Do formula-fed infants sleep more than breastfed infants?

Submitted by: EZabel 110

Yes. The vast majority of studies in this list came to this conclusion.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 14 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 14 studies examining this question
Showing up to 10 at a time

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

All labels of Literature Reviews and source quality are assigned by State of K. For academic journals, the label "Q[NUMBER]" is an indication of the quality of the publication. The "NUMBER" refer to the best quartile in which the journal appeared among all the subjects in which the journal was ranked by Scimago Institutions Rankings. For example, if a journal was ranked in the third quartile (Q3) in infectious diseases, but in the second quartile in Ebola studies (Q2), you would see "Q2". The best quartile is "Q1". Publications other than academic journals may be labeled as "Highly Regarded Sources". Government sources receive this label as do NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labeled "highly regarded" or "Q1" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label, but these are rough guides to source quality.

Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Are presidential democracies more prone to becoming dictatorships than parliamentary democracies?
24 studies
Submitted by: SMendoza 75

Do gun buyback programs reduce gun violence?
12 studies
Submitted by: XJackson 78

Do obese children become obese adults?
5 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Do police body cameras reduce use of force by the police?
22 studies
Submitted by: TMifune 55

Do undocumented immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?
10 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

How can I increase breast milk expression?
12 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "do formula-fed infants sleep more than breastfed infants" to consider?

SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 14
Sorted by publication year
1
Exclusive breastfeeding at three months and infant sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months.
"This study assessed infant sleep-wake behavior at two weeks, three and six months as function of feeding method at three months (exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed, and exclusively formula fed infants). Mothers of 163 first-born, full-term, normal birth weight, healthy infants completed socio-demographic, depression, anxiety, and infant sleep-wake behavior measures. No effects were found for sleep arrangements, depression or anxiety, on feeding methods and sleep-wake behavior at three months. At two weeks exclusively breastfed infants at three months spent more hours sleeping and less hours awake during the 24-h period than partially breastfed infants. At three months, exclusively breastfed infants had a shorter of the longest sleep period at night than exclusively formula fed infants. At six months, exclusively breastfed infants at three months spent more hours awake at night than partially breastfed infants, awake more at night than exclusively formula fed infants, and had a shorter sleep period at night than partially breastfed and exclusively formula fed infants. This study showed differences in sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months, when exclusively breastfed infants are compared with partially breastfed and exclusively formula fed infants at three months, while no effects were found for sleep arrangements, depression or anxiety.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved."
AUTHORS
Tiffany Field
Tiago Miguel Pinto
Cláudia Castro Dias
Bárbara Figueiredo
PUBLISHED
2017 in Infant behavior & development
UNRANKED SOURCE
FUNDERS
Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology , European Regional Development Fund , Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science , FEDER Funds through the Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade − COMPETE , National Funds through FCT − Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia
Yes
Yes
2
Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight.
"Infant sleep is a common concern for new parents. Although many expect a newborn infant to wake frequently, encouraging a baby to sleep through the night by a few months of age is seen as both a developmental aim and a parenting success. Many new mothers believe that their infants' diet is related to their sleep; formula milk or increased levels of solid food are often given in an attempt to promote sleep. However, the impact of these in later infancy is not understood. In the current study 715 mothers with an infant 6-12 months of age reported their infants' typical night wakings and night feeds alongside any breastfeeding and frequency of solid meals. Of infants in this age range, 78.6% still regularly woke at least once a night, with 61.4% receiving one or more milk feeds. Both night wakings and night feeds decreased with age. No difference in night wakings or night feeds was found between mothers who were currently breastfeeding or formula feeding. However, infants who received more milk or solid feeds during the day were less likely to feed at night but not less likely to wake. The findings have important implications for health professionals who support new mothers with infant sleep and diet in the first year. Increasing infant calories during the day may therefore reduce the likelihood of night feeding but will not reduce the need for parents to attend to the infant in the night. Breastfeeding has no impact on infant sleep in the second 6 months postpartum."
AUTHORS
Victoria Harries
Amy Brown
PUBLISHED
2015 in Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
UNRANKED SOURCE
No
No
3
Breastfeeding and infant sleep patterns: an Australian population study.
"Objective: Our purpose was to determine if babies breastfed at 6 months of age were more likely to wake at night and less likely to sleep alone than formula-fed babies.Patients And Methods: Data were drawn from the first wave of The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, nationally representative study of the growth and development of Australia's children. The 4507 participants met the criteria for this study. The measures examined infant sleep problems as the outcome and breastfeeding at 6 months of age as the exposure in addition to the demographic data, maternal mental health, infant birthweight and gestational age at delivery.Results: After adjustment for covariates, reports by mothers of infants that breastfed at 6 months of age suggested infants were 66% more likely to wake during the night and 72% more likely to report difficulty sleeping alone. However, breastfeeding had a strongly protective effect on wheezing, coughing, snoring and breathing problems, and it was not associated with restless sleep or problems getting to sleep for the infant.Conclusions: Breastfeeding was found to be associated with increased night waking and this is consistent with other studies. There are biological reasons why this might be required to ensure breastfeeding continues to 6 months and beyond. The current low rates of sustained breastfeeding in many Western countries needs to be reconsidered in relation to parental and public health practices promoting prolonged nocturnal infant sleep patterns."
AUTHORS
Fm Amirul Islam
Katherine Scalzo
Kerri McEgan
Andrew J Lewis
Megan Galbally
PUBLISHED
2013 in Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Q2
Yes
Yes
4
Effect of current breastfeeding on sleep patterns in infants from Asia-Pacific region.
"Aim:   The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and sleep patterns in infants from Asia-Pacific region.Methods:   Parents of 10 321 infants (0-11 months) from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam completed an expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire.Results:   Overall, 4714 (45.72%) were currently being breastfed; 61.3% of those between 0 and 5 months and 36.6% of those between 6 and 11 months. Currently breastfed infants, when compared with not currently breastfed infants, had a significant increase in the number and duration of night-time wakings and less consolidated sleep. Interestingly, currently breastfed infants less than 6 months also showed longer duration of daytime sleep and obtained more sleep overall. Of note, of those who were currently breastfed, those infants who were nursed back to sleep during night, woke up more often at night (2.41 vs. 1.67 times) and had shorter continuous night-time sleep period (5.58 vs. 6.88 h; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding infants in the number of night wakings, when the nursing to sleep variable was controlled for in the analysis of variance.Conclusion:   Breastfeeding is associated with reduced sleep consolidation in infants. This relationship, however, may be moderated by parenting practices of nursing to sleep and back to sleep during the night. Thus, parents of infants with night waking problems should be encouraged to limit the association between nursing and falling to sleep, to improve sleep while maintaining breastfeeding."
AUTHORS
Jodi A Mindell
Avi Sadeh
Duy Houng T Huynh
Nichara Ruangdaraganon
Rini Sekartini
Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy
PUBLISHED
2012 in Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Q2
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
5
Breastfeeding may improve nocturnal sleep and reduce infantile colic: potential role of breast milk melatonin.
"Unlabelled: Melatonin is secreted during the night in adults but not in infants. It has a hypnotic effect as well as a relaxing effect on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. It is plausible that breast milk, which consists of melatonin, may have an effect on improving infants' sleep and reducing infantile colic. Our first goal was to assess the differences in the prevalence and severity of infantile colic and nocturnal sleep between breast-fed infants and supplement-fed infants. The second was to characterize the profile of melatonin secretion in human breast milk compared to artificial formulas. Ninety-four mothers of healthy 2 to 4-month-old infants filled a questionnaire regarding irritability/potential infantile colic and sleep characteristics. For the second part, we measured melatonin levels in breast milk of five women every 2 h during 24 h and in three samples of commonly used artificial formulas. Exclusively breast-fed infants had a significantly lower incidence of colic attacks (p = 0.04), lower severity of irritability attacks (p = 0.03), and a trend for longer nocturnal sleep duration (p = 0.06). Melatonin in human milk showed a clear circadian curve and was unmeasurable in all artificial milks.Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding is associated with reduced irritability/colic and a tendency toward longer nocturnal sleep. Breast milk (nocturnal) consists of substantial melatonin levels, whereas artificial formulas do not. We speculate that melatonin which is supplied to the infant via breast milk plays a role in improving sleep and reducing colic in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed ones."
AUTHORS
Giora Pillar
Naim Shehadeh
Amir Hadash
Anat Cohen Engler
PUBLISHED
2012 in European Journal of Pediatrics
High quality source
No
No
6
Night waking in Thai infants at 3 months of age: association between parental practices and infant sleep.
"Background And Purpose: Night waking is common among infants and can create sleep deficit in both parents and infants. Sleep practices are influenced by cultural variations which may affect the prevalence and associated factors of frequent night waking. Our objective was to determine whether differences in parental practices related to infant sleep are associated with frequent night waking in Thai infants.Methods: A cross-sectional survey based on interviews with parents of infants aged three months, birth weight greater than 2500 g, conducted under the Prospective Cohort study of Thai Children (PCTC).Results: Of the total sample, 82.9% (3172 of 3826) of parents provided completed night waking information. The mean number (+/-standard deviation [SD]) of awakenings per night was 2.7+/-1.1, 47.3% awoke 1-2 times per night, and 46.9% awoke 3-4 times per night. The group of frequent night wakers (more than 14 night wakings per week, n=1634) was compared with the group of infrequent night wakers (n=1538). Significant and independent associations were present between frequent night waking and male gender (odds ratio [OR] of 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8), more than three naps per day (OR, 1.3; CI, 1.1-1.5), use of a swinging or rocking cradle (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.2-1.98), falling asleep while feeding (OR, 1.3; CI, 1.1-1.5), and breastfeeding only (OR, 1.2; CI, 1.1-1.4). No significant association was noted between frequent night waking and parental age, education, occupation, household income, type of parental response to infant's nighttime crying, or type of diaper.Conclusion: An association with frequent night waking was demonstrated with various factors of parental practice related to infant sleep, such as number of naps, use of a swinging or rocking cradle, breastfeeding only, and falling asleep while feeding. Further documentation of these associations may be clinically important. Implementing preventive interventions may be able to reduce frequent night waking in early infancy."
AUTHORS
Chanpen Choprapawan
Arinda Ma-a-lee
Surachai Kuasirikul
Punnee Vasiknanonte
Ladda Mo-suwan
Wanaporn Anuntaseree
PUBLISHED
2008 in Sleep Medicine
High quality source
Yes
Yes
7
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with night waking in 9-month-old infants.
"This study examined relations between infant night waking and both daytime behaviors reflective of poor behavioral and emotional regulation (intrinsic factors) and parent behaviors that may contribute to infant night waking (extrinsic factors) in 41 infants. Mothers completed questionnaires and an infant sleep and crying diary. More time awake at night was related to separation distress, frequent daytime crying, dysregulation, co-sleeping with parents, breast feeding, and being put to bed asleep. More frequent waking was related to separation distress, frequent daytime crying, co-sleeping, and breast feeding. The combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors predicted night waking better than behaviors from one category alone. Implications for parenting are discussed."
AUTHORS
Katherine Hildebrandt Karraker
Cheryl W DeLeon
PUBLISHED
2007 in Infant behavior & development
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
8
Breastfeeding, bed-sharing, and infant sleep.
"Background: Expectations for infant sleep development and for the appropriate degree of parental proximity for infant sleep are culturally weighted and historically shifting aspects of parenting behavior, and are known to affect breastfeeding prevalence and duration. This paper examined how new parents managed night-time feeding in the first 4 months, with a particular focus on the relationship between breastfeeding, infant sleep location, and sleep bout duration.Methods: Sleep logs and semistructured interviews were used with a sample of 253 families in North Tees, United Kingdom, to explore how parents responded to their infant's sleep patterns, how breastfeeding parents managed night-time feeding, and whether bed-sharing was a common strategy.Results: A clear relationship between breastfeeding and parent-infant bed-sharing was demonstrated. Some evidence indicated that bed-sharing may promote breastfeeding.Conclusions: An understanding of the role of infant feeding practice on infant sleep and parental caregiving at night is a crucial element in breastfeeding promotion and enhancement of infant health. Health professionals should discuss safe bed-sharing practices with all parents."
AUTHOR
Helen L Ball
PUBLISHED
2003 in Birth (Berkeley, Calif.)
UNRANKED SOURCE
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
9
Differential effects of breast- and formula-feeding on preterm infants' sleep-wake patterns.
"Objective: To compare sleep-wake patterns of breastfed and formula-fed preterm infants.Design: Data were taken from an exploratory study of infant biorhythm maturation. Parents completed a 24-hour diary of infant Sleep, Awake, and Cry states and feedings, recorded at 30-minute intervals. Infant health data were collected from medical records and parents' reports.Setting: Infants were studied in the home after discharge from a neonatal intensive-care unit.Participants: The convenience sample included 12 breastfed and 25 formula-fed preterm infants (gestational age, 26-33 weeks; corrected postnatal age, 4-6 weeks). Groups were comparable in terms of gestational age, postnatal age, Apgar scores, maternal age, and home environment.Main Outcome Measure: The 24-hour recording period was divided into day (0600-1800) and night (1800-0600). Study variables were Day, Night, and 24-hour Sleep, Awake, and Cry.Results: Breastfed preterm infants exhibited more Day Cry and 24-hour Cry than did formula-fed infants. Infants demonstrated a diurnal pattern in Cry, Awake, and Sleep. Breastfed preterm infants cried approximately 1 hour per day more than formula-fed infants.Conclusion: Preterm breastfed infants experienced more cry than did formula-fed infants. The relationship between feeding method and sleep-wake pattern has implications for supporting lactation as well as for research design."
AUTHOR
K A Thomas
PUBLISHED
2000 in Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
10
Crying, fussing and colic behaviour in breast- and bottle-fed infants.
"Persistent infant crying and "colic" have been linked in some studies to feeding, but this association has not been tested in a planned longitudinal study comparing breast- with formula fed babies. We used validated maternal diaries of infant behaviours, kept for three days at both two and six weeks of infant age, in a comparative study of 97 breast- or formula fed babies. The total duration of overall crying rose significantly between 2 and 6 weeks in breast-fed infants and fell in those fed formula. At 6 weeks, breast-fed infants cried an average of almost 40 minutes more per day than formula fed infants; and 31% cried for more than three hours per day, compared with only 12% of the formula fed group. At six weeks, breast-fed infants also slept almost 80 minutes less per day than the formula fed babies. While six weeks is the established peak age for infant crying, those fed formula peaked much earlier and at 2 weeks intense crying/colic behaviour occurred in 43% of formula fed babies and just 16% of those fed by breast. These findings link the timing of the infant crying peak to the mode of feeding. Our data indicate that any regimen designed to reduce crying should commence in the neonatal period in formula fed infants."
AUTHORS
I St James-Roberts
A Lucas
PUBLISHED
1998 in Early Human Development
High quality source
Yes
Yes
11
Disturbed nights and 3-4 month old infants: the effects of feeding and thermal environment.
"Parents completed a prospective diary of a night's sleep for 87, 3-4 month old infants at home whose body temperatures were continuously recorded. We found that about half of the babies disturbed their parents in the night. Breast fed babies were more likely to wake parents in the middle of the night. The babies who disturbed their parents in the middle of the night were significantly more heavily wrapped in significantly warmer rooms. We suggest that discomfort from efforts at active thermoregulation in warm environments may lead some babies to disturb their parents at 'unsocial hours'."
AUTHORS
H Whitaker
S A Petersen
M P Wailoo
PUBLISHED
1990 in Archives of Disease in Childhood
High quality source
Yes
Yes
12
Sleep patterns of infants in the first year of life.
"A prospective study of 132 infants aged from 1 month to 1 year found that infants who were breast fed or breast plus bottle fed were significantly more likely to wake at night throughout the first year. Social class of the family, parity of the mother, and the weight gain of the infant had no consistent effects. This increased waking was not due to mothers of wakeful infants prolonging breast feeding to soothe their infants."
AUTHORS
A E Dugdale
J Eaton-Evans
PUBLISHED
1988 in Archives of Disease in Childhood
High quality source
Yes
Yes
13
Sleep/wake patterns of breast-fed infants in the first 2 years of life.
"Published norms for infant sleep/wake patterns during the first 2 years of life include an increase in length of maximum sleep bout from four to five to eight to ten hours by 4 months but little decrease in total sleep in 24 hours from 13 to 15 hours. Thirty-two breast-fed infants were followed for 2 years and data collected on 24-hour patterns of nursing and sleep. Infants who were breast-fed into the second year did not develop sleep/wake patterns in conformance with the norms. Instead of having long unbroken night sleep, they continued to sleep in short bouts with frequent wakings. Their total sleep in 24 hours was less than that of weaned infants. This pattern was most pronounced in infants who both nursed and shared a bed with the mother, common practices in many nonwestern cultures. The sleep/wake development accepted as the physiologic norm may be attributable to the early weaning and separated sleeping practiced in western culture. As prolonged breast-feeding becomes more popular in our society, the norms of sleep/wake patterns in infancy will have to be revised."
AUTHORS
J Johnston
C Bora
N A Nicolson
M F Elias
PUBLISHED
1986 in PEDIATRICS
High quality source
Yes
Yes
14
Waking at night: the effect of early feeding experience.
"The mothers of 180 preschool children were interviewed in their homes in a survey of feeding preferences and sleeping behaviour. We report here on the differences in current sleeping patterns and the age at which night feeds were dropped. There are clear differences in these two behaviours according to whether the baby was breast or bottle fed, and this result is not explicable in terms of social class. Night feeds disappear more slowly in the breast fed infant, and the problem of night waking both in the first year of life and when at nursery school appears to be associated with earlier breast feeding. The importance of such a finding is discussed in relation to the advice offered to mothers by health professionals."
AUTHORS
M J Cooper
H A MacLeod
P Wright
PUBLISHED
1983 in Child: care, health and development
High quality source
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 35
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do formula-fed infants sleep more than breastfed infants?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Exclusive breastfeeding at three months and infant sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months
"OBJECTIVE: This study assessed infant sleep-wake behavior at two weeks, three and six months as function of feeding method at three months (exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed, and exclusively formula fed infants). METHOD: Mothers of 163 first-born, full-term, normal birth weight, healthy infants completed socio-demographic, depression, anxiety, and infant sleep-wake behavior measures. RESULTS: No effects were found for sleep arrangements, depression or anxiety, on feeding methods and sleep-wake behavior at three months. At two weeks exclusively breastfed infants at three months spent more hours sleeping and less hours awake during the 24-h period than partially breastfed infants. At three months, exclusively breastfed infants had a shorter of the longest sleep period at night than exclusively formula fed infants. At six months, exclusively breastfed infants at three months spent more hours awake at night than partially breastfed infants, awake more at night than exclusively formula fed infants, and had a shorter sleep period at night than partially breastfed and exclusively formula fed infants. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed differences in sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months, when exclusively breastfed infants are compared with partially breastfed and exclusively formula fed infants at three months, while no effects were found for sleep arrangements, depression or anxiety."
PUBLISHED
2017 in Infant Behavior and Development

Add to List
To breastfeed or not to breastfeed? That is the question.
You can view the abstract at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3848355
AUTHORS
S Price
J Mýburgh
PUBLISHED
1985 in Curationis

Add to List
Differential Effects of Breast- and Formula-Feeding on Preterm Infants' Sleep-Wake Patterns
"OBJECTIVE: To compare sleep-wake patterns of breastfed and formula-fed preterm infants. DESIGN: Data were taken from an exploratory study of infant biorhythm maturation. Parents completed a 24-hour diary of infant Sleep, Awake, and Cry states and feedings, recorded at 30-minute intervals. Infant health data were collected from medical records and parents’ reports. SETTING: Infants were studied in the home after discharge from a neonatal intensive-care unit. PARTICIPANTS: The convenience sample included 12 breastfed and 25 formula-fed preterm infants (gestational age, 26–33 weeks; corrected postnatal age, 4–6 weeks). Groups were comparable in terms of gestational age, postnatal age, Apgar scores, maternal age, and home environment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The 24-hour recording period was divided into day (0600-1800) and night (1800-0600). Study variables were Day, Night, and 24-hour Sleep, Awake, and Cry. RESULTS: Breastfed preterm infants exhibited more Day Cry and 24-hour Cry than did formula-fed infants. Infants demonstrated a diurnal pattern in Cry, Awake, and Sleep. Breastfed preterm infants cried approximately 1 hour per day more than formula-fed infants. CONCLUSION: Preterm breastfed infants experienced more cry than did formula-fed infants. The relationship between feeding method and sleepwake pattern has implications for supporting lactation as well as for research design."
PUBLISHED
2000 in Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing

Add to List
The bowel movement characteristics of exclusively breastfed and exclusively formula fed infants differ during the first three months of life
"Aim: Breastfed infants pass more stools and more liquid stools than formula fed infants and some have no bowel movements or infrequent stools for several days or weeks. We compared exclusively breastfed and exclusively formula fed infants for the first three months.

Methods: This study of 118 infants was carried out in the maternity ward of the Lille University Jeanne de Flandre Hospital, France, in 2015. The outcomes were the number and consistency of stools and the prevalence of infrequent stools.

Results: At three months, 84 infants remained and we compared 40 who were exclusively breastfed and 13 who were exclusively formula fed. Daily stool frequency was significantly higher in the breastfed than formula fed infants during the first (4.9 ± 1.7 vs. 2.3 ± 1.6, p < 0.001) and second (3.2 ± 1.6 vs. 1.6 ± 1.5, p = 0.003) months. Stools were more liquid in the breastfed infants during the first three months. Infrequent stools occurred in 28% of breastfed and 8% of formula fed infants at least once. (p = 0.25).

Conclusion: Exclusively breastfed infants produced more stools than exclusively formula fed infants during the first two months and more liquid stools during the first three. Infrequent stools were 3.5 times more likely in the breastfed infants.

"
AUTHORS
Julien Labreuche
Béatrice Mestdagh
Emilie Moretti
Thameur Rakza
Dominique Turck
PUBLISHED
2018 in Acta Paediatrica

Add to List
Breastfeeding, Bed-Sharing, and Maternal Cortisol
"Prior studies have found that close mother-child sleep proximity helps increase rates of breastfeeding, and breastfeeding itself is linked to better maternal and infant health. In this study, we examine whether breastfeeding and infant bed-sharing are related to daily rhythms of the stress-responsive hormone cortisol. We found that bed-sharing was related to flatter diurnal cortisol slopes, and there was a marginal effect for breastfeeding to predict steeper cortisol slopes. Furthermore, mothers who breastfeed but do not bed-share had the steepest diurnal cortisol slopes, whereas mothers who bed-shared and did not breastfeed had the flattest slopes (P < .05). These results were significant after controlling for subjective sleep quality, perceived stress, depression, socioeconomic status, race, and maternal age. Findings from this study indicate that infant parenting choices recommended for infants (breastfeeding and separate sleep surfaces for babies) may also be associated with more optimal stress hormone profiles for mothers."
AUTHORS
Madeleine U. Shalowitz
Chelsea O. McKinney
Julie B. Krohn
Emma K. Adam
Clarissa D. Simon
PUBLISHED
2015 in Clinical Pediatrics

Add to List
Effects of α-lactalbumin–enriched formula containing different concentrations of glycomacropeptide on infant nutrition
"Background: Formula-fed infants have growth and plasma amino acid patterns different from those of breastfed infants.

Objective: alpha-Lactalbumin is a major protein in human milk, and the addition of bovine alpha-lactalbumin to infant formula has been proposed to modify the plasma amino acid pattern of the recipient infant, possibly allowing a reduction in the protein content of the formula, which may affect growth.

Design: We compared breastfed infants and infants fed standard formula or alpha-lactalbumin-enriched formulas (25% of protein) with glycomacropeptide accounting for 15% or 10% of the protein. The protein content of each formula was 13.1 g/L. Ninety-six infants aged 6 +/- 2 wk were recruited. Anthropometric measures were recorded, and interviews were conducted at enrollment and monthly until 6 mo of age. Blood samples were collected at enrollment and at 4 and 6 mo.

Results: Formula intake did not differ between groups, and weight gain in the alpha-lactalbumin-enriched formula groups were similar to that of the breastfed infants. The standard formula group gained significantly more weight than did the breastfed infants. All formula-fed infants had significantly higher plasma concentrations of most essential amino acids at 4 and 6 mo than did the breastfed infants, and serum urea nitrogen was also higher in the formula-fed infants. Insulin and leptin concentrations did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: Compared with standard formula-fed infants, infants fed formula with a modified protein composition had growth patterns more similar to those of breastfed infants. All formula-fed groups had plasma amino acid concentrations similar to or higher than those of breastfed infants. This indicates that the protein content of alpha-lactalbumin-enriched formula can be further reduced, which should be evaluated.

"
AUTHORS
Olle Hernell
Gitte Graverholt
Bo Lönnerdal
Olof Sandström
PUBLISHED

Add to List
The defecation pattern of healthy term infants up to the age of 3 months
"Background: Defecation problems occur frequently in infants. A clearer insight into the normal defecation pattern is required to gain a better understanding of abnormal defecation.

Aim: To describe the defecation pattern of healthy infants in The Netherlands.

Methods: From a research population of 1175 healthy Dutch infants, 600 infants without any complaints were selected. The parents recorded details of feeding and defecation at the age of 1, 2 and 3 months using a standardised questionnaire and bowel diary.

Results: In breastfed infants, average daily defecation frequency decreased significantly during the first 3 months (from 3.65 to 1.88 times per day), whereas no significant changes were observed in infants fed standard formula or mixed feeding. At every age both the average and the range of defecation frequency of breastfed infants were higher than those of infants receiving formula feeding. Breastfed infants had softer faeces than formula-fed infants and the colour more often was yellow. At the age of 3 months, 50% of stools of formula-fed infants were green coloured. There was no significant difference in quantity between the three types of feeding, but there existed a negative correlation between defecation frequency and quantity.

Conclusion: This study gives insight into the defecation patterns of the largest cohort of healthy infants published so far. In the first 3 months of life, breastfed infants have more frequent, softer and more yellow-coloured stools than standard formula-fed infants. Green-coloured stools in standard formula-fed infants should be considered normal.

"
AUTHORS
Anneke Bulk
Frank Kneepkens
Evert-Jan Bakker
Leonard van den Broek
Feyona Kolk
Jolanda den Hertog et al
PUBLISHED
2012 in Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition

Add to List
Leptin levels in breast-fed and formula-fed infants.
"Aim: Leptin, a hormone that regulates food intake and energy metabolism, is present in breast milk and thus may be involved in body composition differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether diet and gender affect plasma leptin concentration in breastfed and formula-fed infants during the first months of life.

Methods: Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements [total body water (TBW) calculated with the Fjeld equation] were made and venous blood plasma samples were analysed for leptin concentration in healthy, exclusively breastfed or formula-fed Italian infants in the first year of life. Infants were subdivided in two ways: three groups (periods) in relation to age, and five groups in relation to weight.

Results: The average serum concentration of leptin was 7.35 ng x ml(-1). Serum leptin values were higher in breastfed than in formula-fed infants. Breastfed infants in group I had a statistically higher serum leptin concentration (2,500-3,749 g). There were no significant differences in anthropometric measurements, body mass index or skinfold thickness between breastfed and formula-fed infants. In the periods I and II, breastfed infants had a significantly higher TBW than formula-fed infants. Males had a significantly higher TBW than females in periods I and II. Breastfed infants in group 2 (3,750-4,999 g) had a significantly higher TBW than formula-fed infants.

Conclusion: The data on TBW, weight and skinfold thickness suggest that the higher leptin concentration observed in breastfed infants in the first months of life may be due not only to adipose tissue production but also to human milk.

"
AUTHORS
A Prino
M Costamagna
F Savino
L Silvestro
R Oggero
PUBLISHED
2002 in Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)

Add to List
To breastfeed or not to breastfeed? That is the question.
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v8i1.506
AUTHOR
Jacqui Myburgh
PUBLISHED
1985 in Curationis

Add to List
Postdischarge Nutrition of Preterm Infants: More Questions than Answers
"Postnatal growth retardation is inevitable in preterm infants, the more immature the infant the greater the degree of postnatal growth retardation at hospital discharge. After hospital discharge, several studies have shown that growth is poorer in preterm infants fed a standard term formula than those fed a nutrient-enriched infant formula. This is not surprising because term formulas are designed to meet the requirements of the term infant, not the more rapidly growing preterm infant. After hospital discharge, breastfed infants do not grow as well as their formula-fed counterparts. Yet, there are no randomized controlled trials comparing growth in breastfed infants who did and did not receive nutrient supplementation. If mature human milk is designed to meet the needs of the term infant then breastfed preterm infants may also benefit from nutrient supplementation. Questions persist about nutritional support of preterm infants after discharge. What is the ideal composition of a postdischarge formula? Given the wide heterogeneity in nutritional status of preterm infants at hospital discharge and the difference in growth rates and composition between girls and boys, it is not clear that one formula can or will meet the nutritional needs of all infants. Studies in which infants were fed a nutrient-enriched formula to >/=6 months' corrected age show the most consistent advantage while those in which the nutrient-enriched formula was fed to </=2 months' corrected age had no effect on growth. Whether this is a reflection of the duration of feeding or not is unclear. Further studies are needed to examine this issue. To date, little attention has focused on the role and/or effects of complimentary feeds these infants. Complimentary feeds will confound the effects of any study examining postdischarge growth in preterm infants. However, they may also be an important adjunct in meeting nutritional needs of these high-risk infants. Further studies are also needed to examine this issue."
AUTHOR
Richard J. Cooke
PUBLISHED

Add to List
Neural maturation of breastfed and formula-fed infants.
"Background: Human milk provides infants with a full complement of all polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). Formula milks only contain the precursors of DHA, AA and linoleic acid, and hence formula-fed infants must synthesize their own DHA and AA.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of feeding--whether breastfeeding or formula-feeding--in early infancy upon subsequent neurodevelopment and achievement of optimum brain function.

Subjects And Methods: The study included 53 normal, healthy infants (30 exclusively breastfed infants and 23 exclusively formula-fed infants) at the age of 1 y (+/-1 mo). Each infant was subjected to a full physical and neurological examination together with neurophysiological studies including flash visual evoked potential (FVEP), brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP).

Results: There was significant prolongation of P100 wave latency of FVEP in formula-fed infants, together with significant prolongation of absolute latency of waves I, III and V of BAEP in formula-fed infants compared with breastfed infants. There was significant prolongation in inter-peak latencies between cortical and Erb's components in formula-fed infants compared with breastfed infants.

Conclusion: We can conclude that VEP, BAEP and SSEP are more mature in breastfed infants relative to formula-fed infants at 1 y of age, and thus breast milk helps earlier development and maturation of some aspects of the nervous system than milk formulas.

"
AUTHORS
A A A Osman
S el-Din Amry
W M A Farghaly
E M H Khedr
PUBLISHED
2004 in Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)

Add to List
Bed-sharing and unexpected infant deaths: what is the relationship?
"For much of human history infant survival has been largely predicated by close and continuous contact between the infant and the primary carer - almost always the mother. Many factors in post-industrial human society - notably tobacco smoking, alcohol intake and the use of recreational drugs- have been associated with increased risk to infants sleeping in close proximity to their mothers. This is particularly true for mothers who choose not to breastfeed. The question of the risks and possible benefits of bed-sharing for mothers who plan to breastfeed, do not smoke, do not drink alcohol or take recreational drugs, and are aware of how to ensure a safe infant sleep environment need to be quantified. In this paper we review the evidence from several epidemiological studies and identify the factors that make bedsharing more or less hazardous for the infant. This analysis is important in allowing us to give parents accurate and unbiased information on which to make their own choices about optimal night time care of their infants without demonising normal parental behaviour or practices. "
AUTHORS
Peter Blair
Anna Pease
Peter Fleming
PUBLISHED

Add to List
Breast-feeding increases sleep duration of new parents.
"Objectives: This study describes sleep patterns for mothers and fathers after the birth of their first child and compares exclusive breast-feeding families with parents who used supplementation during the evening or night at 3 months postpartum.

Methods: As part of a randomized clinical trial, the study utilized infant feeding and sleep data at 3 months postpartum from 133 new mothers and fathers. Infant feeding type (breast milk or formula) was determined from parent diaries. Sleep was measured objectively using wrist actigraphy and subjectively using diaries. Lee's General Sleep Disturbance Scale was used to estimate perceived sleep disturbance.

Results: Parents of infants who were breastfed in the evening and/or at night slept an average of 40-45 minutes more than parents of infants given formula. Parents of infants given formula at night also self-reported more sleep disturbance than parents of infants who were exclusively breast-fed at night.

Conclusions: Parents who supplement their infant feeding with formula under the impression that they will get more sleep should be encouraged to continue breast-feeding because sleep loss of more than 30 minutes each night can begin to affect daytime functioning, particularly in those parents who return to work.

"
AUTHORS
Kathryn A Lee
Annelise Gardiner
Therese Doan
Caryl L Gay
PUBLISHED
2007 in The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing

Add to List
Implementation of a Statewide Program to Promote Safe Sleep, Breastfeeding and Tobacco Cessation to High Risk Pregnant Women
FUNDERS
Kansas Department of Health and Environment
"Infant mortality remains a problem in the United States with sleep-related deaths accounting for a significant portion. Known risk reduction strategies include breastfeeding, avoiding tobacco use and following the American Academy of Pediatrics' safe sleep guidelines. The purpose of this project was to evaluate outcomes of Safe Sleep Instructor-led community baby showers, which included safe sleep promotion, breastfeeding promotion and tobacco cessation education. Certified Safe Sleep Instructors (n = 35) were trained on how to plan and host a Community Baby Shower to provide education to pregnant women of low socioeconomic status or with high risk of infant mortality. Eighteen Community Baby Showers were held across two urban and eight rural counties in Kansas. Surveys were administered pre- and post-event to assess participant knowledge, confidence and intentions to follow through with planned action related to safe sleep, breastfeeding and reducing tobacco risk. Matched data were summarized and evaluated for differences using McNemar's and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests. Significant increases were observed in Baby Shower participants' (n = 845) reported plans to follow the AAP Safe Sleep guidelines (all p < 0.001), likelihood to breastfeed (p < 0.001), confidence in ability to breastfeed for more than 6 months (p < 0.001), knowledge of local breastfeeding support resources (p < 0.001), knowledge of ways to avoid second-hand smoke exposure (p < 0.001) and knowledge of local tobacco cessation services (p = 0.004). Based on the result of the pre- and post-event surveys, certified Safe Sleep Instructors were able to plan and host successful events to increase knowledge and confidence related to risk reduction strategies to reduce sleep-related infant deaths."
AUTHORS
Matthew Engel
Stephanie Kuhlmann
Jolynn Dowling
Carolyn R. Ahlers-Schmidt
Christy Schunn
Kim Neufeld
PUBLISHED
2018 in Journal of Community Health

Add to List
Exclusive breastfeeding and growth in Croatian infants--comparison to the WHO child growth standards and to the NCHS growth references.
"The objective of this study was to compare the growth of exclusively breastfed infants and formula fed infants in eastern Croatia. Additionally, we compared growth patterns and estimated overweight based on the World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references. The growth of 88 Croatian infants in two feeding groups (44 breastfed and 44 formula fed) has been researched and presented. The feeding mode was obtained by the 24-hour dietary recall method. Anthropometric measurements were performed at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. There were significantly lower increases in weight and length in exclusively breastfed infants versus formula fed at 12th month (p < 0.05). The weight gain of exclusively breastfed infants was 665 +/- 886g, and among formula fed infants 72 +/- 71254g, and also the exclusively breastfed infants showed significantly lower length gain (25. +/- 3.1 cm) than formula fed infants (27. +/- 3.1 cm) in the period from birth to the end of the first year. Differences shown in assessment of growth, depended of growth chart used WHO child growth standards or NCHS references. A larger number of overweight children were found in the formula fed group in comparison to both references, suggesting that exclusive breastfeeding prevents this occurrence. We conclude that breastfeeding provided the nutrients necessary for infants to keep with the WHO standards of regular growth in children."
AUTHORS
Branka Hanicar
Zlatko Mandić
Roman Pavić
PUBLISHED
2009 in Collegium Antropologicum

Add to List
Does maternal smoking in pregnancy explain the differences in the body composition trajectory between breastfed and formula-fed infants?
"AbstractGrowth patterns are known to differ between breastfed and formula-fed infants, but little is known about the relative impact of maternal smoking in pregnancy v. feeding mode on growth trajectory in infancy. We conducted a secondary analysis of a trial, the Tolerance of Infant Goat Milk Formula and Growth Assessment trial involving 290 healthy infants, to examine whether smoking in pregnancy modified the association between feeding mode and body composition of infants. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were estimated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Formula-fed infants (n 190) had a higher mean FFM at 4 months (mean difference (MD) 160 g, 95 % CI 50·4, 269·5 g, P &lt; 0·05)) and 6 months (MD 179 g, 95 % CI 41·5, 316·9 g, P &lt; 0·05) compared with the breastfed infants (n 100). Sub-group analysis of breastfed v. formula-fed infants by maternal smoking status in pregnancy showed that there were no differences in the FM and FFM between the breastfed and formula-fed infants whose mothers did not smoke in pregnancy. Formula-fed infants whose mothers smoked in pregnancy were smaller at birth and had a lower FM% and higher FFM% at 1 month compared with infants of non-smoking mothers regardless of feeding mode, but the differences were not significant at other time points. Adequately powered prospective studies with an appropriate design are warranted to better understand the relative impact of maternal smoking, feeding practice and the growth trajectory of infants."
AUTHORS
Carmel T. Collins
Karen Hawke
Shao J. Zhou
Maria Makrides
Robert A. Gibson
PUBLISHED
2020 in British Journal of Nutrition

Add to List
High Urinary Iodine Concentration Among Breastfed Infants and the Factors Associated with Iodine Content in Breast Milk
"Iodine deficiency in infants leads to delayed growth and development. Some studies have reported iodine deficiency among infants and lactating women. We assessed iodine status in infants and lactating women, as well as the iodine content in breast milk. A cross-sectional study enrolled mother-infant pairs (infants aged 4-6 months), who visited Well Child Clinic at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Infants were classified by feeding type as breastfed (BF), mixed breastfed and formula-fed (MF), and formula-fed (FF). Demographic and perinatal data were collected. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of infants and lactating women, and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were analyzed. Seventy-one infants were enrolled. The median UIC of infants was 282 mcg/L. Breastfed infants had higher median UIC than formula-fed infants (553 vs. 192 mcg/L; p = 0.002). Forty-eight percent of infants had a UIC more than 300 mcg/L. The median UIC and BMIC of lactating women were 149 and 255 mcg/L, respectively. Among the BF group, the infant UIC was correlated with maternal UIC (r"
AUTHORS
Atitaya Siripinyanond
La-or Chailurkit
Areeporn Sangcakul
Phanphen Phoonlabdacha
Suthida Chatvutinun
Oraporn Dumrongwongsiri et al
PUBLISHED

Add to List
Highly regarded source
Breastfeeding, Mixed, or Formula Feeding at 9 Months of Age and the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Two Cohorts of Infants in China.
"Objective: To assess associations between breastfeeding and iron status at 9 months of age in 2 samples of Chinese infants.

Study Design: Associations between feeding at 9 months of age (breastfed as sole milk source, mixed fed, or formula fed) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), iron deficiency, and iron sufficiency were determined in infants from Zhejiang (n = 142) and Hebei (n= 813) provinces. Iron deficiency was defined as body iron < 0 mg/kg, and IDA as iron deficiency + hemoglobin < 110 g/L. Multiple logistic regression assessed associations between feeding pattern and iron status.

Results: Breastfeeding was associated with iron status (P < .001). In Zhejiang, 27.5% of breastfed infants had IDA compared with 0% of formula-fed infants. The odds of iron deficiency/IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants compared with formula-fed infants: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 28.8 (95% CI, 3.7-226.4) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 11.0 (95% CI, 1.2-103.2). In Hebei, 44.0% of breastfed infants had IDA compared with 2.8% of formula-fed infants. With covariable adjustment, odds of IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed groups: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 78.8 (95% CI, 27.2-228.1) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 21.0 (95% CI, 7.3-60.9).

Conclusions: In both cohorts, the odds of iron deficiency/IDA at 9 months of age were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants, and iron deficiency/IDA was common. Although the benefits of breastfeeding are indisputable, these findings add to the evidence that breastfeeding in later infancy identifies infants at risk for iron deficiency/IDA in many settings. Protocols for detecting and preventing iron deficiency/IDA in breastfed infants are needed.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00642863 and NCT00613717.

"
AUTHORS
Bingquan Zhu
Zhengyan Zhao
Ming Li
Niko Kaciroti
Chai Ji
Yueyang Zhang et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in The Journal of Pediatrics

Add to List
Neonatal circumcision: when can infants reliably be expected to void?
"Objective: Analysis of factors influencing voiding after neonatal circumcision.

Design: Prospective study of the following factors in 200 circumcised infants: birth weight, gestational and postnatal age, type and timing of feeding before the procedure, and timing of last voiding before circumcision.

Results: There was no significant difference in the age when circumcision was performed between breastfed infants (6 and 60 hours) and in those formula-fed (8 and 130 hours). All infants voided after circumcision, with 75% of breastfed infants and 100% of formula-fed infants voiding within 8 hours of the procedure. Breastfed infants voided up to 8 hours after the procedure, compared with up to 6 hours in formula-fed infants, but without a significant difference. The interval between last feed before the procedure and the time of voiding after circumcision was significantly shorter in formula-fed infants (1 to 9 hours) than in breastfed infants (2 to 21 hours). The interval between precircumcision and postcircumcision voiding was also significantly shorter in formula-fed infants (3 to 12 hours) than in breastfed infants (1 to 23 hours). Ninety percent of formula-fed and 64% of breastfed infants voided within 10 hours of the last voiding before circumcision. No infants aspirated during the procedure, regardless of the time of the last feed. No hemorrhagic, infectious, or surgical complications of circumcision were observed.

Conclusion: Postoperative voiding time is predictable. Healthy infants who undergo an uncomplicated circumcision can be discharged before voiding occurs.

"
AUTHORS
H Narchi
N Kulaylat
PUBLISHED
1998 in PEDIATRICS

Add to List
To Breastfeed or Not to Breastfeed With Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacbts.2019.03.005
AUTHORS
Arthur M. Feldman
Zoltan Arany
PUBLISHED
2019 in JACC: Basic to Translational Science

Add to List
[Health needs of women in the process of breastfeeding].
"Our objective was to identify the health needs of women in their breastfeeding process. We interviewed 238 women and organized data according to proposal of the Collective Subject Discourse. By using the taxonomy of Matsumoto we found: Necessity of good conditions of life (having good alimentation; to work or to study; having time for itself; having sleep and adequate rest; having good mental health; having good conditions to breastfeed the baby); Necessity to have access to all the health technologies that contribute to improve and to draw out the life (to deal with the breastfeeding problems, to have access to health services); Necessity to have bond with a professional or health team; Necessity of self-care and autonomy and in the choice in the way of 'walking the life' (to have orientation about breastfeeding; to receive support from the professional; to feel self-confident to breastfeed)."
AUTHORS
Isília Aparecida Silva
Glicéria Tochika Shimoda
PUBLISHED
2008 in Revista brasileira de enfermagem

Add to List
[Acceptance of breast feeding and public discussion--evaluation of health campaigns for breast feeding between 1991 and 1995].
"In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on promoting breastfeeding was proclaimed in Florence/Italy. It became the subject of resolution 45.34 of the World Health Assembly in 1992. In the Federal Republic of Germany there was no wide-scale mass-media campaign to promote breastfeeding as in other countries. But mother-to-mother support groups, medical services and the newly founded National Breastfeeding Committee supported prolonged breastfeeding in public. The effects of the joint effort could be estimated by comparing the results of two postal surveys in 1991 and 1995. The surveys were conducted in Lower Saxony, North-Rhine-Westphalia and Berlin. A tendency could be shown toward more exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding with supplementary food increased by a factor of 1.3 after adjusting for the variables mother's age, sleeping in parents' room or bed and no-smoking household. In Lower Saxony the increase was by a factor of 1.5 starting from a lower base value. The baby sleeping in the parents' room or in their bed furthered breastfeeding by a factor of 1.5 to 4. Non smoking mothers are 4 times more willing to breastfeed their infants than smoking mothers. German mothers breastfeed their infants two to three times more often than turkish mothers."
AUTHORS
B Trumann
K W Tietze
C F Poets
M Schlaud
W J Kleemann
PUBLISHED
1998 in Gesundheitswesen (Bundesverband der Arzte des Offentlichen Gesundheitsdienstes (Germany))

Add to List
Infant Feeding Methods and Maternal Sleep and Daytime Functioning
"Objective: Our purpose was to explore maternal actigraphically measured sleep, subjective sleep reports, and daytime functioning on the basis of current feeding method status during postpartum weeks 2 through 12.

Methods: Objectively measured total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and fragmentation, subjectively reported numbers of nocturnal awakenings, total nocturnal wake time, and sleep quality, and sleepiness/fatigue measured by using the fatigue visual analog scale, the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, or the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were assessed.

Results: We did not find differences between women who were exclusively breastfeeding, exclusively formula feeding, or using a combination of the 2 methods, with respect to the assessed parameters.

Conclusions: Efforts to encourage women to breastfeed should include information about sleep. Specifically, women should be told that choosing to formula feed does not equate with improved sleep. The risks of not breastfeeding should be weighed against the cumulative lack of evidence indicating any benefit of formula feeding on maternal sleep.

"
AUTHORS
H. E. Montgomery-Downs
E. E. Santy
H. M. Clawges
PUBLISHED
2010 in PEDIATRICS

Add to List
For HIV-Positive Mothers: To Breastfeed or Not to Breastfeed?
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000446-200811000-00015
AUTHOR
Sibyl Shalo
PUBLISHED
2008 in AJN, American Journal of Nursing

Add to List
Breastfeeding and smoking: short-term effects on infant feeding and sleep.
"Objective: The present experimental study was designed to determine how breastfeeding from a mother who smokes affects infants in the short-term.

Methods: Fifteen mother-infant dyads were tested on 2 days separated by 1 week. Mothers smoked (not in the presence of their infants) on one test day and refrained from smoking on the other. For the next 3.5 hours, infants breastfed on demand. Sleep and activity patterns were monitored by placing an actigraph on the infants' leg, and milk intake was determined by weighing the infants before and after each feeding. The nicotine content of the milk was measured to determine the dose of nicotine delivered to the infants.

Results: Although there was no significant difference in breast milk intake, despite the taste changes in the milk, infants spent significantly less time sleeping during the hours immediately after their mothers smoked (53.4 minutes), compared with the session when their mothers abstained from smoking (84.5 minutes). This reduction was attributable to shortening of the longest sleep bout and reductions in the amounts of time spent in both active sleep and quiet sleep. With greater doses of nicotine delivered to the infant, less time was spent in active sleep.

Conclusions: An acute episode of smoking by lactating mothers altered infants' sleep/wake patterning. Perhaps concerns that their milk would taste like cigarettes and their infants' sleep patterning would be disrupted would motivate lactating mothers to abstain from smoking and to breastfeed longer.

"
AUTHORS
Lindsay K Morgan
Lauren M Yourshaw
Julie A Mennella
PUBLISHED
2007 in PEDIATRICS

Add to List
Association of Early Introduction of Solids With Infant Sleep: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.
"Importance: The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. However, 75% of British mothers introduce solids before 5 months and 26% report infant waking at night as influencing this decision.

Objective: To determine whether early introduction of solids influences infant sleep.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Enquiring About Tolerance study was a population-based randomized clinical trial conducted from January 15, 2008, to August 31, 2015, that included 1303 exclusively breastfed 3-month-old infants from England and Wales. Clinical visits took place at St Thomas' Hospital, London, England, and the trial studied the early introduction of solids into the infant diet from age 3 months.

Interventions: The early introduction group (EIG) continued to breastfeed while nonallergenic and then 6 allergenic foods were introduced. The standard introduction group (SIG) followed British infant feeding guidelines (ie, exclusive breastfeeding to around age 6 months and to avoid any food consumption during this period).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Secondary analysis of an a priori secondary outcome of the effect of early food introduction on infant sleep using the standardized Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire.

Results: Of the 1303 infants who were enrolled in the Enquiring About Tolerance study, 1225 participants (94%) completed the final 3-year questionnaire (618 SIG [95%] and 607 EIG [93%]). Randomization was effective and there were no significant baseline differences between the 2 groups. Following the early introduction of solids, infants in the EIG slept significantly longer and woke significantly less frequently than infants in the SIG. Differences between the 2 groups peaked at age 6 months. At this point, in the intention-to-treat analysis infants in the EIG slept for 16.6 (95% CI, 7.8-25.4) minutes longer per night and their night waking frequency had decreased from 2.01 to 1.74 wakings per night. Most clinically important, very serious sleep problems, which were significantly associated with maternal quality of life, were reported significantly more frequently in the SIG than in the EIG (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.22-2.61).

Conclusions And Relevance: In a randomized clinical trial, the early introduction of solids into the infant's diet was associated with longer sleep duration, less frequent waking at night, and a reduction in reported very serious sleep problems.

Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN14254740.

"
AUTHORS
Kirsty Logan
Michael R Perkin
Gideon Lack
Carsten Flohr
Henry T Bahnson
Tom Marrs et al
PUBLISHED
2018 in JAMA Pediatrics

Add to List
Fetal Heart Rate Patterns and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
"Objective: To determine differences in electronic fetal monitoring patterns between infants who died of sudden infant death syndrome and controls.

Design: Case-control study (N = 127).

Setting: A tertiary-level women's hospital in Providence, Rhode Island.

Participants: Infants born between 1990 and 1998 who subsequently died of sudden infant death syndrome and controls. Demographic and clinical data included medical maternal charts and fetal monitoring records.

Results: Compared with controls (n = 98), the mothers whose infants subsequently died of sudden infant death syndrome (n = 29) had lower birthweight babies (sudden infant death syndrome 2,840 vs. controls 3,385 g; p < .01), were younger (22 vs. 28 years; p < .01), were more likely to receive Medicaid health insurance (odds ratio 4.6; confidence interval 1.9-11.2), were more likely to be unmarried (odds ratio 5.2; confidence interval 2.1-12.8), had less intention to breastfeed (26% vs. 57%), and were more likely to smoke (odds ratio 4.6; confidence interval 9-11.2).

Main Outcome Measures: There were no statistical differences in fetal heart rate variability or sleep/wake cycles detected between groups.

Conclusion: Statistical differences were found in demographic characteristics between sudden infant death syndrome mother-infant couples and their controls. However, no differences were detected in the intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring records, specifically in variability and sleep/wake cycles.

"
AUTHORS
Cydney A. Menihan
Maureen Phipps
Sherry Weitzen
PUBLISHED
2006 in Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing

Add to List
Infant sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months.
"Although infant sleep-wake behavior presents several developmental changes during the first six months, literature lacks on reference values and few studies have explored the role of individual change and stability on infant sleep-wake behavior during the first six months. This study aimed (1) to describe infant sleep-wake behaviors during the 24-h period, day and night, at two weeks, three, and six months, (2) and to explore developmental changes and the role of individual change and stability on infant sleep-wake behaviors from two weeks to six months. Ninety-four primiparous mothers completed measures on infant sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months. Significant developmental changes were found on infant sleep-wake behaviors from two weeks to six months. Two-week-old infants sleep 13.3h, spend 8.7h awake, awake 6.1 times, have 0.4h of latency to sleep, and 3.2h of longest sleep period. Three-month-old infants sleep 13.0h, spend 9.2h awake, awake 5.5 times, have 0.4h of latency to sleep, and 5.2h of longest sleep period. Six-month-old infants sleep 12.2h, spend 10.0h awake, awake 5.2 times, have 0.4h of latency to sleep, and 5.6h of longest sleep period. Significant individual change and stability were also found on infant sleep-wake behaviors from two weeks to six months. Despite significant developmental and individual changes, individual stability explains a significant amount of the variance on infant sleep-wake behaviors over the first six months of life.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
"
AUTHORS
Tiffany Field
Tiago Miguel Pinto
Cláudia Castro Dias
Bárbara Figueiredo
PUBLISHED
2016 in Infant behavior & development

Add to List
Emerging and entraining patterns of the sleep-wake rhythm in preterm and term infants.
"It has been repeatedly reported that the sleep-wake rhythm in infants entrains around 3-4 months of age after a transient free-run rhythm. To clarify the emerging and entraining patterns of the sleep-wake rhythm, the sleep and wakefulness of 84 infants (44 preterm and 40 term infants) were longitudinally recorded at home for more than 16 weeks by the day-by-day plot method. Our results showed that the entrained sleep-wake rhythm emerged after transient manifestation of either ultradian or irregular sleep-wake patterns for 3-4 weeks in 75% of the infants. Only 7% of the infants showed a free-running sleep-wake rhythm before the entrainment. These facts suggest that most infants would be entrained to an ordinary daily schedule of mothers without expression of overt free-running rhythm of the biological clock. The mean age of the entrainment was 44.8 postconceptional weeks. There were no significant differences in either frequency of each pattern or the mean age of the entrainment, between preterm and term infants. In conclusion, the entrained sleep-wake rhythm emerges around 1 corrected month, after ultradian patterns in the majority of infants.
"
AUTHORS
K Horiuchi
M Samejim
M Higurashi
M Segawa
K Takahashi
M Shimada
PUBLISHED
1999 in Brain & development

Add to List
Nursing care and the development of sleeping and waking behaviors in preterm infants.
"The relationship between nursing care and the development of sleep-wake behaviors of 71 medically high-risk preterms was examined. The development of preterm infants' sleep-wake states, jitteriness, and negative facial expressions were influenced not only by the presence of the nurse, but also by the type of caregiving the nurse provided. The infant was awake more often when with caregivers than when alone. Waking states increased over time only when the infant was with caregivers, whereas quiet sleep increased only when the infant was alone. Infant behaviors and sleep-wake development were related to the intrusiveness of care. For example, negative facial expressions and sleep-wake transitions increased over time during the most intrusive caregiving. The development of sleeping and waking in preterm infants appears to depend not only on biological maturation but also nursing stimulation. As long-term developmental effects of nurse caregiving are unknown, additional research is needed."
AUTHORS
D Holditch-Davis
M Beylea
D H Brandon
PUBLISHED
1999 in Research in Nursing & Health

Add to List
Modeling development of sleep-wake behaviors. II. Results of two cohorts of preterms.
"A mixed general linear model analysis of the development of sleep-wake states was conducted on 37 high-risk preterm infants and replicated with a second cohort of 34 infants. Most dependent variables showed significant development over the preterm period: active sleep decreased, and active waking, quiet waking, and the organization of active sleep and quiet sleep increased over the preterm period in both cohorts. The amount of quiet sleep also increased over age, but this change was significant only for Cohort 1. Seven infant characteristics used as covariates had only minor effects. There were no significant differences in the developmental trajectories (slopes) of the two cohorts. The amounts of four variables differed between cohorts: Cohort 2 infants had less sleep-wake transition, more active sleep, less active sleep without REM, and more regular quiet sleep. These findings suggest that developmental patterns of sleep wake states are stable enough in the preterm period that deviant individual patterns might be used to identify infants with neurological problems."
AUTHORS
D Holditch-Davis
L J Edwards
PUBLISHED
1998 in Physiology & Behavior

Add to List
Sleep Architecture in Infants of Substance-Abusing Mothers
"This longitudinal, year-long study compared sleep-wake state organization in two groups of infants-infants whose mothers abused substances during their pregnancies and nonexposed, typically developing, age-matched comparison infants-to determine whether differences in sleep-wake state organization existed between the two groups. Seventeen infants of mothers who were participating in a parent-infant residential treatment program for substance abuse were enrolled. Their sleep-wake state organization over the first year of life was compared to that of 17 age-matched comparison infants. The intent was to follow each infant on five occasions over the first year of life using established methods of time-lapse videosomnography to record sleep-wake state organization; however, attrition in the substance-abusing group was problematic. Some sleep-wake variables (i.e., Active Sleep%, Quiet Sleep%, Awake%, number of nighttime awakenings) were similar for both groups of infants at comparable ages across the first year. Total sleep time and the longest sustained sleep period (sleep continuity variables) differed significantly at some of the ages measured. Although overall sleep architecture appears highly resilient and well organized, some indications of sleep fragmentation and shortened nighttime sleep periods were observed in the substance-exposed infants. More research is needed to explain why sleep-continuity variables and not sleep-state proportion variables differed between the two groups."
AUTHORS
Beth Goodlin-Jones
Thomas F. Anders
Melissa Burnham
Alan Hanft
PUBLISHED
2006 in Infant Mental Health Journal

Add to List
[Sleep of 4-month-old infants: bedtime, night waking and sleep problems].
"Background And Objectives: Recently, Japanese infant's bedtime has become late and it is reported that this might have a bad influence on infant's growth. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the actual situation and interrelationships between night waking and other sleep problems in Japanese 4-month -old infant.

Methods: The subjects were 194 mothers and infants who participated in health checkups at four months after delivery in Fukuoka City. The questionnaire consisted of 3 components: 1) infant's and mother's sleep practices and sleep problems; 2) coping behavior for infant's sleep; 3) perceptions of child-care and maternal health. Their responses were linked to health checkup's results. The subjects were divided into two groups; Waking Group (n = 111) who was wakening one or more times from 0-6 a.m. and Sleeping Group (n = 83) who was sleeping throughout the night. The proportion of Waking Group was constituted 57.2% in all infants. Infant's growth, sleep, and sleep problems were compared between two groups.

Results: The mean infant's bedtime was 10:28 p.m., and the proportion of infants reported to go to bed at 10 p.m. or later was 69.4%. The proportion of infants with irregular bedtimes was 16.5%. Twenty-eight point six percent of infants had sleep problems like difficulty settling, severe night waking and were suspected to be high risk of sleep disorders. Infants in the Waking Group were found to have more numbers of sleep problems than in the Sleeping Group. The proportion with difficulty settling was higher in the Waking Group. Additionally, the proportion with irregular bedtimes was higher in the Waking Group. However, infant's height and weight did not significantly differ between two groups.

Conclusions: Late bedtime and high proportion of night waking in 4-month-old infants were found to be characteristic in Fukuoka city. There is a possibility that night waking reflects delayed development of circadian rhythms.

"
AUTHORS
Yoshiko Adachi
Noriko Nishino
Fumitake Ohryoji
Junko Hayama
PUBLISHED
2007 in [Nihon koshu eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health

Add to List
Effects of phototherapy in neonates on circadian sleep-wake and saliva cortisol level rhythms.
"The influence of phototherapy treatment during the neonatal period on sleep-wake rhythm, and its long-term effects on biological rhythms, was evaluated in preterm and full-term infants. Forty-three infants treated with phototherapy during the neonatal period and 47 untreated infants were examined for entrainment of sleep-wake rhythms between 16 and 52 weeks and for sleep-wake and saliva cortisol rhythms at 2.5 years of age. The age of sleep-wake rhythm entrainment was not significantly different between the 2 groups. No correlations between duration of exposure to phototherapy and corrected age of entrainment of sleep-wake rhythm were observed. At follow-up, no significant differences in sleep-wake and saliva cortisol rhythms were observed between the 2 groups, indicating that circadian variations were similar to those in adults."
AUTHORS
Hiroshi Akamatsu
Sadao Yamanami
Kikuko Oku
Rumiko Kimura
Masaya Segawa
Makoto Higurashi et al
PUBLISHED
2003 in The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing

Add to List
Breastfeeding, Bed-Sharing, and Infant Sleep
"BACKGROUND: Expectations for infant sleep development and for the appropriate degree of parental proximity for infant sleep are culturally weighted and historically shifting aspects of parenting behavior, and are known to affect breastfeeding prevalence and duration. This paper examined how new parents managed night-time feeding in the first 4 months, with a particular focus on the relationship between breastfeeding, infant sleep location, and sleep bout duration. METHODS: Sleep logs and semistructured interviews were used with a sample of 253 families in North Tees, United Kingdom, to explore how parents responded to their infant's sleep patterns, how breastfeeding parents managed night-time feeding, and whether bed-sharing was a common strategy. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the babies in the study slept through the night at the end of the third month–almost all of these babies (94%) were formula-fed. While 79% of formula-fed 3-month-olds in the study slept through the night, only 15% of breastfed 3-month-olds did."
PUBLISHED
2003 in Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care

Add to List

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Are presidential democracies more prone to becoming dictatorships than parliamentary democracies?
24 studies
Submitted by: SMendoza 75

Do gun buyback programs reduce gun violence?
12 studies
Submitted by: XJackson 78

Do obese children become obese adults?
5 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Do police body cameras reduce use of force by the police?
22 studies
Submitted by: TMifune 55

Do undocumented immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?
10 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

How can I increase breast milk expression?
12 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "do formula-fed infants sleep more than breastfed infants" to consider?