Do police body cameras reduce use of force by the police?

Submitted by: TMifune 55

There is no consensus in the literature on this question.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 15 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 15 studies examining this question
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Literature Reviews
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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 15
Sorted by publication year
1
Research on body‐worn cameras
"In this article, we provide the most comprehensive narrative review to date of the research evidence base for body‐worn cameras (BWCs). Seventy empirical studies of BWCs were examined covering the impact of cameras on officer behavior, officer perceptions, citizen behavior, citizen perceptions, police investigations, and police organizations. Although officers and citizens are generally supportive of BWC use, BWCs have not had statistically significant or consistent effects on most measures of officer and citizen behavior or citizens’ views of police. Expectations and concerns surrounding BWCs among police leaders and citizens have not yet been realized by and large in the ways anticipated by each. Additionally, despite the large growth in BWC research, there continues to be a lacuna of knowledge on the impact that BWCs have on police organizations and police–citizen relationships more generally."
AUTHORS
Christopher S. Koper
Cynthia Lum
J. Amber Scherer
Megan Stoltz
PUBLISHED
2019 in Criminology & Public Policy
High quality source
Literature Review
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
2
The Benefits of Body-Worn Cameras: New Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial at the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department
"Many community stakeholders and criminal justice leaders have suggested placingbody-worn cameras (BWCs) on police officers improves the civility of police-citizenencounters and enhances citizen perceptions of police transparency and legitimacy. Inresponse, many police departments have adopted this technology to improve thequality of policing in their communities. However, the existing evaluation evidence onthe intended and unintended consequences of outfitting police officers with BWCs isstill developing. This study reports the findings of a randomized controlled trial (RCT)involving more than 400 police officers in the Las Vegas Metropolitan PoliceDepartment (LVMPD). We find that BWC-wearing officers generated significantly fewercomplaints and use of force reports relative to control officers without cameras. BWCwearing officers also made more arrests and issued more citations than their nonBWC-wearing controls. In addition, our cost-benefit analysis revealed that savings fromreduced complaints against officers, and the reduced time required to resolve suchcomplaints, resulted in substantial cost savings for the police department. Consideringthat LVMPD had already introduced reforms regarding use of force through aCollaborative Reform Initiative prior to implementing body worn cameras, thesefindings suggest that body worn cameras can have compelling effects withoutincreasing costs."
AUTHORS
James R. Coldren
Omer Alper
William Sousa
Anthony Braga
Denise Rodriguez
PUBLISHED
2017 in National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Yes
Yes
3
Exploring the Potential for Body-Worn Cameras to Reduce Violence in Police–Citizen Encounters
"One of the most compelling perceived benefits of body-worn cameras (BWCs) involves the potential for reductions in citizen complaints and police use of force. A handful of early studies reported significant reductions in both outcomes following BWC adoption, but several recent studies have failed to document such effects. The current study explores this question using data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in the Spokane (WA) Police Department. Approximately half of patrol officers (n = 82) were assigned BWCs in May 2015, while the other half (n = 67) received their BWCs 6 months later (November 2015). The study explores the effects of BWCs on use of force, complaints against officers, and officer injuries, using more than three years of official department data pre- and post-BWC deployment. The outcomes of interest are rare in Spokane, which limited both statistical power and the results from significance testing. However, the within-group trends are consistent with a positive effect, particularly for percent change. Following BWC deployment, the percentage of officers with a complaint in each group declined by 50% and 78% (Control and Treatment, respectively); the percentage of officers with a use of force declined notably (39%) for one group only. The reductions disappeared after 6 months for the Treatment group. There was no relationship between BWCs and officer injuries. The authors discuss the implications of the findings for the ongoing dialogue on BWCs."
AUTHORS
Natalie Todak
Janne E. Gaub
Michael D. White
PUBLISHED
2017 in Policing
High quality source
Yes
Yes
4
Body-worn video: A systematic review of literature
"Law enforcement use of video-based technology has substantially increased over the past decade. This systematic review examines the current evidence base for efficacy of body-worn video and the current case for implementation. Five articles were identified as pertinent to this review from a search of five electronic databases, with a further six articles of grey literature included. Inter-rater reliability was high amongst three independent screeners of literature. Articles were short listed for review if they explicitly identified police and record-ing devices as topic areas. Articles were then excluded if they did not involve an operational trial of body-worn video. Eleven articles were included for review; of the five peer-reviewed studies, two were randomised controlled trials. An abundance of evidence was provided; however, the majority of articles were methodologically weak. Body-worn video was shown to reduce use of force incidents, crime rates for certain crime types and court costs. Public response to body-worn video was varied, as was police officer and public opinion. Due to methodological limitations evident in most studies and the general lack of peer-reviewed material, further research is required; however, there are some considerable benefits reported in the current literature"
AUTHORS
Robert Corry
Gemma L Myers
Rebecca Lesic
Timothy IC Cubitt
PUBLISHED
2017 in Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology
High quality source
Literature Review
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
5
A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of the Effects of Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs) on Response-to-Resistance in a Large Metropolitan Police Department
"© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. The current study provides a statistically rigorous program evaluation of the impact of police body-worn cameras (BWCs) on police response-to-resistance (e.g., use of force). Results indicate that BWC officers’ mean frequency of response-to-resistance decreased by 8.4% from the 12 months pre-BWC implementation to the 12 months post-BWC implementation compared with a 3.4% increase observed for the matched sample of non-BWC officers. Police departments should consider adopting BWCs alongside other strategies to reduce police response-to-resistance, and to improve transparency and accountability. Study limitations and directions for future research are also discussed."
AUTHORS
Jennifer M. Reingle Gonzalez
Katelyn K. Jetelina
Mathew Lynch
Lorie A. Fridell
Wesley G. Jennings
PUBLISHED
2017 in Deviant Behavior
High quality source
Yes
Yes
6
Testing the effects of police body-worn cameras on use of force during arrests: A randomised controlled trial in a large British police force
"This study aims to assess the effect of body-worn cameras (BWCs) on police use of force, in a British police force context. We tested the effect of BWCs with a large British force in a six-month randomised controlled trial. Police shifts (n = 430) were randomly assigned on a weekly basis into treatment and control conditions. Odds ratios of use-of-force rates per arrests were used to estimate the causal impact of BWCs. Analyses of these odds for overall use of force and again within pre-specified force categories were conducted. Overall, we found a 50 percent reduction in the odds of force used when BWCs are present compared with control conditions. Our estimates suggest a 35 percent reduction of overall weighted force in the treatment conditions compared with control conditions. However, the effect concentrates in open-hand tactics (physical restraints and non-compliant handcuffing), with no discernible effect on categories of more aggressive force responses (for example, dogs, Tasers, batons, pepper spray); 40 percent 'more force' was detected in treatment conditions for handcuffing non-combatant suspects. We conclude that BWCs deter officers, offenders or both into complaint behaviour. Importantly, showing a conditional effect on force types can be further contextualised as enhanced transparency and accountability by the police, with greater reporting of use of force that would otherwise be concealed. Our findings illustrate the importance of analysing police use of force with and without compliant handcuffing of arrestees, which may or may not form part of the force continuum."
AUTHORS
Barak Ariel
Darren Henstock
PUBLISHED
2017 in European Journal of Criminology
High quality source
Yes
Yes
7
Armed with Technology: The Effects on Fatal Shootings of Civilians by the Police
"Deaths of civilians by the police in recent years have led to protests and disruptions inseveral cities, such as New York and Chicago. In this study, we investigate how the use of technology by the police affects deadly shootings of civilians. Drawing upon the criminology literature, we propose a simple, stylized model on a police officer’s decision-making to shoot to explain how technology use for intelligence analyses and evidence gathering affects the use of lethal force. Our empirical analyses revealed both encouraging and surprising findings. We found that both the use of smartphones and the statistical analyses of crime data are associated with a decrease in deadly shootings. In contrast, the use of wearable body cameras is related to an increase in fatal shootings by the police. We also found that the effect of technology use is more pronounced for armed suspects and among males, the youth, and minorities."
AUTHORS
Paul A. Pavlou
Min-Seok Pang
PUBLISHED
2016 in SSRN Electronic Journal
Preprint
No
No
8
Police Body Cameras in Large Police Departments
"Body Worn Cameras are spreading worldwide, under the assumptionthat police performance, conduct, accountability, and legitimacy, in theeyes of the public, are enhanced as a result of using these devices. Inaddition, suspects’ demeanor during police–public engagements ishypothesized to change as a result of the video-recording of the encounter.For both parties—officers and suspects—the theoretical mechanism thatunderpins these behavioral changes is deterrence theory, self-awarenesstheory, or both. Yet evidence on the efficacy of Body Worn Camerasremains largely anecdotal, with only one rigorous study, from a small forcein Rialto, California, validating the hypotheses. How Body Worn Camerasaffect police–public interactions in large police departments remainsunknown, as does their effect on other outcomes, such as arrests. With oneDenver police district serving as the treatment area and five other districtswithin a large metropolitan area serving as comparisons, we offer mixedfindings as in the Rialto Experiment, not least in terms of effect magnitudes. Adjusted odds-ratios suggest a significant 35% lower odds forcitizens’ complaints against the police use of force, but 14% greater oddsfor a complaint against misconduct, when Body Worn Cameras are used.No discernable effect was detected on the odds of use of force at theaggregate, compared to control conditions (OR=0.928; p>0.1). Finally,arrest rates dropped significantly, with the odds of an arrest when BodyWorn Cameras not present is 18% higher than the odds under treatmentconditions. The outcomes are contextualized within the framework ofreactive emergency calls for service rather than proactive policing. Wefurther discuss officers’ decisions and the degree of the necessity of arrestin policing more broadly, because the burden of proof for tangible evidencenecessary for making a legal arrest can be challenged with the evidenceproduced by Body Worn Cameras: officers become “cautious” about arresting suspects when Body Worn Cameras are present. Limitationsassociated with the lack of randomly assigned comparison units arediscussed, as well, with practical recommendations for future research onBody Worn Cameras."
AUTHOR
Barak Ariel
PUBLISHED
2016 in Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology
High quality source
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
9
Wearing body cameras increases assaults against officers and does not reduce police use of force: Results from a global multi-site experiment
"Police use of force is at the forefront of public awareness in many countries. Body-worn videos (BWVs) have been proposed as a new way of reducing police use of force, as well as assaults against officers. To date, only a handful of peer-reviewed randomised trials have looked at the effectiveness of BWVs, primarily focusing on use of force and complaints. We sought to replicate these studies, adding assaults against police officers as an additional outcome. Using a prospective meta-analysis of multi-site, multi-national randomised controlled trials from 10 discrete tests with a total population of +2 million, and 2.2 million police officer-hours, we assess the effect of BWVs on the rates of (i) police use of force and (ii) assaults against officers. Averaged over 10 trials, BWVs had no effect on police use of force (d = 0.021; SE = 0.056; 95% CI: –0.089–0.130), but led to an increased rate of assaults against officers wearing cameras (d = 0.176; SE = 0.058; 95% CI: 0.061–0.290). As there is evidence that cameras may increase the risk of assaults against officers, more attention should be paid to how these devices are implemented. Likewise, since other public-facing organisations are considering equipping their staff with BWVs (e.g. firefighters, private security, traffic wardens), the findings on risks associated with BWVs are transferrable to those occupations as well."
AUTHORS
Jayne Sykes
Paul Drover
Josh Young
Darren Henstock
Alex Sutherland
Barak Ariel et al
PUBLISHED
2016 in European Journal of Criminology
High quality source
No
No
10
Body Worn Video: Considering the Evidence
"Use of ForceFindings There is no statistically significant evidence that the presence of BWV reduced use offorce. Members’ experiences were that the presence of BWV could cause them to hesitate touse appropriate levels of force. BWV can contribute to use- of-force reviews and training."
AUTHOR
Edmonton Police Service
PUBLISHED
2015 in Edmonton Police Service
No
No
11
Existing and Ongoing Body Worn Camera Research: Knowledge Gaps and Opportunities
"The GMU team reviewed two areas of research to examine the state of, and researchquestions explored in, existing and ongoing empirical studies related to BWCs. Most researchhas been and is being conducted in law enforcement agencies (Section A). However, given thelikely impact of BWCs on court processes, we also examined the literature and existing projectsrelated to BWCs in that arena as well (Section B). Despite the rapid diffusion of BWCs, wediscovered significant gaps in our knowledge about their uses, as well as their intended andunintended consequences in both policing and court processes. Significant opportunities forfuture research projects are highlighted for each."
AUTHORS
Cynthia Lum
Amanda Reioux
Amber Scherer
Linda Merola
Christopher Koper
PUBLISHED
2015 by Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy
Literature Review
NGO FUNDING
This organization does not disclose its donors
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
12
Evaluating the impact of police officer body-worn cameras (BWCs) on response-to-resistance and serious external complaints: Evidence from the Orlando police department (OPD) experience utilizing a randomized controlled experiment
"Purpose: To evaluate the effect of police body-worn cameras (BWCs) on officers' response-to-resistance (R2R) incidents and serious external complaints.Methods: A randomized experiment was used where 46 officers were randomly assigned to wear BWCs and 43 officers were randomly assigned to not wear BWCs. Pre- and post-BWC implementation outcome data was compared both between and within groups.Results: The results suggest that BWCs are an effective tool to reduce R2R incidents and serious external complaints. Specifically, the prevalence of R2R incidents and the prevalence and frequency of serious external complaints were significantly less for officers randomly assigned to wear BWCs. Pre-post comparisons within groups demonstrated that the reduction in the prevalence of R2R incidents (53.4% reduction) and external complaints (65.4% reduction) were statistically significant for the officers who wore the BWCs, and significant reductions in the frequency of these outcomes were detected as well. Overwhelming agreement was also found among officers who wore the BWCs for the utility of BWCs to improve evidence collection and report writing and improve their behavior and police work in general by having the opportunity to review their own BWC videos.Conclusions: Police departments would be prudent to consider adopting these devices in their agencies."
AUTHORS
Lorie A. Fridell
Mathew D. Lynch
Wesley G. Jennings
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Criminal Justice
High quality source
Yes
Yes
13
The Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use of Force and Citizens’ Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial
"Police use-of-force continues to be a major source of international concern, inviting interest from academics and practitioners alike. Whether justified or unnecessary/excessive, the exercise of power by the police can potentially tarnish their relationship with the community. Police misconduct can translate into complaints against the police, which carry large economic and social costs. The question we try to answer is: do body-worn-cameras reduce the prevalence of use-of-force and/or citizens’ complaints against the police?MethodsWe empirically tested the use of body-worn-cameras by measuring the effect of videotaping police–public encounters on incidents of police use-of-force and complaints, in randomized-controlled settings. Over 12 months, we randomly-assigned officers to “experimental-shifts” during which they were equipped with body-worn HD cameras that recorded all contacts with the public and to “control-shifts” without the cameras (n = 988). We nominally defined use-of-force, both unnecessary/excessive and reasonable, as a non-desirable response in police–public encounters. We estimate the causal effect of the use of body-worn-videos on the two outcome variables using both between-group differences using a Poisson regression model as well as before-after estimates using interrupted time-series analyses.ResultsWe found that the likelihood of force being used in control conditions were roughly twice those in experimental conditions. Similarly, a pre/post analysis of use-of-force and complaints data also support this result: the number of complaints filed against officers dropped from 0.7 complaints per 1,000 contacts to 0.07 per 1,000 contacts. We discuss the findings in terms of theory, research methods, policy and future avenues of research on body-worn-videos."
AUTHORS
Alex Sutherland
William A. Farrar
Barak Ariel
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Quantitative Criminology
High quality source
Yes
Yes
14
Evaluating the Impact of Officer Worn Body Cameras in the Phoenix Police Department
"The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), through the SMART Policing Initiative (SPI), awardedthe Phoenix Police Department $500,000 to purchase, deploy and evaluate police body worncameras. The design and implementation of the project included the purchase of 56 Body WornCamera (BWC) systems and deploying them in the Maryvale Precinct. The implementation ofthe BWC’s occurred in one of the two Maryvale Precinct squad areas (aka target area). Allofficers assigned to the target area were issued the equipment and were provided training in itsuse, maintenance, and related departmental policy. This evaluation was conducted to examinethe effect of implementing police worn body cameras on complaints against the police anddomestic violence case processing and outcomes.Our analysis of the camera meta-data indicated that only 13.2 to 42.2 percent of incidents wererecorded by and BWV camera. Domestic violence incidents were the most likely to be recorded(47.5%), followed by violent offenses (38.7), back-up (37%), status offenses (32.9%), andsubject/vehicle stops (30.9%). Other offense types were recorded less often. While in generalthe technology was found to be comfortable and easy to use, officers were dissatisfied with longdown load times, increased amount of time that it took to complete reports, and the possibilitythat video recordings might be used against them by the department. We also found that videosubmitted to the court was difficult to process because of logistical problems associated withchain of custody and the length of time that it took the prosecutors to review video files. Whilemany of the problems were addressed by the precinct commander by assigning a police officer toserve as a court liaison officer, prosecutors still maintained that they did not have enough time toreview video footage.Regardless, the officer worn body cameras were found to be beneficial to the officers and thecourt in a number of ways. First, officer productivity as measured through the number of arrestsincreased significantly. For instance, the number of arrests increased by about 17% among thetarget group compared to 9% in the comparison group. Second, complaints against the policedeclined significantly. Complaints against officers who wore the cameras declined by 23%,compared to a 10.6% increase among comparison officers and 45.1% increase among patrolofficers in other precincts. Third, our data showed that those officers who wore cameras andreceived a complaint were significantly less likely to have the complaint sustained whencompared to the comparison group and other patrol officers throughout the PPD. This suggeststhat even if a complaint was made against a camera wearing officer the video file was likely toprovide support to the officer. Fourth, and related, the officer self-report data suggested that asignificant number of complaints were not pursued because of video recordings. BWC did notappear, however, to have an impact on s"
AUTHORS
Kevin “K.J.” Johnson
Mike Kurtenbach
Lidia Nuňo
Justin R. Ready
David E. Choate
Charles M. Katz
PUBLISHED
2014 by Center for Violence Prevention and Community Safety
NGO FUNDING
This organization does not disclose its donors
Yes
Yes
15
Self-Awareness to Being Watched and Socially-Desirable Behavior: A Field Experiment on the Effect of Body-Worn Cameras on Police Use-of-Force
"This study was conducted to determine whether body cameras worn by police officers would reduce the incidences of police-use-of-force. Findings from the study include the following: shifts in which officers did not use body cameras experienced twice as many incidents of police-use-of-force compared to shifts where officers used body cameras; and the number of complaints against the police for excessive use of force dropped from 28 complaints in the 12 months prior to the study to 3 during the study period. Researchers were unable to compute a treatment effect due to the large overall reduction in the number of complaints. The study was conducted with the assistance of the Rialto Police Department. All 54 frontline officers in the department participated in the study. The officers were randomly assigned to either the control group – no use of body cameras, or the experimental group – use of body cameras. The officers in the experimental group were instructed to wear the body cameras during their entire shift and to record all public-police encounters. The content of the videotapes were analyzed to determine the effect of the camera on the incidences of police-use-of-force. The findings from the analysis suggest that the presence of the cameras resulted in an almost 50 percent reduction in the total number of incidents of use of force, and that when cameras were not used (the control group), citizen complaints were almost 10 times higher compared to the experimental group. Suggestions for future research are discussed. Tables, figure, and references"
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 42
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do police body cameras reduce use of force by the police?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

The impact of on-officer video cameras on police–citizen contacts: findings from a controlled experiment in Mesa, AZ
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11292-015-9237-8
AUTHORS
Jacob T. N. Young
Justin T. Ready
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Experimental Criminology

Add to List
Deterrence in the Twenty-First Century
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1086/670398
AUTHOR
Daniel S. Nagin
PUBLISHED
2013 in Crime and Justice

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The Rise of Evidence-Based Policing: Targeting, Testing, and Tracking
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1086/670819
AUTHOR
Lawrence W. Sherman
PUBLISHED
2013 in Crime and Justice

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THE MANAGEMENT OF VIOLENCE BY POLICE PATROL OFFICERS*
AUTHORS
JAMES GAROFALO
DAVID H. BAYLEY
PUBLISHED
1989 in Criminology

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Situational and officer-based determinants of police coercion
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820200095221
AUTHORS
Stephen D. Mastrofski
William Terrill
PUBLISHED
2002 in Justice Quarterly

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Causes of Police Behavior: the Current State of Quantitative Research
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1177/002242788001700106
AUTHOR
Lawrence W. Sherman
PUBLISHED
1980 in Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency

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Further exploration of the demeanor hypothesis: The interaction effects of suspects' characteristics and demeanor on police behavior
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820000096311
AUTHORS
Robert E. Worden
James J. Sobol
Robin Shepard Engel
PUBLISHED
2000 in Justice Quarterly

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Cops and cameras: Officer perceptions of the use of body-worn cameras in law enforcement
"Purpose
There has been a recent surge in the adoption of and media attention to the use of body-worn cameras in law enforcement. Despite this increase in use and media attention, there is little to no research on officer perceptions of body-worn cameras.

Methods
This study relies on baseline data of officer perceptions toward body-worn cameras collected from surveys administered to Orlando Police officers who are participants in a randomized experiment evaluating the impact of body-worn cameras (Taser AXON Flex) in law enforcement.

Results
Results suggest that police officers are, by and large, open to and supportive of the use of body-worn cameras in policing, they would feel comfortable wearing them, and that they perceive a potential for benefits of body-worn cameras in improving citizen behavior, their own behavior, and the behavior of their fellow officers.

Conclusions
Officers are generally supportive of body-worn cameras, and they hold perceptions that these devices can be beneficial in positively affecting relevant outcomes. Study limitations and implications are also discussed."
AUTHORS
Mathew D. Lynch
Lorie A. Fridell
Wesley G. Jennings
PUBLISHED
2014 in Journal of Criminal Justice

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Randomized Block Designs
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-77650-7_21
AUTHORS
David P. Farrington
Barak Ariel
PUBLISHED
2010 in Handbook of Quantitative Criminology (Book)

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Leading an Experiment in Police Body-Worn Video Cameras
"Body-worn video (BWV) is seen internationally as having the potential to reduce public complaints against police, police use of force, and attrition of prosecutions due to lack of physical evidence. Beyond the Cambridge trial in Rialto, California, however, no studies have tested the effects of BWV. The present study documents a Police leaders’ implementation of a randomized controlled trial of the use of BWV.

The main objectives are to identify the challenges to implementing a trial and identify how they were overcome. The solutions to these challenges may provide key lessons for police leaders, not only as they undertake evidence-based testing, but also as they manage police operations and implement change. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]"
AUTHORS
Barak Ariel
Paul Drover
PUBLISHED
2015 in International Criminal Justice Review

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TOWARD A NATIONAL ESTIMATE OF POLICE USE OF NONLETHAL FORCE
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2008.00528.x
AUTHORS
JOEL H. GARNER
ALEX R. PIQUERO
MATTHEW J. HICKMAN
PUBLISHED
2008 in Criminology & Public Policy

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Interactive Police-Citizen Encounters that Result in Force
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611103260507
AUTHORS
John M. MacDonald
Roger G. Dunham
Geoffrey P. Alpert
PUBLISHED
2004 in Police Quarterly

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EFFECTS OF AN OBSERVER ON HAND WASHING IN A PUBLIC RESTROOM
"Summary.-This experiment tests a prediction derived from social influence theories that increased awareness of self enhances normative behavior, specifically, that the frequency and duration of handwashing in a public restroom will be increased by the presence of an observer. When a second person was present, 24 of 31 female subjects washed their hands after using toilet facilities, while only 11 of 28 washed when they were alone. Among those who washed, no significant difference in duration of washing was observed.

The results are consistent with Wicklund's theory of obiective self-awareness and other theories of social influence."
AUTHORS
SHELBY J. HARRIS
KRISTEN MUNGER
PUBLISHED
1989 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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Police use of deadly force: Research and reform
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418828800089691
AUTHOR
James J. Fyfe
PUBLISHED
1988 in Justice Quarterly

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Increasing Cooperation With the Police Using Body Worn Cameras
"What can change the willingness of people to report crimes? A 6-month study in Denver investigated whether Body Worn Cameras (BWCs) can change crime- reporting behavior, with treatment-officers wearing BWCs patrolling targeted street segments, while control officers patrolled the no-treatment areas without BWCs. Stratified street segments crime densities were used as the units of analysis, in order to measure the effect on the number of emergency calls in target versus control street segments.

Repeated measures ANOVAs and subgroup analyses suggest that BWCs lead to greater willingness to report crimes to the police in low crime density level residential street segments, but no discernable differences emerge in hotspot street segments. Variations in reporting are interpreted in terms of accountability, legitimacy, or perceived utility caused by the use of BWCs. Situational characteristics of the street segments explain why low-level street seg- ments are affected by BWCs, while in hotspots no effect was detected"
AUTHOR
Barak Ariel
PUBLISHED
2016 in Police Quarterly

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Objective Self-Awareness
"This chapter focuses on the theory of objective self-awareness. It presents the theory of objective self-awareness as it stands presently: Conscious attention is viewed as dichotomous, having the property of being directed either toward the self or toward the environment. The direction of attention is guided by events that force attention inward, such as reflections of the self, and events that pull attention outward, such as distracting stimuli outside the self.

Under objective self-awareness, the person will experience either negative or positive affect depending on whether attention is directed toward a negative or a positive discrepancy. The chapter illustrates the operation of a principle that is new to the theory. There are three studies relevant to this new proposition—two on self-esteem and one on attribution.

Escaping objective self-awareness has been highlighted. The evolved theory of objective self-awareness has ramifications for three conceptual phenomena: (1) The initial reaction to self-focused attention is self-evaluation, which can be either favorable or unfavorable, depending on the nature of the salient within-self discrepancy; (2) The onset of self-focused attention generates attempts to avoid mirrors and similar stimuli, given that salient discrepancies are negative, and in experimentation, attention can be taken from the self through passive diversions as well as through motor activities; (3) If there is no escape from self-focusing stimuli, discrepancy reduction will then follow. © 1975, Academic Press Inc."
AUTHOR
Robert A. Wicklund
PUBLISHED
1975 in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology

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Officer Perceptions of Body-Worn Cameras Before and After Deployment
"Over the past few years, several events have highlighted the strained relationship between the police and residents in many communities. Police officer body-worn cameras (BWCs) have been advocated as a tool by which police–community relations can be strengthened, while simultaneously increasing transparency and accountability of police departments. Support for BWCs from the public and federal government is strong, and some studies have examined police perceptions of BWCs. However, comparisons of officer perceptions of BWCs in different departments are lacking, as are assessments of officer attitudes pre- and post-BWC deployment. This study compares officer perceptions of BWCs in three police departments in the western United States between 2013 and 2015, both before and after BWC program implementation. The similarities and differences among officer perceptions across departments are examined, and the authors consider the implications of findings for police departments moving forward with BWC technology."
AUTHORS
Michael D. White
Charles M. Katz
Natalie Todak
David E. Choate
Janne E. Gaub
PUBLISHED
2016 in Police Quarterly

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Police brutality-answers to key questions
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02804717
AUTHOR
Albert J. Reiss
PUBLISHED
1968 in Society

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Gold Standard Myths: Observations on the Experimental Turn in Quantitative Criminology
"n/a"
AUTHOR
Robert J. Sampson
PUBLISHED
2010 in Journal of Quantitative Criminology

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Characteristics associated with the prevalence and severity of force used by the police
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820200095401
AUTHORS
Cedrick G. Heraux
Christopher D. Maxwell
Joel H. Garner
PUBLISHED
2002 in Justice Quarterly

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Highly regarded source
Examining Officer and Citizen Accounts of Police Use-of-Force Incidents
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128710386206
AUTHORS
Hayden P. Smith
Geoffrey P. Alpert
Jeff Rojek
PUBLISHED
2012 in Crime & Delinquency

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Understanding Police Use of Force
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499449
AUTHORS
Roger G. Dunham
Geoffrey P. Alpert
PUBLISHED
2004 by Cambridge University Press (Book)

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Measuring the Continuum of Force Used by and Against the Police
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1177/073401689502000204
AUTHORS
John Buchanan
John Hepburn
Thomas Schade
Joel H. Garner
PUBLISHED
1995 in Criminal Justice Review

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Police use of force and neighbourhood characteristics: an examination of structural disadvantage, crime, and resistance
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/10439460802091690
AUTHORS
Kristina Childs
Thomas Mieczkowski
Thomas Bazley
Kim M. Lersch
PUBLISHED
2008 in Policing and Society

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Literature review
Public Area CCTV and Crime Prevention: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820802506206
AUTHORS
David P. Farrington
Brandon C. Welsh
PUBLISHED
2009 in Justice Quarterly

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Diffusion of Ideas and Technology
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986214553380
AUTHORS
Justin T. Ready
Jacob T. N. Young
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice

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Random assignment without tears: how to stop worrying and love the Cambridge randomizer
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11292-012-9141-4
AUTHORS
Lawrence Sherman
Jordi Vila
Barak Ariel
PUBLISHED
2012 in Journal of Experimental Criminology

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Body-worn cameras for police accountability: Opportunities and risks
"The use of body-worn cameras by police forces around the world is spreading quickly. The resulting mobile and ubiquitous surveillance is often marketed as an instrument for accountability and an effective way of reducing violence, discrimination or corruption. It also involves remarkable potential for intrusion into the privacy of both individuals and police agents.We analyse the deployment of police body-worn cameras in five countries, investigate their suitability as an accountability tool given the associated privacy threats, and discuss the societal impact of their deployment as well as the risk of function creep."
AUTHORS
Daniel Le Métayer
Denis Butin
Fanny Coudert
PUBLISHED
in Computer Law and Security Review

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Post-experimental follow-ups—Fade-out versus persistence effects: The Rialto police body-worn camera experiment four years on
"Purpose Under certain conditions, experimental treatment effects result in behavioral modifications that persist beyond the study period, at times, even after the interventions are discontinued. On the other hand, there are interventions that generate brief, short-term effects that “fade out” once the manipulation is withdrawn or when the in-study follow-up period is completed. These scenarios are context specific. Methods This study reports the results from a three-year post-experimental follow-up from the world's first randomized controlled trial of police body-worn cameras. Results The results show that initial falls in rates of complaints against police and police use of force during arrest were sustained during the four years following the cameras being introduced. Conclusions The findings suggest that police officers do not become habituated to the effect of the body-worn cameras, and that persistence rather than fade-out effects may characterize this emerging technology."
AUTHORS
Randy De Anda
William Farrar
Barak Ariel
Alex Sutherland
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Criminal Justice

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Behind the lens: police attitudes toward body-worn cameras and organizational justice
FUNDERS
University of South Florida
"Body-worn cameras are a promising new development in policing. They have been linked to positive outcomes such as decreases in use of force and complaints against officers. However, this new technology has produced a number of issues that could thwart a successful body-worn camera program implementation. One issue is the extent to which officers possess positive attitudes toward using body-worn cameras. If officers do not view body-worn cameras positively, they may not use cameras to their full potential. This study examined the relationship between organizational justice and attitudes toward body-worn cameras in 492 police officers across 3 agencies using structural equation modeling. Findings indicated no observable relationship between perceptions of organizational justice and attitudes toward body-worn cameras. The implications for the organizational adoption of innovations in policy are discussed."
AUTHORS
Joseph A. Schafer
Matthew J. Giblin
George W. Burruss
Nathan L. Lawshe
PUBLISHED
2019 in Journal of Crime and Justice

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Police Body-Worn Cameras
"Police Body-Worn Cameras breaks down what’s known – and not known – about the promises, perils, and potential best practices around police body-worn cameras. Both law enforcement and civil rights advocates are excited by the potential of body-worn cameras to improve community policing and safety, but there is no empirical research to conclusively suggest that these will reduce the deaths of black male civilians in encounters with police. There are some documented milder benefits evident from small pilot studies, such as more polite interactions between police and civilians when both parties are aware they are being recorded, and decreased fraudulent complaints made against officers. Many uncertainties about best practices of body-worn camera adoption and use remain, including when the cameras should record, what should be stored and retained, who should have access to the footage, and what policies should determine the release of footage to the public. As pilot and permanent body-worn camera programs are implemented, it is important to ask questions about how they can be best used to achieve their touted goals. How will the implementation of these programs be assessed for their efficacy in achieving accountability goals? What are the best policies to have in place to support those goals?"
AUTHORS
<!>danah <!>boyd
Alex Rosenblat
Alexandra Claudia Mateescu
PUBLISHED
in SSRN Electronic Journal

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Police Officers’ Perceptions of Body-worn Cameras in Buffalo and Rochester
"Police body-worn cameras have been advanced as a solution to disparate perceptions among the citizenry, public officials, community leaders, and the police themselves in the highly contested arena of police-citizen encounters. As with previous innovations in policing it is important that programs or policies developed for street-level application be planned in advance, and the opinions of police officers should be understood prior to implementation. This study provides survey responses from police officers in Buffalo and Rochester regarding their perceptions of body-worn cameras. Survey items were borrowed from prior research in Phoenix and Los Angeles. It also included items intended to measure the officer’s opinions about examining camera images prior to writing a report, an issue that is the subject of some disagreement among policy makers. Findings suggest similar attitudes toward body cameras not only among Buffalo and Rochester police officers, but also with police officers in other agencies. Almost all respondents agree or strongly agree that police officers should have the ability to review body camera images prior to writing a report. The policy implications of this finding are discussed."
AUTHORS
Scott W. Phillips
Joseph A. Gramagila
PUBLISHED
in American Journal of Criminal Justice

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The Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use of Force and Citizens’ Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial
"Police Body-Worn Cameras breaks down what’s known – and not known – about the promises, perils, and potential best practices around police body-worn cameras. Both law enforcement and civil rights advocates are excited by the potential of body-worn cameras to improve community policing and safety, but there is no empirical research to conclusively suggest that these will reduce the deaths of black male civilians in encounters with police. There are some documented milder benefits evident from small pilot studies, such as more polite interactions between police and civilians when both parties are aware they are being recorded, and decreased fraudulent complaints made against officers. Many uncertainties about best practices of body-worn camera adoption and use remain, including when the cameras should record, what should be stored and retained, who should have access to the footage, and what policies should determine the release of footage to the public. As pilot and permanent body-worn camera programs are implemented, it is important to ask questions about how they can be best used to achieve their touted goals. How will the implementation of these programs be assessed for their efficacy in achieving accountability goals? What are the best policies to have in place to support those goals?"
AUTHORS
Alex Sutherland
William A. Farrar
Barak Ariel
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Quantitative Criminology

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Police Officers’ Perceptions of Body-Worn Cameras in Buffalo and Rochester
"Police body-worn cameras have been advanced as a solution to disparate perceptions among the citizenry, public officials, community leaders, and the police themselves in the highly contested arena of police-citizen encounters. As with previous innovations in policing it is important that programs or policies developed for street-level application be planned in advance, and the opinions of police officers should be understood prior to implementation. This study provides survey responses from police officers in Buffalo and Rochester regarding their perceptions of body-worn cameras. Survey items were borrowed from prior research in Phoenix and Los Angeles. It also included items intended to measure the officer’s opinions about examining camera images prior to writing a report, an issue that is the subject of some disagreement among policy makers. Findings suggest similar attitudes toward body cameras not only among Buffalo and Rochester police officers, but also with police officers in other agencies. Almost all respondents agree or strongly agree that police officers should have the ability to review body camera images prior to writing a report. The policy implications of this finding are discussed."
AUTHORS
Scott W. Phillips
Joseph A. Gramagila
PUBLISHED
2017 in American Journal of Criminal Justice

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POLICY CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE SUGGESTIONS --------------------------When cameras are rolling: Privacy implications of body-mounted cameras on police.
"This Note analyzes the potential privacy implications of the use of body-mounted cameras by police. Specifically, this Note considers how policy concerns and legal limitations should shape when and where cameras may record and what may be done with the footage once it has been collected. Currently, there are few clearly established legal limits on the use of body-mounted cameras, although the Fourth and First Amendments, as well as state wiretapping statutes, provide some boundaries. Some groups have already released recommendations, but there is not a consensus in practice or in theory. This Note recommends a policy that would require police officers to tape all interactions, but would allow some exceptions, when requested by members of the public. This will likely capture almost all incidences of police misconduct. Likewise, a policy that requires police departments to use footage primarily as a means of identifying and disciplining officers who behave inappropriately instead of a tool for evidence collection will better reduce tensions between law enforcement and the community. Finally, a policy that allows the public to initiate the release of records but redacts personally identifiable information protects the privacy of individuals captured in the footage, but allows for transparency and accountability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]"
PUBLISHED
in Columbia Journal of Law & Social Problems

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Assessing the Impact of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Arresting, Prosecuting, and Convicting Suspects of Intimate Partner Violence
"The perceived benefits that generally accompany body-worn cameras (BWCs) include the ability to increase transparency and police legitimacy, improve behavior among both police officers and citizens, and reduce citizen complaints and police use of force. Less established in the literature, however, is the value of BWCs to aid in the arrest, prosecution, and conviction of intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders. We attempt to fill that void by examining the effect of pre-and post-camera deployment on a number of outcomes related to arrest, prosecution, and conviction. The findings provide initial evidence for the utility of BWCs in IPV cases. When compared with posttest non-camera cases, posttest camera cases were more likely to result in an arrest, have charges filed, have cases furthered, result in a guilty plea, and result in a guilty verdict at trial. These results have several implications for policing, prosecuting, and convicting IPV cases."
AUTHORS
David E. Choate
Charles M. Katz
Weston J. Morrow
PUBLISHED
in Police Quarterly

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Police Body Cameras and Us : Public Perceptions of the Justification of the Police Use of Force in the Body Camera Era
"Using an experimental design, this research looked at the medium of presentation (text, audio, video) through which members of the public were exposed to a controversial police shooting. Furthermore, this research tested whether the officer's immediate reaction to the shooting (crying, talking, or calling his attorney) across mediums of presentation impacted the public's perception of justification. We found that the medium of presentation did matter; those who were exposed to the shooting through video were significantly more likely to perceive of the shooting as unjustified when compared to those who were exposed to the shooting through text or audio. However, officer's reaction did not have an impact on perceptions of justification for the shooting. Implications of these findings are discussed. What is the significance of this article for the general public? This study suggests that in addition to the good that police-worn body cameras may provide, the cameras also provide a new window into the profession that may negatively impact the public's perception of police officers."
AUTHORS
S. Culhane
M. McCamman
PUBLISHED
in Translational Issues in Psychological Science

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Cops and cameras: Officer perceptions of the use of body-worn cameras in law enforcement
"There has been a recent surge in the adoption of and media attention to the use of body-worn cameras in law enforcement. Despite this increase in use and media attention, there is little to no research on officer perceptions of body-worn cameras. Methods: This study relies on baseline data of officer perceptions toward body-worn cameras collected from surveys administered to Orlando Police officers who are participants in a randomized experiment evaluating the impact of body-worn cameras (Taser AXON Flex) in law enforcement. Results: Results suggest that police officers are, by and large, open to and supportive of the use of body-worn cameras in policing, they would feel comfortable wearing them, and that they perceive a potential for benefits of body-worn cameras in improving citizen behavior, their own behavior, and the behavior of their fellow officers. Conclusions: Officers are generally supportive of body-worn cameras, and they hold perceptions that these devices can be beneficial in positively affecting relevant outcomes. Study limitations and implications are also discussed."
AUTHORS
Mathew D. Lynch
Lorie A. Fridell
Wesley G. Jennings
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Criminal Justice

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The mythical properties of police body-worn cameras: A solution in the search of a problem
"The article explores the intersections between the rationalizations for body-worn cameras and the broader policing scholarship. It summarizes the introduction of body-worn cameras in Australia and identifies 5 problems body-worn cameras purportedly address and provides a brief case summary that indicate how current privacy protections fail to establish real limits to the collection, use and dissemination of images from body-worn cameras."
AUTHOR
Darren Palmer
PUBLISHED
in Surveillance and Society

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Police Body Cameras in Large Police Departments.
"Body Worn Cameras are spreading worldwide, under the assumption that police performance, conduct, accountability, and legitimacy, in the eyes of the public, are enhanced as a result of using these devices. In addition, suspects' demeanor during police-public engagements is hypothesized to change as a result of the video-recording of the encounter. For both parties--officers and suspects--the theoretical mechanism that underpins these behavioral changes is deterrence theory, self-awareness theory, or both. Yet evidence on the efficacy of Body Worn Cameras remains largely anecdotal, with only one rigorous study, from a small force in Rialto, California, validating the hypotheses. How Body Worn Cameras affect police-public interactions in large police departments remains unknown, as does their effect on other outcomes, such as arrests. With one Denver police district serving as the treatment area and five other districts within a large metropolitan area serving as comparisons, we offer mixed findings as in the Rialto Experiment, not least in terms of effect magnitudes. Adjusted odds-ratios suggest a significant 35% lower odds for citizens' complaints against the police use of force, but 14% greater odds for a complaint against misconduct, when Body Worn Cameras are used. No discernable effect was detected on the odds of use of force at the aggregate, compared to control conditions (OR=0.928; p>0.1). Finally, arrest rates dropped significantly, with the odds of an arrest when Body Worn Cameras not present is 18% higher than the odds under treatment conditions. The outcomes are contextualized within the framework of reactive emergency calls for service rather than proactive policing. We further discuss officers' decisions and the degree of the necessity of arrest in policing more broadly, because the burden of proof for tangible evidence necessary for making a legal arrest can be challenged with the evidence produced by Body Worn Cameras: officers become "cautious" about arresting suspects when Body Worn Cameras are present. Limitations associated with the lack of randomly assigned comparison units are discussed, as well, with practical recommendations for future research on Body Worn Cameras. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]"
AUTHOR
BARAK ARIEL
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology

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The Effect of Police Body-worn Cameras on Use of Force and Citizens’ Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial
"ObjectivePolice use-of-force continues to be a major source of international concern, inviting interest from academics and practitioners alike. Whether justified or unnecessary/excessive, the exercise of power by the police can potentially tarnish their relationship with the community. Police misconduct can translate into complaints against the police, which carry large economic and social costs. The question we try to answer is: do body-worn-cameras reduce the prevalence of use-of-force and/or citizens’ complaints against the police?MethodsWe empirically tested the use of body-worn-cameras by measuring the effect of videotaping police–public encounters on incidents of police use-of-force and complaints, in randomized-controlled settings. Over 12 months, we randomly-assigned officers to “experimental-shifts” during which they were equipped with body-worn HD cameras that recorded all contacts with the public and to “control-shifts” without the cameras (n = 988). We nominally defined use-of-force, both unnecessary/excessive and reasonable, as a non-desirable response in police–public encounters. We estimate the causal effect of the use of body-worn-videos on the two outcome variables using both between-group differences using a Poisson regression model as well as before-after estimates using interrupted time-series analyses.ResultsWe found that the likelihood of force being used in control conditions were roughly twice those in experimental conditions. Similarly, a pre/post analysis of use-of-force and complaints data also support this result: the number of complaints filed against officers dropped from 0.7 complaints per 1,000 contacts to 0.07 per 1,000 contacts. We discuss the findings in terms of theory, research methods, policy and future avenues of research on body-worn-videos."
AUTHORS
Alex Sutherland
William A. Farrar
Barak Ariel
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Quantitative Criminology

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Highly regarded source
Body-worn cameras for police accountability: Opportunities and risks
FUNDERS
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft , Seventh Framework Programme , PrivAcy pReserving Infrastructure for Surveillance
"The use of body-worn cameras by police forces around the world is spreading quickly. The resulting mobile and ubiquitous surveillance is often marketed as an instrument for accountability and an effective way of reducing violence, discrimination or corruption. It also involves remarkable potential for intrusion into the privacy of both individuals and police agents.We analyse the deployment of police body-worn cameras in five countries, investigate their suitability as an accountability tool given the associated privacy threats, and discuss the societal impact of their deployment as well as the risk of function creep."
AUTHORS
Daniel Le Métayer
Denis Butin
Fanny Coudert
PUBLISHED
2015 in Computer Law & Security Review

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