Do legal immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?

Submitted by: LWong 0

No, legal immigrants do not commit more crime than native-born americans. The vast majority of studies in this list came to this conclusion.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 44 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong.
0
YES ANSWERS
34
NO ANSWERS
6
MIXED RESULTS ANSWERS
1
INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE ANSWERS
3
NO DATA ON ANSWER


Chart summary of 44 studies examining this question
Showing up to 10 at a time

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Mixed means that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This label is often applied when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). The label Insuff. Evidence means that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. The label No Data means that State of K wasn't able to identify the study's response to the question based on the information that was available. This label is often applied when the person creating the list does not have access to the full text and the answer isn't clear from the abstract.

All labels of Literature Reviews and Highly Regarded Source are assigned by State of K. The label Highly Regarded Source, as applied to journals, is a label assigned to the top 20 journals (as measured by the h-index) in various subcategories as classified and reported by Google Scholar. As applied to NGOs, the label is assigned to US NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labelled "highly regarded" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label.

Literature Reviews
Although we recommend you consider all of the studies below, we believe the following studies are literature reviews, which survey and evaluate many studies on this question:

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do driver training programs reduce traffic injuries?
13 studies
Submitted by: DBuss 82

Does deporting undocumented immigrants reduce crime?
3 studies
Submitted by: GFarahani 0

Does granting legal status to undocumented immigrants reduce their likelihood of committing crime?
5 studies
Submitted by: PSingh 0

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "do legal immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans" to consider?

SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 44 showing 20 studies at a time
Sorted by publication year
41
On Immigration and Crime
"The connection between immigration and crime is one of the mostcontentious topics in contemporary society. These discussions are notnew, as debates on the issue date back more than 100 years. A generalpoint on which both pro- and anti-immigration writers agree is that,as we enter the new millennium, the latest wave of immigration islikely to have a more important impact on society than any othersocial issue. In this essay, we survey the vast body of theoretical andempirical works on the relationship between immigration and crimein 20th-century America. Throughout, we include new writings aswell as older, sometimes neglected works. \n\nWe discuss three majortheoretical perspectives that have guided explanations of the immigration/crimelink: opportunity structure, cultural approaches, andsocial disorganization. We also examine empirical studies of immigrantinvolvement in crime. We conclude with a review of publicopinion about immigrants, especially as it relates to immigrants andcrime, and then provide original data on the connection between publicopinion and immigrant crime.\n \nThere are important reasons to believe that immigrants should beinvolved in crime to a greater degree than native-born Americans. Forexample, immigrants face acculturation and assimilation problemsthat most natives do not, and immigrants tend to settle in disorganized neighborhoods characterized by structural characteristics often associatedwith crime, such as widespread poverty, ethnic heterogeneity, and a preponderanceof young males. However, despite claims by pundits and writers thathigh levels of “immigrant crime” are an unavoidable product of immigration,scholars rarely produce any systematic evidence of this recentlyreemerging social problem.\n \n Although a host of reasons exists to expect that immigrants are high-crimeprone, the bulk of empirical studies conducted over the past century havefound that immigrants are typically underrepresented in criminal statistics.There are some partial exceptions to this finding, but these appear to belinked more to differences in structural conditions across urban areas whereimmigrants settle rather than to the cultural traditions of the immigrantgroups. Local context is a central influence shaping the criminal involvementof both immigrants and natives, but in many cases, compared withnative groups, immigrants seem better able to withstand crime-facilitatingconditions than native groups. \n\nIn conclusion, this review suggests that nativegroups would profit from a better understanding of how immigrant groupsfaced with adverse social conditions maintain low rates of crime."
LITERATURE REVIEW
AUTHORS
Ramiro Martinez Jr.
Matthew T. Lee
PUBLISHED
2000 in Criminal Justice
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
42
Sociological Criminology and the Mythology of Hispanic Immigration and Crime
"Our sociological knowledge of crime is fragmented and ineffective in challenging and correcting mistaken public perceptions, for example, linking immigration and crime. These misperceptions are perpetuated by government reports of growing numbers of Hispanic immigrants in U.S. prisons. \n\nHowever, Hispanic immigrants are disproportionately young males who regardless of citizenship are at greater risk of criminal involvement. They are also more vulnerable to restrictive treatment in the criminal justice system, especially at the pre-trial stage. When these differences are integrated into calculations using equations that begin with observed numbers of immigrants and citizens in state prisons, it is estimated that the involvement of Hispanic immigrants in crime is less than that of citizens. \n\nThese results cast doubt on the hypothesis that immigration causes crime and make more transparent the immigration and criminal justice policies that inflate the rate of Hispanic incarceration. This transparency helps to resolve a paradox in the picture of Mexican immigration to the United States, since by most measures of well-being, Mexican immigrants are found to do as well and sometimes better than citizens."
AUTHORS
Alberto Palloni
John Hagan
PUBLISHED
1999 in Social Problems
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
43
Immigration and the Ethnic Distribution of Homicide in Miami, 1985-1995
"This article extends the city-level research tradition initiated by Marvin E. Wolfgang in a unique comparison of immigrant (Haitian, Latino) and native born (Anglo, African American) criminal homicide in the city of Miami, Florida. Although previous research has been limited primarily to Anglo and African American victims and offenders, direct access to Miami police records on 1,450 homicides for the period 1985 through 1995 allowed the authors to compare the homicide risk of Anglos, African Americans, Haitians, and Latinos. \n\nAlthough current policy debates focus on immigration as a contributing factor to rising crime rates, the results indicate that the groups with higher proportions of foreign-born members have comparatively low homicide rates. The findings underscore the need to extend homicide research to include diverse ethnic groups in designs that attempt to disentangle the relative influence of social conditions, ethnicity, and immigration on patterns of criminal homicide."
AUTHORS
Ramiro Martinez Jr.
Matthew T. Lee
PUBLISHED
1998 in Homicide Studies
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No
44
Cross-city Evidence on the Relationship between Immigration and Crime
"Public concerns about the costs of immigration and crime are high, and sometimes overlapping. This article investigates the relationship between immigration into a metropolitan area and that area's crime rate during the 1980s. Using data from the Uniform Crime Reports and the Current Population Surveys, we find, in the cross section, that cities with high crime rates tend to have large numbers of immigrants.\n\nHowever, controlling for the demographic characteristics of the cities, recent immigrants appear to have no effect on crime rates. In explaining changes in a city's crime rate over time, the flow of immigrants again has no effect, whether or not we control for other city-level characteristics. In a secondary analysis of individual data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we find that youth born abroad are statistically significantly less likely than native-born youth to be criminally active."
AUTHORS
Anne Morrison Piehl
Kristin F. Butcher
PUBLISHED
1998 in Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
No
No







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
State of K periodically recommends additional studies to add to this list, both newly published and newly discovered. There are none for now, but check back another time.


QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do driver training programs reduce traffic injuries?
13 studies
Submitted by: DBuss 82

Does deporting undocumented immigrants reduce crime?
3 studies
Submitted by: GFarahani 0

Does granting legal status to undocumented immigrants reduce their likelihood of committing crime?
5 studies
Submitted by: PSingh 0

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "do legal immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans" to consider?