Do obese children become obese adults?

Submitted by: Anonymous

Yes. The studies in this list for which we have identified answers are unanimous on this conclusion.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 5 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 5 studies examining this question

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Literature Reviews
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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 5
Sorted by publication year
1
Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis
"A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity."
AUTHORS
N. Woolacott
C. G. Owen
A. Llewellyn
M. Simmonds
PUBLISHED
2016 in Obesity Reviews
High quality source
Literature Review
FUNDERS
NIHR HTA programme
Yes
Yes
2
Do obese children become obese adults: childhood predictors of adult disease
"Obesity is a multifactorial disorder influenced by genetic, behavioral, environmental and cultural factors. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in young people is increasing rapidly in both the developed and developing world and are considered today as a global epidemic. Recent studies show that obesity in adult life is heralded at birth and factors such as birth weight, adiposity rebound, socioeconomic status, early maturation and genetic predisposition may have a significant effect on the propensity to develop obesity in adulthood. Avoidance of accelerated weight gain in children should be investigated as a toll of adult obesity prevention."
AUTHORS
Tzotzas T
Krassas GE
PUBLISHED
2004 in Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews
Q2
Literature Review
Yes
Yes
3
Two decades of annual medical examinations in Japanese obese children: Do obese children grow into obese adults?
"OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in frequency of obese children in Japan over two decades, the frequency of obese children who grow into obese adults and predictive factors for adult obesity.\n\nDESIGN: Annual cross-sectional studies for 22 y (1974-1995) with a follow-up study.\n\nSUBJECTS: Cross-sectional: Cumulatively 13,186 obese (% of standard body weight (SBW): > or = 120%) schoolchildren including 3158 extremely obese (> or = 140% of SBW) children out of 203,088 schoolchildren (age: 6-14 y) in Izumiohtsu City, Osaka, Japan. Follow-up: 151 initially obese children (initial age: 6-14 y and age at follow-up: 20-35 y) who lived in Izumiohtsu City. Control: 3552 Japanese men and 4631 Japanese women (age: 20-35 y).\n\nMEASUREMENTS: Cross-sectional: height, weight, trunk circumference, skin-fold thickness, blood pressure and blood biochemicals. Follow-up: height, weight, trunk circumference, skin-fold thickness during childhood, and body height and weight at follow-up. Adulthood obesity: > or = 120% of the average body mass indices (BMI) of the controls.\n\nRESULTS: Frequency of obese children increased from 5% to more than 10%, and that of extremely obese children increased from 1% to more than 2% during these 22 y. These increases were most prominent in the schoolboys aged 9-11 y. Prevalence of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in the extremely obese children did not change, and that of hypertension and abnormal liver function gradually decreased during these two decades. After coming of age, 32.2% of the initially obese boys (relative risk: 5.3) and 41.0% of the initially obese girls (relative risk: 6.7) remained obese. BMI, percentage of the SBW and skin-fold thickness at the biceps during childhood were significantly larger in currently-obese girls. Positive correlations were demonstrated between these variables and percentage SBW at follow-up.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity is increasing in Japan, especially in boys aged 9-11 y. Approximately 32% of the obese boys and 41% of the obese girls grow into obese adults, and the degree of obesity is a predictive factor for adult obesity."
AUTHORS
K Tokunaga
S Fujioka
T Funahashi
S Yamashita
M Nishida
K Kotani et al
PUBLISHED
1997 in International Journal of Obesity
High quality source
Yes
Yes
4
Do Obese Children Become Obese Adults? A Review of the Literature
"Background. Obese children may be at increased risk of becoming obese adults. To examine the relationship between obesity in childhood and obesity in adulthood, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature published between 1970 and July 1992. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of obesity, and analytic methods used. Although the correlations between anthropometric measures of obesity in childhood and those in adulthood varied considerably among studies, the associations were consistently positive. Results. About a third (26 to 41%) of obese preschool children were obese as adults, and about half (42 to 63%) of obese school-age children were obese as adults. For all studies and across all ages, the risk of adult obesity was at least twice as high for obese children as for nonobese children. The risk of adult obesity was greater for children who were at higher levels of obesity and for children who were obese at older ages. Conclusion. The wide range of estimates in this literature are, in part, due to differences in study designs, definitions of obesity, ages at which participants were measured, intervals between measurements, and population and cultural differences. © 1993 American Health Foundation and Academic Press."
AUTHORS
T. Byers
D.F. Williamson
D.S. Freedman
R.J. Coates
D. Ivery
M.K. Serdula
PUBLISHED
1993 in Preventive Medicine
High quality source
Literature Review
Yes
Yes
5
Childhood antecedents of adult obesity. Do chubby infants become obese adults?
"We investigated whether obese infants tend to become obese adults. Records of subjects born between 1945 and 1955 were reviewed to select three cohorts based on weight in the first six months of age, which exceeded the 90th percentile at least once, ranged between 25th and 75th percentiles or was below 10th percentile at least once. Three hundred and sixty-six subjects, now between 20 and 30 years of age, were located and their present height and weight determined. Thirty-six per cent of those exceeding the 90th percentile as infants were overweight adults, as compared to 14 per cent of the average age and light-weight infants. A significant increase (chi square = 17.2, p less than 0.001) in adult obesity was evident when the infant exceeded the 75th percentile that was independent of his height. Social class, educational level, and parental weight all correlated with adult weight (p less than 0.001). Sex and ordinal position of birth did not. The data suggest that infant weight correlates strongly with adult weight independently of other factors considered."
AUTHORS
McBride M
Goodman HC
Charney E
Pratt R.
Lyon B
PUBLISHED
1976 in New England Journal of Medicine
High quality source
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 37
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do obese children become obese adults?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

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Literature review
Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease.
"Obesity now affects one in five children in the United States. Discrimination against overweight children begins early in childhood and becomes progressively institutionalized. Because obese children tend to be taller than their nonoverweight peers, they are apt to be viewed as more mature. The inappropriate expectations that result may have an adverse effect on their socialization. Many of the cardiovascular consequences that characterize adult-onset obesity are preceded by abnormalities that begin in childhood. Hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and abnormal glucose tolerance occur with increased frequency in obese children and adolescents. The relationship of cardiovascular risk factors to visceral fat independent of total body fat remains unclear. Sleep apnea, pseudotumor cerebri, and Blount's disease represent major sources of morbidity for which rapid and sustained weight reduction is essential. Although several periods of increased risk appear in childhood, it is not clear whether obesity with onset early in childhood carries a greater risk of adult morbidity and mortality. Obesity is now the most prevalent nutritional disease of children and adolescents in the United States. Although obesity-associated morbidities occur more frequently in adults, significant consequences of obesity as well as the antecedents of adult disease occur in obese children and adolescents. In this review, I consider the adverse effects of obesity in children and adolescents and attempt to outline areas for future research. I refer to obesity as a body mass index greater than the 95th percentile for children of the same age and gender."
AUTHOR
W H Dietz
PUBLISHED
1998 in PEDIATRICS

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A Health Equity Problem for Low Income Children: Diet Flexibility Requires Physician Authorization.
"USDA programs, such as the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and/or National School Lunch Program (NSLP), enable child care centers and schools to provide free and reduced price meals, daily, to millions of low income children. Despite intention to equalize opportunity for every child to have a healthy diet, USDA program rules may be contributing to child obesity disparities and health inequity. USDA program rules require child care centers and schools to provide meals that include a specified number of servings of particular types of foods and beverages. The rules are designed for the average, healthy weight child to maintain weight and growth. They are not designed for the underweight child to gain weight, obese child to normalize weight, or pre-diabetic child to avoid incident diabetes. The rules allow for only one meal pattern and volume, as opposed to a flexible spectrum of meal patterns and portion sizes. Parents of children who participate in the CACFP, SBP, and/or NSLP do not have control over the amount or composition of the subsidized meals. Parents of overweight, obese, or diabetic children who participate in the subsidized meal programs can request dietary change, special meals or accommodations to address their child's health status, but child care providers and schools are not required to comply with the request unless a licensed physician signs a "Medical statement to request special meals and/or accommodations". Although physicians are the only group authorized to change the foods, beverages, and portion sizes served daily to low income children, they are not doing so. Over the past three years, despite an overweight and obesity prevalence of 30% in San Francisco child care centers serving low income children, zero medical statements were filed to request special meals or accommodations to alter daily meals in order to prevent obesity, treat obesity, or prevent postprandial hyperglycemia. Low income children have systematically less dietary flexibility than higher income children, because of reliance on free or reduced-price meals, federal food program policy, and lack of awareness that only physicians have authority to alter the composition of subsidized meals in child care centers and schools. Compared with higher income children, low income children do not have equal opportunity to change their daily dietary intake to balance energy requirements."
AUTHOR
Jodi D Stookey
PUBLISHED
2015 in Obesity, open access

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Do obese children become obese adults: childhood predictors of adult disease
"Obesity is a multifactorial disorder influenced by genetic, behavioral, environmental and cultural factors. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in young people is increasing rapidly in both the developed and developing world and are considered today as a global epidemic. Recent studies show that obesity in adult life is heralded at birth and factors such as birth weight, adiposity rebound, socioeconomic status, early maturation and genetic predisposition may have a significant effect on the propensity to develop obesity in adulthood. Avoidance of accelerated weight gain in children should be investigated as a toll of adult obesity prevention. [References: 60]"
PUBLISHED
2004 in Pediatric Endocrinology Review

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Two-decade follow-up of fatness in early childhood.
"As shown in our study of 383 infants and preschool children followed through early adulthood, there is some evidence that obese children are more likely to be obese as adults. Though skinfold correlations over a two-decade period were low, averaging 0.14 for both sexes, 26% of initially obese preschool children were still obese two decades later as against 15% that would be expected by chance. The risk ratio was thus 1.77. Examined in the context of the family, the fatness levels of siblings, parents and grandparents help to identify obese children for whom early intervention is indicated and the larger number of obese preschoolers who do not become obese adults."
AUTHORS
S M Garn
M LaVelle
PUBLISHED
1985 in American journal of diseases of children (1960)

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Highly regarded source
Childhood influences on youth obesity
"We develop a model to estimate the influence of child and parental characteristics on the likelihood that a child will become an obese or overweight youth. We use this model to test whether it is possible to forecast obesity and overweight among youth. Comparing Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) scores from these forecasts, we find that a model using childhood covariates does as well in forecasting youth obesity and overweight as a model using the covariate values contemporaneous with the youth obesity and overweight outcomes. The datasets used in this paper, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults, provide data from 1986 to 2002, allowing for the study of a child's transition to and from obesity or overweight over a long period. Explanatory variables that significantly influence the likelihood of youth obesity or overweight outcomes include the mother's obesity status and education, the youth's mental health, and certain demographic features including race, sex, and family size. These factors provide potential targets for policies that could be implemented early in life among children most likely to become obese or overweight."
AUTHORS
Charles Hokayem
Timothy Classen
PUBLISHED
2005 in Economics & Human Biology

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Abused children may become obese adults
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40014-012-0675-1
PUBLISHED
2012 in Springer Healthcare News

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Current & future medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska.
"This study examines the medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska, today and in the future. We estimate that 15.2 percent of those ages 2 to 19 in Alaska are obese. Using parameters from published reports and studies, we estimate that the total excess medical costs due to obesity for both adults and children in Alaska in 2012 were $226 million, with medical costs of obese children and adolescents accounting for about $7 million of that total. And those medical costs will get much higher over time, as today's children transition into adulthood. Aside from the 15.2 percent currently obese, another estimated 20 percent of children who aren't currently obese will become obese as adults, if current national patterns continue. We estimate that the 20-year medical costs--discounted to present value--of obesity among the current cohort of Alaska children and adolescents will be $624 million in today's dollars. But those future costs could be decreased if Alaskans found ways to reduce obesity. We consider how reducing obesity in several ways could reduce future medical costs: reducing current rates of childhood obesity, rates of obese children who become obese adults, or rates of non-obese children and adolescents who become obese adults. We undertake modest reductions to showcase the potential cost savings associated with each of these channels. Clearly the financial savings are a direct function of the obesity reductions and therefore the magnitude of the realized savings will vary accordingly. Also keep in mind that these figures are only for the current cohort of children and adolescents; over time more generations of Alaskans will grow from children into adults, repeating the same cycle unless rates of obesity decline. And finally, remember that medical costs are only part of the broader range of social and economic costs obesity creates."
AUTHOR
Mouhcine Guettabi
PUBLISHED
2014 in Alaska medicine

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Child height and the risk of young-adult obesity.
"Background: Childhood obesity is a major risk factor for adult obesity, and obese children tend to be taller than their normal-weight peers.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether childhood height influences the probability that normal or overweight children become overweight young adults.

Methods: The study involved a multicenter prospective cohort of subjects assessed in both third grade and 12th grade, n=2802. Main exposures were CDC childhood BMI categories and height quartiles from third-grade measurements. Main outcome measure was CDC adult BMI categories from 12th-grade measurements. Associations between childhood height quartiles, childhood BMI categories, and adult BMI categories were assessed using chi-square tests and logistic regression models.

Results: Overall, 79% of overweight children remained overweight as young adults. Among children who were overweight or obese, the probability of becoming an overweight or obese young adult was 85% for children in the top quartile of height and 67% for children in the bottom quartile of height (p=0.007). Among children who were normal weight, the probability of becoming an overweight or obese young adult was 25% for children in the top height quartile versus 17% for children in the bottom height quartile (p=0.003).

Conclusions: When clinicians classify children by BMI categories and counsel about the risk for future obesity, they should recognize that greater height may be a marker for increased risk of adult overweight and obesity.

"
AUTHORS
John H Himes
Mark A Pereira
Ellen W Demerath
Leslie A Lytle
Peter J Hannan
Steven D Stovitz
PUBLISHED

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Literature review
Predicting obesity in children.
"Obesity in both children and adults is a major public health concern in the United States. Recent studies have provided data on predicting whether children will become obese adults. This information may be helpful in the development of preventive measures and treatments for obesity."
AUTHOR
T B Vanltallie
PUBLISHED
1998 in Nutrition Reviews

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Childhood antecedents of adult obesity. Do chubby infants become obese adults?
"We investigated whether obese infants tend to become obese adults. Records of subjects born between 1945 and 1955 were reviewed to select three cohorts based on weight in the first six months of age, which exceeded the 90th percentile at least once, ranged between 25th and 75th percentiles or was below 10th percentile at least once. Three hundred and sixty-six subjects, now between 20 and 30 years of age, were located and their present height and weight determined. Thirty-six per cent of those exceeding the 90th percentile as infants were overweight adults, as compared to 14 per cent of the average age and light-weight infants. A significant increase (chi square = 17.2, p less than 0.001) in adult obesity was evident when the infant exceeded the 75th percentile that was independent of his height. Social class, educational level, and parental weight all correlated with adult weight (p less than 0.001). Sex and ordinal position of birth did not. The data suggest that infant weight correlates strongly with adult weight independently of other factors considered."
PUBLISHED
1976 in The New England journal of medicine

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Do chubby infants become obese adults.
You can view the abstract at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/979822
PUBLISHED
1976 in The Medical Journal of Australia

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Childhood Antecedents of Adult Obesity
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm197607012950102
AUTHORS
Kurt Marx
Frank Disney
Barbro Lyon
Helen Chamblee Goodman
Rosalie Pratt
Burtis Breese et al
PUBLISHED
1976 in New England Journal of Medicine

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Does childhood obesity track into adulthood?
"Between 1971 and 1981 the Muscatine Coronary Risk Factor Project measured, in six biennial school surveys, 2631 schoolchildren 9 to 18 years of age. Beginning in 1981, these individuals were measured near their 23rd, 28th, and 33rd birthday. This article examines the tracking from childhood into young adult years of the heights, weights, body mass indices (BMI), and triceps skinfold thicknesses (TSF) of these individuals. Depending on age and gender, tracking correlations for height ranged from 0.41 to 0.97; for weight they ranged from 0.51 to 0.88; for BMI they ranged from 0.58 to 0.91; and for TSF they ranged from 0.26 to 0.58. From 49 to 70% of children in the upper quintile of weight were found in the upper quintile of weight as adults, from 48 to 75% of children in the upper quintile of BMI were again in the upper quintile as adults, and from 25 to 56% of children in the upper quintile of TSF were again in the upper quintile as adults. These measures track from childhood into young adult life, and the majority of obese children become obese adults. However, about 31% of children from the upper quintile of BMI became adults with substantially lower levels, while a similar number of lean children become obese adults. Why some obese children become obese adults and others do not remains an unanswered question. The data presented herein indicate that obesity is often acquired during childhood and adolescence when preventive measures could be applied."
AUTHORS
William R. Clarke
Ronald M. Lauer
PUBLISHED
1993 in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

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Literature review
Childhood predictors of high blood pressure.
"Longitudinal studies in children have tracked blood pressure through childhood and from childhood into adult life. However, many children do not maintain their rank during these periods of observation. Several of the factors contributing to maintenance of rank order are reviewed, such as initial level of blood pressure, body size, sexual maturation, and family history of high blood pressure. Children with initially high level of blood pressure are more likely to become adults with high blood pressure, particularly if they are obese as children or become obese as young adults, and if they have a positive family history for hypertension."
AUTHORS
R M Lauer
T L Burns
W R Clarke
L T Mahoney
PUBLISHED

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Literature review
Childhood obesity.
"Several conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the research reviewed: Obese children are more likely to become obese adults than are their thinner peers. Parent weight may interact with child weight status in the etiology of adult obesity. Obese children with obese parents are more likely to become obese adults than are obese children with thin parents. The prediction of adult obesity from childhood obesity improves with the age of the child. As the obese child gets older, he or she is more likely to become an obese adult. The inclusion of parents in the treatment process is important for the success of childhood weight control. It may be best to see the parent and child separately in treatment meetings rather than together. Children with thin parents may do better in weight control than children of obese parents. Adherence to exercise is likely to be a problem with obese children, and the choice or design of an exercise program should take these adherence problems into account. Nutritional adequacy of the child's diet should be evaluated both in terms of what the child is eating as well as in terms of the prescribed diet. Likewise, growth of the obese child during dieting should be monitored and should be related to expected height, which can be based on parent height. In summary, childhood obesity is a problem that places a child at great risk for becoming an obese adult. However, a growing body of research has emerged that has identified important risk factors for the development of obesity in children. Likewise, treatment methods have been developed that produce significant and long-lasting effects on childhood weight status. Continued development of treatment methods would be of great potential importance in the prevention and treatment of this prevalent problem."
AUTHORS
A Valoski
R R Wing
L H Epstein
PUBLISHED
1985 in Pediatric Clinics of North America

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Prevalence of overweight in children of obese patients: a dietary overview.
"Background: Evidence indicates that eating habits established during childhood related to food intake persist when the child becomes an adult. Parental obesity is positively associated with the development of obesity in the offspring, who tend to become sick and obese young adults during the reproductive phase and end up looking for bariatric surgery in order to reverse the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) already established.

Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 40 children aged 0 to 10 years, whose mothers underwent bariatric surgery at the Center of Morbid Obesity, Hospital São Lucas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (COM HSL PUCRS).

Results: Among these children, 45 % were overweight and 16 had high waist circumference values. The total energy intake and sodium consumption were above the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for the age group, while dietary fiber and potassium intakes were below DRIs. Obese children had higher percentage of lipid caloric intake (28.3 vs. 25.3 %, p < 0.025), while the non-obese group tended to have an increased consumption of carbohydrate (62.6 vs. 60 %, p < 0.066) when compared to the respective DRIs. The presence of NCDs in children's relatives was 100 %.

Conclusions: There is probably a significantly higher prevalence of obesity among children of morbidly obese parents when compared to the general child population. Since the familial aggregation of NCDs was absolute, these results point to the need for careful evaluation when dealing with children. However, further studies with a larger number of individuals are needed to confirm these results.

"
AUTHORS
Daniela S Casagrande
Cileide C Moulin
Samanta P Suessenbach
Milene A Pufal
Cláudio C Mottin
Alexandre V Padoin et al
PUBLISHED
2012 in Obesity Surgery

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Childhood obesity: know it to prevent it.
"Obesity can be defined as an excess of adipose tissue. It is associated to a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. The results of the Italian survey called Okkio alla Salute (2010), which was attended over 42'000 students of third-class of primary school and 44'000 parents, confirm bad eating habits, sedentary lifestyles and excess weight. In particular, 22,9% of the children resulted overweight and 11,1% obese. The prevalence of obesity is higher in the south of Italy than in the north and in males rather than in females. Moreover, parents do not always have a real idea of the physical aspect of their son: 36% of the mothers of overweight or obese children are do not believe their child is overweight. Just 29% of them think that the quantity of food eaten by their child is excessive. The relative risk for an obese child to become an obese adult increases with the age and is directly correlated to the severity of overweight. Among obese children of preschool age, 26 to 41% will be an obese adult., Among scholar children, the percentage increases to 69%. The paper describes a multidisciplinary approach the disease, in fact, dietary and behavioural modifications, associated with physical activity, have the purpose of educate overweight and of preventing the onset of complications or reducing their severity if already present and reversible."
AUTHORS
S Abela
M Bozzola
S Amato
E Bozzola
PUBLISHED
2012 in Igiene e Sanita Pubblica

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Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature
"Background. Obese children may be at increased risk of becoming obese adults. To examine the relationship between obesity in childhood and obesity in adulthood, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature published between 1970 and July 1992. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of obesity, and analytic methods used. Although the correlations between anthropometric measures of obesity in childhood and those in adulthood varied considerably among studies, the associations were consistently positive. Results. About a third (26 to 41%) of obese preschool children were obese as adults, and about half (42 to 63%) of obese school-age children were obese as adults. For all studies and across all ages, the risk of adult obesity was at least twice as high for obese children as for nonobese children. The risk of adult obesity was greater for children who were at higher levels of obesity and for children who were obese at older ages. Conclusion. The wide range of estimates in this literature are, in part, due to differences in study designs, definitions of obesity, ages at which participants were measured, intervals between measurements, and population and cultural differences."
PUBLISHED
1993 in Preventive Medicine

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Obesity: Genetic, molecular, and environmental aspects
"Obesity has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. Obese children tend to become obese adults. The dramatic rise in pediatric obesity closely parallels the rapid increase in the prevalence of adult obesity. As overweight children become adults they face the multitude of health problems associated with obesity at younger ages. The morbidity and mortality associated with obesity continue to increase. Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death. Complications of obesity include cardiovascular risks, hypertension, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance, acanthosis nigricans, hepatic steatosis, premature puberty, hypogonadism and polycystic ovary syndrome, obstructive sleep disorder, orthopedic complications, cholelithiasis and pseudotumor cerebri. Genetic and molecular and environmental factors play an important role in the assessment and management of obesity."
AUTHORS
Lewis A. Barness
John M. Opitz
Enid Gilbert-Barness
PUBLISHED
2007 in American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A

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Do obese children become obese adults: childhood predictors of adult disease.
"test"
AUTHOR
Peter N. Schlegel
PUBLISHED
2018 in Teaching in Higher Education

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The importance of parental knowledge: Evidence from weight report cards in Mexico
"The rise of childhood obesity in less developed countries is often overlooked. We study the impact of body weight report cards in Mexico. The report cards increased parental knowledge and shifted parental attitudes about children's weight. We observe no meaningful changes in parental behaviors or children's body mass index. Interestingly, parents of children in the most obese classrooms were less likely to report that their obese child weighed too much relative to those in the least obese classrooms. As obesity rates increase, reference points for appropriate body weights may rise, making it more difficult to lower obesity rates. "
AUTHORS
Heather Royer
Silvia Prina
PUBLISHED
2014 in Journal of Health Economics

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Parental Perception of Weight Status: Influence on Children's Diet in the Gateshead Millennium Study.
"Objective: Recognising overweight and obesity is critical to prompting action, and consequently preventing and treating obesity. The present study examined the association between parental perceptions of child weight status and child's diet.

Methods: Participants were members of the Gateshead Millennium Study. Parental perception of their child's weight status was assessed using a questionnaire and compared against International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for childhood overweight and obesity when the children were aged 6-8 years old. Diet was assessed at age 6-8years old using the FAST (Food Assessment in Schools Tool) food diary method. The association between parental perception and dietary patterns as defined by Principal Components Analysis, was assessed using multivariate regression after adjustment for child's gender, child's weight status, maternal body mass index (BMI), maternal education and deprivation status.

Results: Of the 361 parents who provided complete data on confounders and on their perception of their child's weight status, 63 (17%) parents perceived their child as being of 'normal' weight or 'overweight' when they were actually 'overweight' or 'obese', respectively. After adjustment for confounders, parents who misperceived their child's weight had children with a lower 'healthy' dietary pattern score compared to children whose parents correctly perceived their weight (β = -0.88; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.1; P-value = 0.028). This association was found despite higher consumption of reduced sugar carbonated drinks amongst children whose parents incorrectly perceived their weight status compared to children whose parents perceived their weight correctly (52.4% vs. 33.6%; P-value = 0.005).

Conclusions: In conclusion, children whose parents did not correctly perceive their weight status scored lower on the 'healthy' dietary pattern. Further research is required to define parents' diets based on their perception status and to examine if a child's or parent's diet mediates the association between parental perception and child weight.

"
AUTHORS
Ashley J Adamson
Heather Collins
Mark S Pearce
Kathryn N Parkinson
Angela R Jones
Suzana Almoosawi
PUBLISHED

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Adult obesity.
"Objectives: Based on direct measures of height and weight, this article compares the prevalence of obesity among adults aged 18 or older in 1978/79 and 2004. Prevalence by demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics is presented, along with associations between obesity and selected chronic conditions. Canadian and US data are also compared.

Data Sources: Data are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey: Nutrition, the 1978/79 Canada Health Survey and the 1986 to 1992 Canadian Heart Health Surveys. US data are from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Analytical Techniques: Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the proportion of adults who were obese in 2004 in relation to selected characteristics. Logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between obesity and high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease, controlling for socio-economic status and other risk factors such as smoking and physical activity.

Main Results: In 2004, 23% of adults, 5.5 million people aged 18 or older, were obese--up substantially from 14% in 1978/79. An additional 36% (8.6 million) were overweight. Obese individuals tended to have sedentary leisure-time pursuits and to consume fruit and vegetables infrequently. As body mass index (BMI) increased, so did an individual's likelihood of reporting high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.

"
AUTHOR
Michael Tjepkema
PUBLISHED

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Body position and obstructive sleep apnea in children.
"Study Objectives: In adults, sleep apnea is worse when the patient is in the supine position. However, the relationship between sleep position and obstructive apnea in children is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between obstructive apnea and body position during sleep in children.

Design: Retrospective analysis of the relationship between body position and obstructive apnea in obese and non-obese children.

Setting: Tertiary care pediatric sleep center.

Patients: Otherwise healthy children, aged 1-10 years, undergoing polysomnography for suspected obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Obese and non-obese children were evaluated separately.

Interventions: Retrospective review of the relationship between sleep position and obstructive apnea during polysomnography.

Measurements And Results: Eighty polysomnograms from 56 non-obese and 24 obese children were analyzed. Body position was determined by a sensor during polysomnography, and confirmed by review of videotapes. Children had a lower obstructive apnea hypopnea index when supine vs. prone, and shorter apneas when supine then when on their side. There was no difference in apnea duration between the supine and prone positions. Obese and non-obese children showed similar positional changes.

Conclusions: Children with obstructive sleep apnea, in contrast to adults, breathe best when in the supine position.

"
AUTHORS
Carole L Marcus
Richard Thompson
Xianbin Li
Lucila B Fernandes do Prado
PUBLISHED

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Management of adult obesity
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1755738013485728
AUTHORS
Mustafa Abas
Tamana Zemaryalai
PUBLISHED

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Highly regarded source
Carotid Artery Stiffness in Obese Children With the Metabolic Syndrome
"Obesity and overweight have been associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness and stiffness in adults and children. Overweight and obesity have also been associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that obese children with the MS have increased rigidity of their arteries compared with obese children without the MS. We studied 100 obese children (age range 6 to 14 years; 61 males, 39 females) consecutively seen in the outpatient clinic of a hospital department of pediatrics. Anthropometric measures and biochemical tests were performed in all children. Quantitative B-mode ultrasound scans were used to measure intima-media thickness and diameters of the common carotid artery. Common carotid arterial stiffness was significantly higher in the group of obese children with the MS (n = 38) at 1.29 +/- 0.06 mm (values log transformed) versus 1.12 +/- 0.04 mm (p <0.03) compared with those without the MS (n = 62). These differences persisted even after adjustment for age, gender, and C-reactive protein. Obese children with the MS had significantly higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (1.57 +/- 0.06 microg/L, values log transformed) compared with obese children without the MS (1.38 +/- 0.05 microg/L, p <0.03). In conclusion, obese children who met the diagnostic criteria for the MS had higher common carotid artery stiffness and higher C-reactive protein plasma concentrations than obese children without the MS."
AUTHORS
Mariano Agrusta
Maurizio Trevisan
Giuliana Valerio
Arcangelo Iannuzzi
Salvatore Panico
Maurizio Renis et al
PUBLISHED
2006 in The American Journal of Cardiology

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Airway Obstruction Worsens in Young Adults with Asthma Who Become Obese
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2015.05.009
AUTHORS
Anne Fuhlbrigge
Leonard B. Bacharier
Margaret Pulsifer
Leslie Plotnick
Ryan Colvin
Robert C. Strunk et al
PUBLISHED

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[Frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].
"Objective: To assess the frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents, in comparison with children and adolescents without developmental disorders.

Methods: Anthropometric measures were obtained in 69 outpatients with ASD (8.4±4.2 years old), 23 with ADHD (8.5±2.4) and 19 controls without developmental disorders (8.6±2.9) between August and November 2014. Parents of patients with ASD and ADHD also had their anthropometric parameters taken. Overweight was defined as a percentile ≥85; obesity as a percentile ≥95; and underweight as a percentile ≤5. For adults, overweight was defined as a BMI between 25 and 30kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI higher than 30kg/m(2).

Results: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD had higher BMI percentile (p<0.01) and z-score (p<0.01) than controls, and increased frequency of overweight and obesity (p=0.04). Patients with ASD and ADHD did not differ between them in these variables, nor regarding abdominal circumference. Parents of children with ASD and ADHD did not differ between themselves.

Conclusions: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD are at a higher risk of overweight and obesity than children without developmental problems in the community.

"
AUTHORS
Larissa Pfeilsticker
Marianna da Silva Rafael
Natália Pessoa Rocha
David Henrique Rodrigues
Izabela Guimarães Barbosa
Arthur Kummer et al
PUBLISHED

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Highly regarded source
Obesity and asthma in children
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2003.12.022
AUTHOR
Yue Chen
PUBLISHED
2004 in The Journal of Pediatrics

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[Study on blood biochemical variables of obese children screened by new BMI and weight-for-height criterion].
"Objective: To evaluate the abnormal state of liver function and plasma lipid levels of obese schoolchildren who were screened by weight-for-height criterion and new body mass index criterion respectively.

Methods: 280 obese children were screened by weight-for-height criterion and 125 obese children were screened by body mass index criterion in a routine school check-up program. All of the latter subjects was included in the former one. One obese child and 1 non-obese child were matched for gender and age. 14 items related to liver functions and plasma lipids were measured.

Results: Of the abnormal items,7 items in 125 obese children screened by new BMI criterion and 5 items in 155 "obese children" excluded by BMI criterion, were significantly higher than those children among controlled group. The abnormal rates were 10.4%-22.9% in the former and 3.2%-13.0% in the latter.

Conclusions: The new BMI criterion seemed to be more stringent than weight-for-height. Less than a half of the obese children screened by weight-for-height were taken on obese children by new BMI criterion. The overweight children who were screened by BMI criterion also had abnormal liver functions and plasma lipids.

"
AUTHORS
Qing-wu Jiang
Xiao-hong Yu
Fei Yuan
Xin-feng Chen
Bao-qing Mo
Li Xiao
PUBLISHED

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Predictors of obesity among Métis children: socio-economic, behavioural and cultural factors.
"Objectives: To examine the socio-economic, behavioural and Métis-specific factors that predict obesity among Métis children aged 6 to 14 years. Socio-economic factors included household structure and income, parental education and food insecurity. Cultural factors included knowledge of an Aboriginal language, participation in cultural activities, time spent with Elders and parental residential school attendance.

Methods: The 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, Children and Youth component collected data about Métis children, including child height and weight, reported by the person most knowledgeable about the child (PMK). Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to predict obesity, defined using IOTF BMI cut-offs. After testing for interactions, models were stratified by age (6-10, 11-14) and gender.

Results: An estimated 18.5% of Métis boys and 14.4% of girls were obese. The effects of socio-economic factors and region varied across age and gender groups, although living in a lone-parent family and rural residence had consistent effects. Many effects of cultural variables were unexpected. Although PMK residential schooling was positively associated with obesity generally, the effects were negative among older girls. As expected, children participating in frequent physical activity generally had lower risk, independent of other factors.

Conclusions: Although socio-economic factors are related to risk of obesity among Métis children, the effects may not be the same across age groups and for boys and girls. There is some evidence of independent effects of Métis-specific cultural factors, including parental residential schooling, on the risk of child obesity, but further investigation and better data are needed to understand these relationships.

"
AUTHORS
Shelley L H Gonneville
Kenneth W Paul
Piotr Wilk
Martin J Cooke
PUBLISHED

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Bisphenol A and Obesity in Children and Adolescents
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.91936
AUTHOR
Robert L. Brent
PUBLISHED
2013 in JAMA

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