Do legal immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?

Submitted by: LWong 0

No, legal immigrants do not commit more crime than native-born americans. The vast majority of studies in this list came to this conclusion.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 44 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong.
0
YES ANSWERS
34
NO ANSWERS
6
MIXED RESULTS ANSWERS
1
INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE ANSWERS
3
NO DATA ON ANSWER


Chart summary of 44 studies examining this question
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All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Mixed means that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This label is often applied when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). The label Insuff. Evidence means that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. The label No Data means that State of K wasn't able to identify the study's response to the question based on the information that was available. This label is often applied when the person creating the list does not have access to the full text and the answer isn't clear from the abstract.

All labels of Literature Reviews and Highly Regarded Source are assigned by State of K. The label Highly Regarded Source, as applied to journals, is a label assigned to the top 20 journals (as measured by the h-index) in various subcategories as classified and reported by Google Scholar. As applied to NGOs, the label is assigned to US NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labelled "highly regarded" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label.

Literature Reviews
Although we recommend you consider all of the studies below, we believe the following studies are literature reviews, which survey and evaluate many studies on this question:

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
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Does granting legal status to undocumented immigrants reduce their likelihood of committing crime?
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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 44 showing 20 studies at a time
Sorted by publication year
1
Criminal Immigrants: Their Numbers, Demographics, and Countries of Origin
"This brief uses American Community Survey data to analyze incarcerated immigrants according to their citizenship and legal status. All immigrants are less likely to be incarcerated than natives relative to their shares of the population. Even illegal immigrants are less likely to be incarcerated than native-born Americans."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Alex Nowrasteh
Michelangelo Landgrave
PUBLISHED
2017 in Cato Institute
NGO IDEOLOGY
Generally opposed to policy solutions requiring the redistribution of wealth through taxation and regulation of private industries
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
2
Immigration and Crime: Assessing a Contentious Issue
"Are immigration and crime related? This review addresses this question in order to build a deeper understanding of the immigration-crime relationship. We synthesize the recent generation (1994 to 2014) of immigration-crime research focused on macrosocial (i.e., geospatial) units using a two-pronged approach that combines the qualitative method of narrative review with the quantitative strategy of systematic meta-analysis. \n\nAfter briefly reviewing contradictory theoretical arguments that scholars have invoked in efforts to explain the immigration-crime relationship, we present findings from our analysis, which (a) determined the average effect of immigration on crime rates across the body of literature and (b) assessed how variations in key aspects of research design have impacted results obtained in prior studies. \n\nFindings indicate that, overall, the immigration-crime association is negative—but very weak. At the same time, there is significant variation in findings across studies. Study design features, including measurement of the dependent variable, units of analysis, temporal design, and locational context, impact the immigration-crime association in varied ways. We conclude the review with a discussion of promising new directions and remaining challenges in research on the immigration-crime nexus."
LITERATURE REVIEW
AUTHORS
Graham C. Ousey Charis E. Kubrin
Charis E. Kubrin
Graham C. Ousey
PUBLISHED
2017 in Annual Review of Criminology
Q0
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
3
Crime and Enforcement in Immigrant Neighborhoods Evidence from New York City
"This study addresses the relationship between immigration and crime in urban settings, focusing on areal units where immigrants tend to cluster spatially as well as socially. The authors ask whether immigration creates risks or benefits for neighborhoods in terms of lower crime rates. The question is animated in part by a durable claim in criminology that areas with large immigrant populations are burdened by elevated levels of social disorder and crime. \n\n In contrast, more recent theory and research suggest that “immigrant neighborhoods” may simply be differentially organized and function in a manner that reduces the incidence of crime. Accordingly, this research investigates whether immigrants are associated with differences in area crime rates. In addition, the authors ask whether there are differences in the effects of immigration on neighborhood crime rates by the racial and ethnic makeup of the foreign-born populations. Finally, the authors examine the effects of immigration on patterns of enforcement."
AUTHORS
Jeffrey Fagan
Garth Davies
PUBLISHED
2016 in The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
4
Are Immigrants More Likely Than Native-Born Americans to Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence?
"Despite an emerging body of research indicating that immigrants are less likely than native-born Americans to engage in crime and antisocial behavior, less attention has focused specifically on intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant populations. We address this gap by using data from Wave II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans with respect to multiple forms of IPV. \n\nAfter controlling for an extensive array of confounds, results indicate that in the aggregate, immigrants are significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV. However, examination of major world regions indicates these results are driven by Latin American immigrants. Immigrants from Asia, Africa, and Europe report a lower prevalence of IPV perpetration than native-born Americans. This study extends prior research on the immigrant paradox and suggests that future studies take into account regional heterogeneity when examining IPV and other forms of violence in immigrant populations."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Christopher P. Salas-Wright
Michael G. Vaughn
Matthew Larson
Brandy R. Maynard
Shannon Cooper-Sadlo
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Mixed Results
Mixed Results
5
Immigration and Crime in the New Destinations, 2000–2007: A Test of the Disorganizing Effect of Migration
"Objectives: Drawing from a social disorganization perspective, this research addresses the effect of immigration on crime within new destinations—places that have experienced significant recent growth in immigration over the last two decades. Methods: Fixed effects regression analyses are run on a sample of n = 1252 places, including 194 new destinations, for the change in crime from 2000 to the 2005–2007 period. Data are drawn from the 2000 Decennial Census, 2005–2007 American Community Survey, and the Uniform Crime Reports. Places included in the sample had a minimum population of 20,000 as of the 2005-07 ACS. New destinations are defined as places where the foreign-born have increased by 150 % or more since 1990 and with a minimum foreign-born population of 1000 in 2007. Results: Results indicate new destinations experienced greater declines in crime, relative to the rest of the sample. Moreover, new destinations with greater increases in foreign-born experienced greater declines in their rates of crime. Additional predictors of change in crime include change in socioeconomic disadvantage, the adult-child ratio, and population size. Conclusions: Results fail to support a disorganization view of the effect of immigration on crime in new destinations and are more in line with the emerging community resource perspective. Limitations and suggestions for future directions are discussed."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Vincent Ferraro
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Quantitative Criminology
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
6
The Criminalization of Immigration in the United States
"This report tackles the criminalization of immigration from two angles. First, it documentsthe fact that immigration is not associated with “crime” as it is commonly understood.For more than two decades, rates of violent crime and property crime have fallen in theUnited States as the immigrant population (including the unauthorized population) hasgrown. Moreover, immigrants are less likely than the native-born to be behind bars or toengage in typically “criminal behaviors.” \n\nSecond, the report describes the ways in whichU.S. immigration laws and policies are re-defining the notion of “criminal” as it appliesto immigrants, while also ramping up the enforcement programs designed to find anyonewho might be deportable. More and more, a zero-tolerance policy has been applied bythe federal government to immigrants who commit even the slightest offense or infraction.“Crimes” which might result in a fine or a suspended sentence for natives end up gettingimmigrants detained and deported. This represents a double standard of justice for immigrantsin which the scale of the punishment (detention and deportation) far outweighsthe severity of the crime (traffic offenses, for example)."
AUTHORS
R.G. Ewing, W.A., Martínez, D.E., Rumbaut
Rubén G. Rumbaut
Daniel E. Martínez
Walter A. Ewing
PUBLISHED
2015 in American Immigration Council
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
7
An Examination of First and Second Generation Immigrant Offending Trajectories
"The myth of the criminal immigrant has permeated public and political debate for much of this nation's history and persists despite growing evidence to the contrary. Crime concerns are increasingly aimed at the indirect impact of immigration on crime highlighting the criminal pursuits of the children of immigrants. Adding to extant knowledge on the immigration-crime nexus, this research asks whether immigrants are differentially involved in crime by examining immigrant offending histories (prevalence, frequency, seriousness, persistence, and desistance) from early adolescence to young adulthood. Particular attention is afforded to the influence of various sources of heterogeneity including: generational and nativity status, and crime type. \n\nResults suggest that the myth remains; trajectory analyses reveal that immigrants are no more crime-prone than the native-born. Foreign-born individuals exhibit remarkably low levels of involvement in crime across their life course. Moreover, it appears that by the second generation, immigrants have simply caught up to their native-born counterparts in respect to their offending. Implications of the findings for theory and future research are discussed."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Bianca E. Bersani
PUBLISHED
2014 in Justice Quarterly
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
8
Comparing Patterns and Predictors of Immigrant Offending Among a Sample of Adjudicated Youth
"Research on immigration and crime has only recently started to consider potential heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns of immigrant offending. Guided by segmented assimilation and life course criminology frameworks, this article advances prior research on the immigration-crime nexus in three ways: using a large sample of high-risk adjudicated youth containing first and second generation immigrants; examining longitudinal trajectories of official and self-reported offending; and merging segmented assimilation and life course theories to distinguish between offending patterns. \n\nData come from the Pathways to Desistance study containing detailed offending and socio-demographic background information on 1,354 adolescents (13.6 % female; n = 1,061 native-born; n = 210 second generation immigrants; n = 83 first generation immigrants) as they transition to young adulthood (aged 14–17 at baseline). Over 84 months we observe whether patterns of offending, and the correlates that may distinguish them, operate differently across immigrant generations. Collectively, this study offers the first investigation of whether immigrants, conditioned on being adjudicated, are characterized by persistent offending. \n\nResults show that first generation immigrants are less likely to be involved in serious offending and to evidence persistence in offending, and appear to be on a path toward desistance much more quickly than their peers. Further, assimilation and neighborhood disadvantage operate in unique ways across generational status and relate to different offending styles. The findings show that the risk for persistent offending is greatest among those with high levels of assimilation who reside in disadvantaged contexts, particularly among the second generation youth in the sample."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Alex R. Piquero
Thomas A. Loughran
Bianca E. Bersani
PUBLISHED
2014 in Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Mixed Results
Mixed Results
9
Assessing the Effects of Recent Immigration on Serious Property Crime in Austin, Texas
"In this article the authors examine the impact of recent immigration on rates of serious property crime across communities in Austin, Texas. The greater Austin foreign-born population has increased by more than 580 percent since 1980, and Austin is considered a “preemerging” immigrant gateway city to the United States. The changing population dynamics in Austin provide an excellent opportunity to study the effect of recent immigration on crime in a target destination for recent immigrants. Although interest in the relationship between violent crime and immigration to new locales is evidenced by recent studies that show less favorable outcomes for Latinos in new destinations, little attention has been directed to the relationship of recent immigration with serious property crime in new destinations.\n\nNegative binomial regression models with corrections for spatial autocorrelation indicate that recent immigration is not associated with an increased rate of burglary, larceny, or motor vehicle theft once important structural predictors of crime are controlled for."
AUTHORS
Scott Akins
Richard Stansfield
Rubén G. Rumbaut
PUBLISHED
2013 in Sociological Perspectives
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
10
What is the Contribution of Mexican Immigration to U.S. Crime Rates? Evidence from Rainfall Shocks in Mexico
"This paper identifies a causal effect of Mexican immigration on crime using an instrument that leverages temporal variation in rainfall in different regions in Mexico as well as persistence in regional Mexico–U.S. migration networks. The intuition behind the instrument is that deviations in Mexican weather patterns isolate quasi-random variation in the assignment of Mexican immigrants to U.S. cities. My findings indicate that Mexican immigration is associated with no appreciable change in the rates of either violent or property crimes in U.S. cities."
AUTHOR
Aaron Chalfin
PUBLISHED
2013 in American Law and Economics Review
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
11
Understanding the Impact of Immigration on Crime
"Almost three quarters of Americans believe that immigration increases crime. Yet, existing academic research has shown no such effect. Using panel data on U.S. counties, this paper presents empirical evidence on a systematic, but small impact of immigration on crime. Consistent with the economic model of crime this effect is stronger for crimes motivated by financial gain, such as motor vehicle theft and robbery. Moreover, the effect is only present for those immigrants most likely to have poor labor market outcomes. Failure to account for the cost of increased crime would overstate the “immigration surplus,” but it would not reverse its sign."
AUTHOR
Jörg L. Spenkuch
PUBLISHED
2013 in American Law and Economics Review
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
12
Are Immigrant Youth Less Violent? Specifying the Reasons and Mechanisms
"In this article, the authors present an overview of the relationship between immigrant households and crime and violence, drawing on sociological and public health literature. They present a critique of popular culture perspectives on immigrant families and youth violence, showing that crime and violence outcomes are if anything better for youth in immigrant families than one would expect given the social disadvantages that many immigrant households find themselves living in. They examine the extent to which exposure to violence among immigrant youth is comparably lower than among nonimmigrants living in similar social contexts and the extent to which social control and social learning frameworks can account for the apparent lower prevalence of violence exposure among immigrant youth. Their analyses show a persistent lower rate of violence exposure for immigrant youth compared to similarly situated nonimmigrant youth—and that these differences are not meaningfully understood by observed social control or social learning mechanisms. The authors focus then on the apparent paradox of why youth living in immigrant households in relative disadvantage have lower violence exposure compared to nonimmigrants living in similar social contexts. The answers, they argue, can be viewed from an examination of the effects that living in poverty and underclass neighborhoods for generations has on nonimmigrants in American cities."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
PUBLISHED
2012 in The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
13
The Imperative of Place: Homicide and the New Latino Migration
"Prior research finds that Latino immigration reduced violence. We argue that this is because they settled in traditional immigrant areas. But recent migrants settled in new destinations where the immigration–violence link is more complex. \n\nContrary to previous findings, we observe that (1) Latino homicide victimization is higher in new destinations; (2) Latino immigration increases victimization rates, but only in new destinations and only for Latinos entering after 1990, when they fanned out to new destinations; and (3) Latino deprivation increases victimization only in new destinations because, we speculate, these new areas lack the protective social control umbrella of traditional destinations. Thus, the “Latino paradox” may be less useful than time-honored sociological frameworks for understanding the link between Latino immigration and violence."
AUTHORS
Raymond E. Barranco
Edward S. Shihadeh
PUBLISHED
2012 in The Sociological Quarterly
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Mixed Results
Mixed Results
14
Extending Immigration and Crime Studies: National Implications and Local Settings
"One of American society's enduring debates centers on the immigration and violent crime relationship. This classic debate is revisited using data for individual homicide incidents and census-tract-level homicides in Miami, Florida, and San Antonio, Texas, in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. The article starts with these two comparative cases because they mirror the immigration influx, Latino growth, and homicide decline seen throughout the country since 1980. These findings are also replicated in an analysis of the immigration and crime influx across the nation using U.S. counties in 2000. In sum, results from comparative cases, different time points, homicide motivations, and individual/community/national levels—and even controlling for Latino regional concentration—are reported. The findings were clear and unequivocal: more immigrants did not mean more homicide, and that outcome held across time and place."
AUTHORS
Ramiro Martinez Jr.
Jacob I. Stowell
PUBLISHED
2012 in The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
15
Are Immigrants Crime Prone? A Multifaceted Investigation of the Relationship between Immigration and Crime in Two Eras
"Three particularly salient conclusions are drawn from this research. First, patternsof offending (i.e., prevalence, frequency, persistence and desistance) are remarkablysimilar for native-born and immigrant individuals. \n\nSecond, although differences are observed when examining predictors of offending for native-born and immigrant individuals, they tend to be differences in degree rather than kind. That is, immigrants and native-born individuals are influenced similarly by family, peer, and school factors.\n\nFinally, these findings are robust and held when taking into account socio-historical context, immigrant generation, immigration nationality group, and crime type. In sum, based on the evidence from this research, the simple answer to the question of whether immigrants are crime prone is no."
AUTHOR
Bianca E. Bersani
PUBLISHED
2010 in PhD Dissertation
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
16
Immigration and Crime in an Era of Transformation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Homicides in San Diego Neighborhoods, 1980-2000
"Emerging research associated with the “immigration revitalization” perspective suggests that immigration has been labeled inaccurately as a cause of crime in contemporary society. In fact, crime seems to be unexpectedly low in many communities that exhibit high levels of the following classic indicators of social disorganization: residential instability, ethnic heterogeneity, and immigration. \n\nBut virtually all research conducted to date has been cross-sectional in nature and therefore unable to demonstrate how the relationship between immigration and crime might covary over time. This limitation is significant, especially because current versions of social disorganization theory posit a dynamic relationship between structural factors and crime that unfolds over time. \n\nThe current study addresses this issue by exploring the effects of immigration on neighborhood-level homicide trends in the city of San Diego, California, using a combination of racially/ethnically disaggregated homicide victim data and community structural indicators collected for three decennial census periods. \n\nConsistent with the revitalization thesis, results show that the increased size of the foreign-born population reduces lethal violence over time. Specifically, we find that neighborhoods with a larger share of immigrants have fewer total, non-Latino White, and Latino homicide victims. More broadly, our findings suggest that social disorganization in heavily immigrant cities might be largely a function of economic deprivation rather than forms of “neighborhood” or “system” stability."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Ramiro Martinez Jr.
Jacob I. Stowell
Matthew T. Lee
PUBLISHED
2010 in Criminology
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
17
Is Immigration Responsible for the Crime Drop? An Assessment of the Influence of Immigration on Changes in Violent Crime Between 1990 and 2000
"Objectives: The idea that immigration increases crime rates has historically occupied an important role in criminological theory and has been central to the public and political discourses and debates on immigration policy. In contrast to the common sentiment, some scholars have recently questioned whether the increase in immigration between 1990 and 2000 may have actually been responsible for part of the national decrease in crime during the 1990s. The current work evaluates the influence of immigration on crime in urban areas across the United States between 1990 and 2000. Methods: Drawing on U.S. Census and Uniform Crime Report data, I first use ordinary least squares regression models to assess the cross-sectional relationship between immigration patterns and rates of homicide and robbery among U.S. cities with populations of at least 50,000. Second, I employ pooled cross-sectional time-series models to determine how changes in immigration influenced changes in homicide and robbery rates between 1990 and 2000. Results: In the ordinary least squares models, immigration is associated with higher levels of homicide and robbery. However, the pooled cross-sectional time-series models suggest that cities with the largest increases in immigration between 1990 and 2000 experienced the largest decreases in homicide and robbery during the same time period. Conclusion: The findings offer insights into the complex relationship between immigration and crime and suggest that growth in immigration may have been responsible for part of the precipitous crime drop of the 1990s."
AUTHOR
Tim Wadsworth
PUBLISHED
2010 in Social Science Quarterly
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
18
The Immigration-Crime Nexus and Post-Deportation Experiences: En/Countering Stereotypes in Southern California and El Salvador
"This article reviews research findings on immigration and crime in Southern California, and deportation and crime in El Salvador. We focus on the experiences of young adult children of immigrants, mainly Mexicans, Salvadorans and Guatemalans who together account for two-thirds or more of the undocumented immigrant population in the U.S.; and on men, including former gang members, who have been deported to El Salvador on criminal and non-criminal charges. \n\nThe evidence rebuts popular myths that immigrants and deportees are more prone to criminal behavior than natives and citizens. Nationally, rates of incarceration among immigrant men are much lower than among their U.S.-born counterparts. Like crime generally, the problem of gangs in the U.S. is primarily one that involves the U.S. born, who as citizens are not deportable; and despite the aim of public policies to remove problematic “criminal” and “illegal” beings, deportation is not the end of the cycle of migration."
AUTHORS
Rubén G. Rumbaut
Katie Dingeman
PUBLISHED
2010 in University of La Verne Law Review
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
19
Contextualizing the Immigration and Crime Effect An Analysis of Homicide in Chicago Neighborhoods
"Neighborhoods with concentrated disadvantage have heightened levels of crime, and since the 1980s they have seen an infusion of immigrants. The article suggests that the influx of recent immigrants should contribute to the revitalization of disadvantaged neighborhoods and thereby help to reduce violent crime. The article tests whether the effect of concentrated disadvantage on local homicide levels is attenuated by levels of recent arrivals (1985-1990). \n\nThe article find that recently arrived immigrants are associated with reductions of lethal violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods. It suggest that the influx of recent immigrants in disadvantaged neighborhoods reinvigorates local economic opportunity structures and social networks, and revitalizes neighborhood organizations and institutions. \n\nHowever, recently arrived immigrants are associated with increases in local homicide levels in advantaged contexts. Recent immigrants appear to elevate homicide via the potential disruption they cause in local social networks and efforts at community social control."
AUTHOR
María B. Vélez
PUBLISHED
2009 in Homicide Studies
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
20
Immigration Reduces Crime: An Emerging Scholarly Consensus
"Purpose: Previously we (Martinez & Lee, 2000) reviewed the empirical literature of the 20th century on the topic of immigration and crime. This chapter discusses developments in this body of scholarship that have occurred in subsequent years. Methodology: This literature review covers recent empirical research associated with the emerging “immigration revitalization perspective.” Findings: Recent research has become substantially more sophisticated in terms of analytical methods, including multivariate modeling and statistically grounded mapping techniques. But the conclusion remains largely the same. Contrary to the predictions of classic criminological theories and popular stereotypes, immigration generally does not increase crime and often suppresses it. Practical implications: Our review of the literature challenges stereotypical views about immigrants and immigration as major causes of crime in the United States. Unfortunately, these erroneous views continue to inform public policies and should be reconsidered in light of empirical data. Value: This chapter represents the first attempt to synthesize recent empirical work associated with the immigration revitalization perspective. It will be of value to immigration scholars and criminologists as well as general readers interested in the relationship between immigration and crime."
LITERATURE REVIEW
AUTHORS
Ramiro Martinez Jr.
Matthew T. Lee
PUBLISHED
2009 in Book Series: Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
State of K periodically recommends additional studies to add to this list, both newly published and newly discovered. There are none for now, but check back another time.


QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do driver training programs reduce traffic injuries?
13 studies
Submitted by: DBuss 82

Does deporting undocumented immigrants reduce crime?
3 studies
Submitted by: GFarahani 0

Does granting legal status to undocumented immigrants reduce their likelihood of committing crime?
5 studies
Submitted by: PSingh 0

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "do legal immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans" to consider?