinking replacing a human in the spheres that is required. Intelligent decision support system can be incorporated in automobiles also which is one of the sphere among the millions .In an automobile the Intelligent decision support system can instigate a change. Instead of having a human driven vehicle we have proposed a method to have an autonomous driven vehicle. This autonomous driven vehicle is otherwise iterated as an Intelligent driver model where an Intelligent decision made is credited to the Intelligent driver model .Intelligent decision support system in automobiles can confide in with the human the confidence of automobile should drive with crash-less independent driving style. This would increase the confidence with the decline in the careless human-driven vehicle. Intelligent driven vehicles based on intelligent decision support system can enable a car itself to find a slot, a vacant slot in a car-parking area and could predict the congestion in a traffic-led area and to have a crash-less driven vehicle. Intelligent decision support system in an automobile can take the aid of data mining, deep reinforcement learning and Genetic algorithm."
PUBLISHED
2019 in International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering

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Implementing Surrogate Safety Measures in Driving Simulator and Evaluating the Safety Effects of Simulator-Based Training on Risky Driving Behaviors
FUNDERS
Seoul National University
"Human errors cause approximately 90 percent of traffic accidents, and drivers with risky driving behaviors are involved in about 52 percent of severe traffic crashes. Driver education using driving simulators has been used extensively to obtain a quantitative evaluation of driving behaviors without causing drivers to be at risk for physical injuries. However, since many driver education programs that use simulators have limits on realistic interactions with surrounding vehicles, they are limited in reducing risky driving behaviors associated with surrounding vehicles. This study introduces surrogate safety measures (SSMs) into simulator-based training in order to evaluate the potential for crashes and to reduce risky driving behaviors in driving situations that include surrounding vehicles. A preliminary experiment was conducted with 31 drivers to analyze whether the SSMs could identify risky driving behaviors. The results showed that 15 SSMs were statistically significant measures to capture risky driving behaviors. This study used simulator-based training with 21 novice drivers, 16 elderly drivers, and 21 commercial drivers to determine whether a simulator-based training program using the SSMs is effective in reducing risky driving behaviors. The risky driving behaviors by novice drivers were reduced significantly with the exception of erratic lane-changing. In the case of elderly drivers, speeding was the only risky driving behavior that was reduced; the others were not reduced because of their difficulty with manipulating the pedals in the driving simulator and their defensive driving. Risky driving behaviors by commercial drivers were reduced overall. The results of this study indicated that the SSMs can be used to enhance drivers’ safety, to evaluate the safety of traffic management strategies as well as to reduce risky driving behaviors in simulator-based training."
AUTHORS
Chungwon Lee
Jooneui Hong
Do-Gyeong Kim
Eunhan Ka
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Advanced Transportation

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