Do soda taxes reduce soda consumption?

Submitted by: JAloni 117

Yes. The vast majority of studies in this list came to this conclusion. Note that some of the studies in this list have been commented on or critiqued. Links to these comments/critiques appear on the corresponding study summaries below.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 20 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 20
Sorted by publication year
1
The Effectiveness of Sin Food Taxes: Evidence from Mexico
"We measure the effects of two federal taxes in Mexico aimed at reducing obesity by taxing sugary drinks (SDs) and high caloric foods (HCFs). We use a weekly scanner panel dataset with more than 58,721 product barcodes. We find 6 percent lower SD consumption but no decrease in HCFs consumption. We find substantial substitution towards non-taxed goods, smaller unit sizes, and in the case of HCFs to higher calorie per gram foods. Overall, sugar consumption decreased 2 percent, saturated fat and cholesterol increased 2 and 6 percent, but total calories remained unchanged. Available evidence shows no effect on BMI."
AUTHORS
Enrique Sierra
Emilio Gutierrez
Arturo Aguilar
PUBLISHED
2019 in The Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
2
The Use of Excise Taxes to Reduce Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sugary Beverage Consumption
" In countries around the world, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are significant contributors to the global epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. As a consequence, they contribute, as well, to excess health care costs and productivity losses. A large and growing body of research documents that taxes specific to such products, known as excise taxes, reduce consumption of these products and thereby diminish their adverse health consequences. Although such taxation has historically been motivated primarily by revenue generation, governments are increasingly using these taxes to discourage unhealthy consumption. We review the global evidence on the impact of taxes and prices on the consumption of these products and the health and social consequences. We then evaluate arguments commonly raised against these taxes, identify best practices in excise tax policy, and conclude with a summary of the current status of tobacco, alcohol, and SSB excise taxes globally. "
AUTHORS
Kenneth E. Warner
Lisa M. Powell
Frank J. Chaloupka
PUBLISHED
2019 in Annual Review of Public Health
High quality source
Yes
Yes
3
The Economics of Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: A Review of the Effects on Prices, Sales, Cross-Border Shopping, and Consumption
" During the past decade, dozens of countries, regions, and cities have enacted taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). They have been primarily motivated by a desire to raise prices, reduce sales and consumption, improve population health, and raise revenue. This review outlines the economic rationale for SSB taxes and illustrates their predicted effects. It reviews the research on the effects of these taxes on retail prices, sales, cross-border shopping, consumption, and product availability. The evidence indicates that the amount by which taxes increase retail prices (also called the pass-through of the tax) varies by jurisdiction, ranging from less than 50% to 100% of the tax. Sales tend to decrease significantly in the taxing jurisdiction, although this seems to be partly offset by residents increasingly shopping outside of the taxing jurisdiction (i.e., engaging in cross-border shopping). Overall, taxes lower consumption of the taxed beverages by adults, although not for all types of beverages or all groups of consumers. We conclude with suggestions for improving the design of such taxes and directions for future research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 39 is August 21, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates. "
AUTHORS
David Frisvold
Katherine Wen
Anne Marie Thow
John Cawley
PUBLISHED
2019 in Annual Review of Nutrition
High quality source
Yes
Yes
4
The Short-Term Impacts of the Philadelphia Beverage Tax on Beverage Consumption
"Introduction: On January 1, 2017, Philadelphia implemented a beverage tax of $0.015/ounce on sugar (“regular”) and sugar-substitute (“diet”) beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate impact of the tax on residents’ consumption of soda, fruit drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water.Methods: A repeat cross-sectional study design used data from a random-digit-dialing phone survey during a no-tax period (December 6–31, 2016) and a tax period (January 15–February 31, 2017) among 899 respondents in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 878 respondents in three nearby comparison cities. Survey questions included frequency and volume of bottled water and beverages. Outcomes were daily consumption, and 30-day consumption frequency and volume. Propensity score–weighted difference-in-differences regression was used to control for secular time trend and confounding. Covariates were sociodemographics, BMI, health status, smoking, and alcohol use. Analyses were conducted in 2017.Results: Within the first 2 months of tax implementation, relative to the comparison cities, in Philadelphia the odds of daily consumption of regular soda was 40% lower (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.37, 0.97); energy drink was 64% lower (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.17, 0.76); bottled water was 58% higher (OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.13, 2.20); and the 30-day regular soda consumption frequency was 38% lower (ratio of consumption frequency=0.62, 95% CI=0.40, 0.98).Conclusions: Early results suggest that the tax influenced daily consumption of regular soda, energy drinks, and bottled water. Future studies are needed to evaluate longer-term impact of the tax on sugared beverage consumption and substitutions."
AUTHORS
Genevieve P. Kanter
Brian K. Lee
Amy H. Auchincloss
Yichen Zhong
PUBLISHED
2018 in American Journal of Preventive Medicine
High quality source
Yes
Yes
5
The Impact of the Philadelphia Beverage Tax on Purchases and Consumption by Adults and Children
"In recent years, numerous U.S. cities have enacted taxes on sweetened beverages, but there is relatively little evidence about the effects of these taxes on purchases and consumption. In this paper, we examine the effects of the beverage tax of 1.5 cents per ounce that was implemented in Philadelphia starting January 1, 2017. We surveyed individuals in Philadelphia and nearby comparison communities before the tax and nearly one year after implementation of the tax about their purchases and consumption of beverages. We find that purchases of taxed beverages fell by 8.9 ounces per shopping trip in Philadelphia stores relative to comparison stores outside of the city and that Philadelphia residents increased purchases of taxed beverages outside of the city. The tax reduced adults’ frequency of regular soda consumption by 10.4 times per month, and there is some evidence of a slight reduction in adults’ overall sugar consumption from sweetened beverages, with larger reductions for African-American adults. The tax did not have a substantial effect on the frequency of adults’ consumption of other beverages. We generally do not find detectable effects of the tax on children’s consumption of beverages, although we find a substantial reduction in consumption of added sugars from sweetened beverages among children who had high pre-tax consumption levels."
AUTHORS
David Jones
Anna Hill
David Frisvold
John Cawley
PUBLISHED
2018 in National Bureau of Economic Research
High quality source
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
6
An Inquiry on the Heterogeneous Effects of Sin Taxes levied on Soda
"Taxes on sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) are proposed with the promise to improve public health outcomes as people curve SSB consumption and thus, sugar intake, with price hikes, but they also come with an embedded equity concern due to their regressive nature. We evaluate the soda tax introduced by Berkeley in 2015 with two questions in mind: What has been the effect of the policy in actual sugar intake, and what are the differences in treatment effects across income groups. This article is the first to get closer to the aim of the policy by looking at actual sugar intake, feeding retailer POS data with the matched Nutrition Fact information on sugar. I find that sugar intake has fallen, but at a lower rate if compared to liquid content changes, an indication that the policy has provided an incentive to buy SSBs with higher sugar concentration. Furthermore, the evaluation is incomplete if equity is not addressed as well, especially when the public health concern affects low-income households disproportionately. By taking advantage of the richness in POS data, I follow baskets representing income groups' SSB consumption. We find that the reduction in sugar and liquid consumption has been fairly homogeneous across the different baskets, with the middle income groups' baskets facing the deepest reduction in consumption of sugar and liquid and the lowest hike in prices."
AUTHOR
Felipe Lozano-Rojas
PUBLISHED
2018 in SSRN Electronic Journal
Preprint
Yes
Yes
7
The Impact of Soda Taxes: Pass-through, Tax Avoidance, and Nutritional Effects
"We analyze the impact of a tax on sweetened beverages, often referred to as a “soda tax,” using a unique dataset of prices, quantities sold, and nutritional information across several thousand taxed and untaxed beverages for a large set of stores in Philadelphia and its surrounding area. We find the tax is passed through at an average rate of 97%, leading to a 34% price increase. Demand in the taxed area decreases by 46% in response to the tax. We find no significant substitution to bottled water and modest substitution to (untaxed) natural juices. A large amount of cross-shopping to stores outside of Philadelphia offsets more than half of the reduction in sales in the city and reduces the net decrease in sales of taxed beverages to only 22%. Among taxed beverages, demand decreases more strongly for relatively healthier products. Due to cross-shopping and compositional changes in demand, we do not detect a significant reduction in calorie and sugar intake. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tax policy design."
AUTHORS
Song Yao
Anna Tuchman
Stephan Seiler
PUBLISHED
2018 in SSRN Electronic Journal
Preprint
Yes
Yes
8
The impact of the French soda tax on prices, purchases and tastes: an ex post evaluation
"We evaluate the ex-post effects of the tax on sweetened non-alcoholicdrinks introduced in France in January 2012. The evaluation is based ona natural experiment, using household purchase data drawn from homescan consumer data from two French regions, and two neighboring Italianregions over the twelve months preceding and following the enforcementof the tax. We adopt a Difference-in-Difference model, allowing for fixedhousehold and time effects to estimate the impact of the tax on average prices paid by consumers and purchased quantities for a set of nonalcoholic drink categories. We also explore whether the policy is consistent with a change in consumer tastes, intended as average demand whenprices and total drink expenditure are held constant. Our results suggesta relatively small impact of the tax on prices with an uneven pass-throughacross the various drink categories. Consequently, estimated response ofpurchased quantities is also small, and not entirely consistent with thesize of the price change. Results also suggest that the tax has reducedpurchases of regular soft drinks even in absence of a price effect, whilepurchases of diet drinks (which are taxed) have increased despite someevidence of a price increase following the tax. These and other resultsare consistent with our estimates of the taste effect of the tax, and maysuggest that the labeling effect of soda taxes might have a broader reachthan the taxes themselves."
AUTHORS
Celine Bonnet
Olivier Allais
Mario Mazzocchi
Sara Capacci
PUBLISHED
2017 in Toulouse School of Economics
UNRANKED SOURCE
No
No
9
Local Excise Taxes, Sticky Prices, and Spillovers: Evidence from Berkeley's Soda Tax
"This paper evaluates the price and consumption effects of the first municipal soda tax imposed in the United States. Using high-resolution scanner data and data-driven approaches to select comparison units for counterfactual analysis, we estimate the tax has no effect on prices or consumption at drugstores, but modestly increases supermarket prices of some soda products, constituting a minority of soda consumption. We find limited evidence of reduced supermarket purchases of soda in the taxed jurisdiction. Half of these reduced purchases are substituted to just outside the taxed jurisdiction. Retailers' limited price responses are attributed to the localness of the tax."
AUTHORS
Steven Sexton
Bryan K. Bollinger
PUBLISHED
2017 in SSRN Electronic Journal
Preprint
No
No
10
In Mexico, Evidence Of Sustained Consumer Response Two Years After Implementing A Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax
"Mexico implemented a 1 peso per liter excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages on January 1, 2014, and a previous study found a 6 percent reduction in purchases of taxed beverages in 2014. In this study we estimated changes in beverage purchases for 2014 and 2015. We used store purchase data for 6,645 households from January 2012 to December 2015. Changes in purchases of taxed and untaxed beverages in the study period were estimated using two models, which compared 2014 and 2015 purchases with predicted (counterfactual) purchases based on trends in 2012-13. Purchases of taxed beverages decreased 5.5 percent in 2014 and 9.7 percent in 2015, yielding an average reduction of 7.6 percent over the study period. Households at the lowest socioeconomic level had the largest decreases in purchases of taxed beverages in both years. Purchases of untaxed beverage increased 2.1 percent in the study period. Findings from Mexico may encourage other countries to use fiscal policies to reduce consumption of unhealthy beverages along with other interventions to reduce the burden of chronic disease."
AUTHORS
Shu Wen Ng
Barry M. Popkin
Juan Rivera-Dommarco
M. Arantxa Colchero
PUBLISHED
2017 in Health Affairs
High quality source
Yes
Yes
11
Do Taxes for Soda and Sugary Drinks Work? Scanner Data Evidence from Berkeley and Washington
"Curbing obesity through taxation of certain beverage products has been a priority in the policy agenda across many U.S. jurisdictions. We assess the effectiveness of this highly debated policy instrument through two measures of its impact: the pass-through rate (the extent to which the tax actually translates into a retail price increase) and the impact on consumption (volume sales). We evaluate the actual effect of two excise taxes on the beverages market: the sugar-sweetened-beverages (SSB) tax of 1¢ per ounce in the city of Berkeley that has been effect since 2015 and the tax of 1/6¢ per ounce on carbonated drinks (soda) that the state of Washington imposed from July through December of 2010. We carry out the analysis with a barcode-level dataset containing price and volume sales information from a large number of retail outlets. Our identification relies on sales data from stores located in taxed areas as well as from stores in nearby localities. We find differences across the two tax events on pass-through: retail prices in Washington reacted sharply (by a larger magnitude than the tax) and promptly whereas in Berkeley retail prices reacted only marginally (by less than 30% the magnitude of the tax). In terms of volume sales, we find a 5% volume reduction in Washington but fail to find any evidence of an effect in Berkeley."
AUTHORS
Emily Yucai Wang
Christian Rojas
PUBLISHED
2017 in SSRN Electronic Journal
Preprint
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
12
Impact of the Berkeley Excise Tax on Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption
"Objectives. To evaluate the impact of the excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in Berkeley, California, which became the first US jurisdiction to implement such a tax ($0.01/oz) in March 2015. Methods. We used a repeated cross-sectional design to examine changes in pre- to posttax beverage consumption in low-income neighborhoods in Berkeley versus in the comparison cities of Oakland and San Francisco, California. A beverage frequency questionnaire was interviewer administered to 990 participants before the tax and 1689 after the tax (approximately 8 months after the vote and 4 months after implementation) to examine relative changes in consumption. Results. Consumption of SSBs decreased 21% in Berkeley and increased 4% in comparison cities (P = .046). Water consumption increased more in Berkeley (+63%) than in comparison cities (+19%; P < .01). Conclusions. Berkeley’s excise tax reduced SSB consumption in low-income neighborhoods. Evaluating SSB taxes in other cities will improve understanding of their public health benefit and their generalizability."
AUTHORS
Kristine A. Madsen
Charles E. McCulloch
Nadia Rojas
Christina M. Becker
Hannah R. Thompson
Jennifer Falbe
PUBLISHED
2016 in American Journal of Public Health
High quality source
Yes
Yes
13
Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
"Background The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs). Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1), changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2), and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990-2016) and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied. Conclusions The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs."
AUTHORS
Mark Spranca
Elizabeth Macgregor-Skinner
Gael O’Sullivan
Carlos Avila
Andrea B. Feigl
Sharon S. Nakhimovsky
PUBLISHED
2016 in PLoS ONE
High quality source
Literature Review
FUNDERS
Abt Associates
Yes
Yes
14
Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study
"STUDY QUESTION What has been the effect on purchases of beverages from stores in Mexico one year after implementation of the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages? METHODS In this observational study the authors used data on the purchase of beverages in Mexico from January 2012 to December 2014 from an unbalanced panel of 6253 households providing 205 112 observations in 53 cities with more than 50 000 inhabitants. To test whether the post-tax trend in purchases was significantly different from the pretax trend, the authors used a difference in difference fixed effects model, which adjusts for both macroeconomic variables that can affect the purchase of beverages over time, and pre-existing trends. The variables used in the analysis included demographic information on household composition (age and sex of household members) and socioeconomic status (low, middle, and high). The authors compared the predicted volumes (mL/capita/day) of taxed and untaxed beverages purchased in 2014-the observed post-tax period-with the estimated volumes that would have been purchased if the tax had not been implemented (counterfactual) based on pretax trends. STUDY ANSWER AND LIMITATIONS Relative to the counterfactual in 2014, purchases of taxed beverages decreased by an average of 6% (-12 mL/capita/day), and decreased at an increasing rate up to a 12% decline by December 2014. All three socioeconomic groups reduced purchases of taxed beverages, but reductions were higher among the households of low socioeconomic status, averaging a 9% decline during 2014, and up to a 17% decrease by December 2014 compared with pretax trends. Purchases of untaxed beverages were 4% (36 mL/capita/day) higher than the counterfactual, mainly driven by an increase in purchases of bottled plain water. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS The tax on sugar sweetened beverages was associated with reductions in purchases of taxed beverages and increases in purchases of untaxed beverages. Continued monitoring is needed to understand purchases longer term, potential substitutions, and health implications. FUNDING, COMPETING INTERESTS, DATA SHARING This work was supported by grants from Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and by the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública and the Carolina Population Center. The authors have no competing interests. No additional data are available."
AUTHORS
Shu Wen Ng
Juan A Rivera
Barry M Popkin
M Arantxa Colchero
PUBLISHED
2016 in BMJ
High quality source
Yes
Yes
15
Associations between soda prices and intake: Evidence from 24-h dietary recall data
"Although taxes on regular soda and other forms of sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed as a disincentive to consumption, little is known about the association of soda price with soda intake status or the potential heterogeneity across sub-population groups based on age. Such estimates cannot be obtained from aggregated sales or household purchase data because they do not break down soda intake by individuals. To fill this gap in the literature, the 24-h dietary recall data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2008) have been merged with soda prices from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER). The variation in soda prices across zip codes and over the years were used to identify the associations of soda prices with the prevalence of sugar-sweetened regular soda intake and caloric intake from soda for children (N= 14,141), adolescents (N= 6501), and adults (N= 8032). The analyses were further stratified by gender, race/ethnicity and income-based socioeconomic status. A 10% higher soda price was associated with lower prevalence (i.e., probability) of regular soda intake by 3.4%, 4.6% and 4.0% for children, adolescents, and adults, respectively, and lower caloric intake from soda by 8.2%, 5.2%, and 6.6%, respectively. The strongest negative associations between soda prices and regular soda intake were found among children and adults; the weakest negative associations were found among minority children and adolescents. By using individual-level data from the 24-h dietary recall data, we identified substantial heterogeneity in the association of soda price with regular soda intake. Our results add to the growing literature suggesting that higher soda prices are associated with reduced regular soda intake."
AUTHORS
Lisa M. Powell
Euna Han
Roy Wada
PUBLISHED
2015 in Food Policy
High quality source
Yes
Yes
16
THE IMPACT OF SODA SALES TAXES ON CONSUMPTION: EVIDENCE FROM SCANNER DATA
"Scientific evidence on the effect of sugar consumption on obesity has propelled policy makers in several states across the U.S. to propose the imposition of a tax on soft drinks sales. In this paper, we look at the effect of two tax events: a 5.5% sales tax on soft drinks imposed by the state of Maine in 1991, and a 5% sales tax on soft drinks levied in Ohio in 2003. We investigate this question by using sales data collected by scanner devices in the two states where soda taxes where enacted as well as on neighboring states. We employ a difference-in-difference matching estimator (DIDM) that, in our setting, permits the comparison among treatment and control groups based on brand identity. Results suggest that neither sales tax had a statistically significant impact on the consumption of soft drinks. This finding is robust to several alternative specifications."
AUTHORS
Christian Rojas
Francesca Colantuoni
PUBLISHED
2015 in Contemporary Economic Policy
Q2
No
No
17
A systematic review of the effectiveness of taxes on nonalcoholic beverages and high-in-fat foods as a means to prevent obesity trends
"Background: As part of the efforts to curb obesity, a new focus seems to be put on taxing foods that are perceived as being associated with obesity (eg, sugar-sweetened beverages and foods high in fat, sugar, and salt content) as a policy instrument to promote healthier diets.Objective: To assess the possible effects of such taxation policies by identifying and analyzing all studies which investigate the impact of price increases on consumption, caloric intake, or weight outcomes.Methods: Electronic data bases were searched with appropriate terms and their combinations. Thereafter, abstracts were reviewed and studies were selected based on predefined criteria. The characteristics of the selected studies and the results were extracted in a special form and consequently were reviewed and synthesized.Results: Price increase may lead to a reduction in consumption of the targeted products, but the subsequent effect on caloric intake may be much smaller. Only a limited number of the identified studies reported weight outcomes, most of which are either insignificant or very small in magnitude to make any improvement in public health.Conclusion: The effectiveness of a taxation policy to curb obesity is doubtful and available evidence in most studies is not very straightforward due to the multiple complexities in consumer behavior and the underling substitution effects. There is need to investigate in-depth the potential underlying mechanisms and the relationship between price-increase policies, obesity, and public health outcomes. © 2013 Maniadakis et al."
AUTHORS
Georgia Kourlaba
Louiza Damianidi
Vasiliki Kapaki
Nikos Maniadakis
PUBLISHED
2013 in ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research
High quality source
Literature Review
Yes
Yes
18
Taxation of Unhealthy Consumption of Food and Drinks: An Updated Literature Review
"By means of a literature review this paper aims at shedding more light on the potentialities of unhealthy food/drink taxation in changing eating patterns and life styles and hence combating the obesity epidemic. One remarkable point that emerges when assessing the set of selected papers is the existence of a wide diversity of objectives, methodologies, settings and datasets, policies implemented and results achieved by all these studies, which undoubtedly adds complexity to any attempt to draw a general conclusion on fast food taxation. Most of the examined studies predict a rather modest fiscal impact on unhealthy food and drinks consumption and/or nutrition intake and consequently a poor result on weight loss and obesity, by the interplay of several factors among them the effects of cross-price elasticities."
AUTHORS
Toni Mora
Guillem Lopez
Joan Gil
PUBLISHED
2013 in Revista Hacienda Pública Española
UNRANKED SOURCE
Literature Review
Yes
Yes
19
Have soda sales tax effects changed over time? Scanner data comparison analyses
"The scientific evidence on the effect of sugar consumption on obesity has propelled policy makers in several states across the U.S. to propose the imposition of a tax on soft drinks. In this paper, we look at the effect of two tax events: a 5.5% sales tax on soft drinks imposed by the state of Maine in 1991, and a 5% sales tax on soft drinks levied in Ohio in 2003. We investigate this question by using sales data collected by scanner devices in Maine, Massachusetts, New York and Connecticut, as well as Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and Pennsylvania. These samples comprise stores that account for more than 80% of all grocery sales nationwide and include brand-level sales data for the periods of study. We employ a difference-in-difference matching estimator (DIDM) that, in our setting, permits the comparison among treatment and control groups based on brand identity. Results suggest that sales tax had a statistically insignificant impact on the overall consumption of soft drinks. This finding is robust to several alternative specifications, and over time."
AUTHORS
Francesca Colantuoni
Christian Rojas
PUBLISHED
2012 in Agricultural & Applied Economics Association
UNRANKED SOURCE
No
No
20
A Review of the Literature on Policies Directed at the Youth Consumption of Sugar Sweetened Beverages
"Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) constitute a large percentage of energy consumed by youth. This paper reviews the literature on school nutrition policies and price interventions directed at youth SSB consumption. In addition to considering the direct effect of policies on SSB consumption, we provide an overview of the literature on how SSB consumption affects total energy intake (TEI) and BMI, as well as on how TEI affects BMI. By considering each of these links, we attempted to gauge the effect of policies directed at SSB consumption, as well as highlight areas that merit future research. We found that school nutrition and price policies reduce SSB consumption and that reduced SSB consumption is associated with a reduction in energy intake that can influence BMI. Policies directed at SSB consumption can play an important role in reducing youth overweight and obesity."
AUTHORS
Y. Claire Wang
Karen B. Friend
David T. Levy
PUBLISHED
2011 in Advances in Nutrition
High quality source
Literature Review
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 30
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do soda taxes reduce soda consumption?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

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Literature review
Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes
"Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be -1.21, -0.52, -0.49 and -0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents, suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes.

Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults, suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks."
AUTHORS
F. J. Chaloupka
R. Wada
T. Khan
J. F. Chriqui
L. M. Powell
PUBLISHED
2013 in Obesity Reviews

Add to List
Literature review
The Impact of Food Prices on Consumption: A Systematic Review of Research on the Price Elasticity of Demand for Food
"In light of proposals to improve diets by shifting food prices, it is important to understand how price changes affect demand for various foods. We reviewed 160 studies on the price elasticity of demand for major food categories to assess mean elasticities by food category and variations in estimates by study design. Price elasticities for foods and nonalcoholic beverages ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 (absolute values), with food away from home, soft drinks, juice, and meats being most responsive to price changes (0.7-0.8). As an example, a 10% increase in soft drink prices should reduce consumption by 8% to 10%. Studies estimating price effects on substitutions from unhealthy to healthy food and price responsiveness among at-risk populations are particularly needed."
AUTHORS
Kelly D. Brownell
Michael W. Long
Tatiana Andreyeva
PUBLISHED
2010 in American Journal of Public Health

Add to List
The Public Health and Economic Benefits of Taxing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMhpr0905723
AUTHORS
Joseph W. Thompson
Frank J. Chaloupka
Barry M. Popkin
Walter C. Willett
Thomas Farley
Kelly D. Brownell et al
PUBLISHED
2009 in New England Journal of Medicine

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Changes in Prices After an Excise Tax to Sweetened Sugar Beverages Was Implemented in Mexico: Evidence from Urban Areas
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144408
AUTHORS
Juan Angel Rivera-Dommarco
Shuwen Ng
Mariana Molina
Mishel Unar-Munguía
Juan Carlos Salgado
M. Arantxa Colchero
PUBLISHED
2015 in PLoS ONE

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Literature review
Effects of Soft Drink Consumption on Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
"In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non-industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science."
AUTHORS
Kelly D. Brownell
Marlene B. Schwartz
Lenny R. Vartanian
PUBLISHED
2007 in American Journal of Public Health

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Evaluating the Health Impacts of Food and Beverage Taxes
"Several jurisdictions are now imposing taxes on food and beverages to prevent obesity (and related conditions). Existing evidence concerning their effects comes largely from simulation studies and trials in closed settings, both of which have limitations. Rigorous evaluation of actual taxes may provide richer evidence with greater external validity to support policy making.

This article describes existing evaluation studies and outlines an implicit underlying theoretical framework for how taxes are expected to affect health. It then explores three important issues for future studies: selection of an appropriate evaluative perspective (comparing realist and biomedical experimental paradigms); approaches to causal inference; and the challenge of a low signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that evaluation should be informed by a realist perspective as well as making appropriate use of established empirical quasi-experimental approaches to testing causal effects.

This should be underpinned by a theoretical framework that acknowledges complexity and the potential diversity of impacts."
AUTHORS
David Ogilvie
Helen Eyles
Oliver T. Mytton
PUBLISHED
2014 in Current obesity reports

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Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk
"Obesity has recently emerged as a major global health problem. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, approximately 1.6 billion adults worldwide were overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and at least 400 million were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) in 2005, numbers which are expected to reach 2.3 billion and 700 million respectively, by 2015. In the United States, the percentage of overweight and obese adults increased markedly from 47% and 15% in 1976-1980 to over 66% and 33% in 2005-2006, with the greatest proportion of increase seen among Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American women 1, 2. The implications of excess body weight are far reaching.

Epidemiologic studies indicate that overweight and obesity are important risk factors for of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and premature death 3. In the US, health care expenditures attributable to overweight and obesity are estimated to be $147 billion or 9.1% of total health care costs per year4. Such excess costs could have serious repercussions for resource-poor countries, which must manage dual burdens of chronic and infectious disease. In the setting of a pandemic of obesity and related chronic diseases, the American Heart Association recently released a scientific statement recommending reductions in added sugar"
AUTHORS
Frank B. Hu
Jean-Pierre Després
George A. Bray
Barry M. Popkin
Vasanti S. Malik
PUBLISHED
2010 in Circulation

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Highly regarded source
Energy Intake from Beverages Is Increasing among Mexican Adolescents and Adults
"Little is understood about the patterns and trends in adolescent and adult beverage intake in Mexico or most other countries. Here, we used nationally representative dietary intake, income, and food expenditure surveys, which included 416 adolescents (aged 12-18 y) and 2180 adults (aged >or=19 y) from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey and 7464 adolescents and 21,113 adults from the 2006 Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey. We measured the volume and energy per day contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects.

In 2006, Mexican adolescents and adults obtained 20.1 and 22.3%, respectively, of their energy intake from energy-containing beverages. Whole milk, carbonated and noncarbonated sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations added, and alcohol represented the 4 major categories of beverage intake. The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in the intake of energy-containing beverages among adolescents and adults between 1999 and 2006.

Income elasticities showed a high likelihood that intakes will increase as Mexican incomes continue to rise. Whereas the own-price elasticities for whole milk and sodas were both modest, intakes of these were increasing and higher than those for all other food groups. Energy intake trends and current levels of beverage intakes in Mexico are the highest recorded in a nationally representative survey and present major challenges for public health authorities."
AUTHORS
Juan A. Rivera
Shu Wen Ng
Juan Espinosa
Maria Lizbeth Tolentino
Lucia Hernandez-Barrera
Simon Barquera et al
PUBLISHED
2008 in The Journal of Nutrition

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Food Taxation and Pricing Strategies to “Thin Out” the Obesity Epidemic
"Abstract: This article highlights characteristics of two related yet distinct economic approaches to addressing the current obesity epidemic in the United States: the general taxation of soft drinks, snack foods, and/or fast foods, and the application of pricing incentives/disincentives on foods sold in schools and worksites. The article specifically focuses on the: (1) rationale for, (2) potential barriers and limitations to, and (3) possible unintended consequences of implementing these policy interventions at the state level. Novel empirical evidence showing strong positive associations between the presence of state-level taxation on soft drinks or snack foods between 1991 and 1998 and relative changes in obesity prevalence over the same time period is further presented.

The article concludes by summarizing the similarities and dissimilarities of the two approaches, and by emphasizing some of the gaps and priorities regarding these strategies that should be addressed in future research and policies to best effect obesity prevention. © 2006 American Journal of Preventive Medicine."
AUTHORS
Daniel Kim
Ichiro Kawachi
PUBLISHED
2006 in American Journal of Preventive Medicine

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A typology of beverage taxation: Multiple approaches for obesity prevention and obesity prevention-related revenue generation
"Obesity is a global problem. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are a leading contributor of added sugars in individual diets and thus to obesity. Governments have considered taxing SSBs to prevent obesity and generate revenue, but no 'one-size-fits-all' taxation approach exists.

We describes three key considerations for governments interested in exploring beverage taxation: (i) what type of tax to apply plus how and where the tax is collected and presented to consumers; (ii) what types of beverages to tax; and (iii) the amount of tax needed to affect consumption and/or obesity prevention-related revenue generation. We offer examples of existing beverage taxes in the United States and internationally. The information will be useful to policymakers at all levels of government, as they continue to consider beverage taxation policies."
AUTHORS
Shelby S Eidson
Lisa M Powell
Frank J Chaloupka
Jamie F Chriqui
PUBLISHED
2013 in Journal of Public Health Policy

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Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight
"Obesity interventions can result in weight loss, but accurate prediction of the bodyweight time course requires properly accounting for dynamic energy imbalances. In this report, we describe a mathematical modelling approach to adult human metabolism that simulates energy expenditure adaptations during weight loss. We also present a web-based simulator for prediction of weight change dynamics.

We show that the bodyweight response to a change of energy intake is slow, with half times of about 1 year. Furthermore, adults with greater adiposity have a larger expected weight loss for the same change of energy intake, and to reach their steady-state weight will take longer than it would for those with less initial body fat. Using a population-averaged model, we calculated the energy-balance dynamics corresponding to the development of the US adult obesity epidemic.

A small persistent average daily energy imbalance gap between intake and expenditure of about 30 kJ per day underlies the observed average weight gain. However, energy intake must have risen to keep pace with increased expenditure associated with increased weight. The average increase of energy intake needed to sustain the increased weight (the maintenance energy gap) has amounted to about 0·9 MJ per day and quantifies the public health challenge to reverse the obesity epidemic.

© 2011 Elsevier Ltd."
AUTHORS
Steven L Gortmaker
Y Claire Wang
Carson C Chow
Dhruva Chandramohan
Gary Sacks
Kevin D Hall et al
PUBLISHED
2011 in The Lancet

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Highly regarded source
Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico
"A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes.

Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level.

Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks.

Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed."
AUTHORS
J.A. Rivera-Dommarco
M. Hernández-Ávila
M. Unar-Munguía
J.C. Salgado
M.A. Colchero
PUBLISHED
2015 in Economics & Human Biology

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Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: a survey of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours.
"Objective: To assess current beverage consumption patterns and anticipated reaction to an added 20 % tax on these products.

Design: A random-digit dialled telephone interview lasting 20 min was administered to assess demographics, beverage consumption behaviours and intentions regarding consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the event of an additional tax on these beverages.

Setting: Respondents were recruited throughout the USA.

Subjects: The study included 592 adults.

Results: Sixty-nine per cent of respondents reported consuming at least one pre-packaged sugar-sweetened beverage in the past week; those who consumed sugar-sweetened beverages averaged seven pre-packaged beverages per week. Ninety-one per cent knew that frequent consumption of soft drinks increases risk of obesity. Thirty-six per cent supported a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages with greatest support among those aged 18-24 years, those with BMI < 30 kg/m2 and those with higher levels of education (P < 0·05). Over one-third of respondents said that they would cut back on their sweetened beverage consumption in the event of an added 20 % tax on these beverages.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that an added tax on these beverages could influence some to cut down on their consumption, reducing their risk of obesity and related illnesses.

"
AUTHORS
Andrew Hyland
Danielle Smith
Susan E McCann
Cheryl Rivard
PUBLISHED
2012 in Public Health Nutrition

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Designing a food tax to impact food-related non-communicable diseases: the case of Chile.
"The global shift towards diets high in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy dense ultra-processed foods is linked to higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes and most other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), causing significant health costs. Chile has the highest SSB consumption in the world, very high junk food intake and very rapid increases in these poor components of the diet plus obesity prevalence. This study's purpose is to compare the effect of different tax schemes for SSBs and ultra-processed foods on nutrient availability, utilizing price-elasticities, which are estimated from a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model, using the 2011-2012 Income and Expenditure survey. We take into account the high proportion of households not purchasing various food and beverage groups (censored nature of data). The food groups considered were: sweets and desserts; salty snacks and chips; meat products and fats; fruits, vegetables and seafood; cereals and cereal products; SSB ready-to-drink; SSB from concentrate; plain water, coffee and tea; and milk, which together represent 90% of food expenditures. The simulated taxes were: (1) 40% price tax on SSBs(22% above the current tax level); (2) a 5 cents per gram of sugar tax on products with added sugar; and (3) 30% price tax on all foods(27% above current tax levels) and beverages (12% above the current tax level) exceeding thresholds on sodium, saturated fat, and added sugar and for which marketing is restricted (based on a Chilean law, effective June 16 2016). Unhealthy foods are price-elastic (-1.99 for salty snacks and chips, -1.06 for SSBs ready-to-drink, and -1.27 for SSBs from concentrate), meaning that the change in consumption is proportionally larger with respect to a change in price. Results are robust to different model specification, and consistent among different socioeconomic sub-populations. Overall, the tax on marketing controlled foods and beverages is associated with the largest reduction in household purchases of sodium, added sugar, saturated fat and calorie purchases. Chile is unique in currently having instituted a small current SSB tax as well as marketing controls and front-of-package labeling of unhealthy foods and beverages. The design of a larger, more comprehensive tax to enhance the overall effect of these policies on healthier diets is a next critical step. This study shows that a large tax on the same foods and beverages already delineated as unhealthy by the marketing controls and front-of-pack labeling should prove to be more effective for promoting a healthier diet."
AUTHORS
Barry Popkin
Shu Wen Ng
Lindsey Smith-Taillie
Juan Carlos Caro
PUBLISHED
2017 in Food Policy

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Demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption
"Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants on daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption.

Methods: Cross-sectional design in 1852 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption was recorded. Principal component analysis was used for dietary pattern analysis.

Results: Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages were consumed daily by 36.3% and 33.2% of the participants, respectively. Age, body mass index (BMI), non-smoking and income were negatively related to sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. High BMI and trying to lose weight were related to artificially sweetened beverages consumption. Three major patterns were obtained from principal component analysis: first, the 'meat pattern', was loaded for red meats and processed meats; second, the 'healthy pattern', was loaded for tomatoes, fruit, whole grain, vegetables, fruit, fish, tea and nuts; finally, the 'sweet pattern' was loaded for sweets, desserts, snacks, high-energy drinks, high-fat dairy products and refined grains. The sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with both the meat and sweet dietary patterns and inversely related to the healthy dietary pattern. The artificially sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with the sweet and healthy dietary pattern.

Conclusions: Daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was inversely associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was clearly associated with weight-loss intention.

"
AUTHORS
D Aerenhouts
P Mullie
P Clarys
PUBLISHED
2011 in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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Sugar-Sweetened and Diet Beverage Consumption in Philadelphia One Year after the Beverage Tax
"In January 2017, Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) implemented an excise tax ($ 0.015/ounce) on sugar-sweetened and diet beverages. This study is a general population-based study to report on the longer-term impacts of the tax on within-person changes in consumption 12 months after implementation. A quasi-experimental difference-in-difference design was used to contrast Philadelphia vs. nearby comparison cities (Trenton, New Jersey; Camden, New Jersey; and Wilmington, Delaware) at baseline (December 2016–January 2017) vs. 12-month follow-up (December 2017–February 2018). A random-digit-dialing phone survey was administered to a population-based cohort. Analyses assessed changes in 30-day consumption frequency and ounces of sugar-sweetened and diet beverages (and a substitution beverage, bottled water) in the analytic sample (N = 515). After 12 months, relative to the comparison group, Philadelphians were slightly more likely to decrease their frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (39.2% vs. 33.5%), and slightly less likely to increase their frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (38.9% vs. 43.0%). The effects of the tax estimated in the adjusted difference-in-difference analysis were very small (for example, changes in monthly sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in Philadelphia relative to comparison cities was −3.03 times or −51.65 ounces) and confidence intervals were very wide. Results suggested that, one year after implementation, there was no major overall impact of the tax on general population-level consumption of sugar-sweetened or diet beverages, or bottled water. Future studies should test whether the tax’s effect differs in vulnerable sub-populations."
AUTHORS
Ryan M. McKenna
Amy H. Auchincloss
Brian K. Lee
Yichen Zhong
Brent A. Langellier
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

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Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: Enact taxes on sugar sweetened beverages to prevent chronic disease
"The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) encourages stakeholders to implement a sugar sweetened beverage excise tax. Sugar sweetened beverages are the largest source of added sugars in the USA and have detrimental effects on population health by increasing risks for chronic diseases. Based on existing research evidence, SBM supports an excise tax equivalent to at least 20% to meaningfully affect consumption patterns. As evidenced by research studies in Mexico and the USA, sugar sweetened beverage taxes can have positive impacts on population health and can raise significant tax revenue. To avoid potential unintended consequences that may arise from taxes to improve diet-related behaviors, it is important to monitor industry and consumer behavior in response to the tax."
AUTHORS
Megan Fallon
Tatiana Andreyeva
Daniel R Taber
Marlene B Schwartz
Jennifer L Harris
Frank J Chaloupka et al
PUBLISHED
2018 in Translational Behavioral Medicine

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Taxation and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Position of Dietitians of Canada
"Dietitians of Canada recommends that an excise tax of at least 10-20% be applied to sugar-sweetened beverages sold in Canada given the negative impact of these products on the health of the population and the viability of taxation as a means to reduce consumption. For the greatest impact, taxation measures should be combined with other policy interventions such as increasing access to healthy foods while decreasing access to unhealthy foods in schools, daycares, and recreation facilities; restrictions on the marketing of foods and beverages to children; and effective, long-term educational initiatives. This position is based on a comprehensive review of the literature. The Canadian population is experiencing high rates of obesity and excess weight. There is moderate quality evidence linking consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to excess weight, obesity, and chronic disease onset in children and adults. Taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages holds substantiated potential for decreasing its consumption. Based on economic models and results from recent taxation efforts, an excise tax can lead to a decline in sugar-sweetened beverage purchase and consumption. Taxation of up to 20% can lead to a consumption decrease by approximately 10% in the first year of its implementation, with a postulated 2.6% decrease in weight per person on average. Revenue generated from taxation can be used to fund other obesity reduction initiatives. A number of influential national organizations support a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages."
PUBLISHED
2016 in Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research

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Sugary drinks taxation, projected consumption and fiscal revenues in Colombia: Evidence from a QUAIDS model.
"The global shift towards diets high in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is linked to higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes and most other non-communicable diseases. In Colombia, one out of every two people was overweight or obese by 2010. This study estimates price-elasticities from a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model, using the 2006-2007 Colombian Income and Expenditure survey. The food groups that were jointly considered were: unsweetened unflavored milks; coffee and tea; sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs); sweets and candies (including sugar); dairy products; meats and animal-based products; grains based staples; fruits and vegetables; and condiments and snacks. We take into account the high proportion of households not purchasing specific food and beverage groups (censored data) and endogeneity on both prices (as unit values) and total expenditure. Unhealthy beverages are price-elastic (-1.61 for SSBs) meaning that the change in consumption is proportionally larger with respect to a change in price. Also, there is a high complementarity among SSBs and major food groups (grains, meats and fruits and vegetables). In Colombia, the design of a meaningful tax to influence healthier diets is a next critical step. This study also shows that a tax of 20% on SSBs should prove to be effective, and can yield revenues of about 1% of the Colombian government's total annual fiscal revenue, which can potentially be directed towards public health promotion and investments."
AUTHORS
Ricardo Bonilla
Shu Wen Ng
Barry M Popkin
Juan Carlos Caro
Jorge Tovar
PUBLISHED
2017 in PLoS ONE

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How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.
"Background: Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.

Methods: Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.).

Results: Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.

Conclusion: Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

"
AUTHORS
Renee Vuillaume
Jamie F Chriqui
Daniel R Taber
Frank J Chaloupka
PUBLISHED
2014 in PLoS ONE

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Soda Taxes and Substitution Effects: Will Obesity be Affected?
"The author closely examines the data on substitution effects from soda taxes. He finds that such a tax would encourage the substitution of juice and whole milk which are also quite caloric. The result is to blunt the effect of soda taxes in reducing obesity, unless substitutes are made less available, especially for children in schools. Although soda taxes may have minimal impacts on obesity, the author concludes that they may still enhance public health by reducing the consumption of empty calories and preventing tooth decay."
AUTHOR
Jason Fletcher
PUBLISHED
2011 in Choices

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Tapping the Power of Soda Taxes: A Call for Multidisciplinary Research and Broad-Based Advocacy Coalitions - A Response to the Recent Commentaries.
"Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom's new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation - whether incentivized or mandatory - helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs), which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public's health."
AUTHORS
Lawrence O Gostin
Sarah A Roache
PUBLISHED
2018 in International Journal of Health Policy and Management

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Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.
"The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects."
AUTHORS
Nathan Tefft
Jason M Fletcher
David E Frisvold
PUBLISHED
2015 in Health Economics

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Should Soft Drinks be Taxed More Heavily?
"This article is part of a series of Policy Issues articles on Soda Tax. You can also find articles on Can Taxing Sugary Soda Influence Consumption and Avoid Unanticipated Consequences?, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxation as Public Health Policy-Lessons from Tobacco, Soda Taxes, and Substitution Effects: Will Obesity be Affected?, Better Milk than Cola: Soft Drink Taxes and Substitution Effects, Evaluating Excise Taxes: The Need to Consider Brand Advertising, and Caloric Sweetened Beverage Taxes: The Good Food/Bad Food Trap as part of this theme."
AUTHOR
Carlisle Ford Runge
PUBLISHED
2011 in Choices

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Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children's body mass index.
"Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption."
AUTHORS
Frank J Chaloupka
Jamie F Chriqui
Lisa M Powell
Roland Sturm
PUBLISHED

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Bubbling over: soda consumption and its link to obesity in California.
"Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in both adults and children in the last three decades in the n California, 62% of adolescents ages 12-17 and 41% of children ages 2-11 drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage every day. In addition, 24% of adults drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage on an average day. Adults who drink soda occasionally (not every day) are 15% more likely to be overweight or obese, and adults who drink one or more sodas per day are 27% more likely to be overweight or obese than adults who do not drink soda, even when adjusting for poverty status and race/ethnicity. This policy brief, produced collaboratively by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, examines soda consumption in California by cities and counties using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005). In addition, the brief investigates whether there is an association between soda consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There are major differences in soda consumption rates by geographic area in California, suggesting that social and environmental factors affect the consumption of soda. Also, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among those who drink one or more sodas or other sweetened beverages every day than among those who do not consume these soft drinks. Establishing public policies that focus on reducing soda consumption could contribute to reversing California's increasing overweight and obesity problem."
AUTHORS
Harold Goldstein
Hongjian Yu
Susan H Babey
Malia Jones
PUBLISHED
2009 in Policy brief (UCLA Center for Health Policy Research)

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Advocating for Soda Taxes: How Oral Health Professionals Fit In.
"Our recent analysis of how soda tax debates appear in the news
revealed that oral health professionals seldom appear. By elevating their expert voices,
oral health practitioners can contribute new and salient arguments for soda taxes
to the public discourse and help advance public policy that improves oral health
outcomes. We propose media advocacy strategies that oral health professionals can
use to increase their visibility in the news to make the case for soda taxes.
"
AUTHORS
Karen Sokal-Gutierrez
Alysha Aziz
Pamela Mejia
Leeza Arbatman
Laura Nixon
Alisha Somji et al
PUBLISHED
2016 in Journal of the California Dental Association

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Soda Taxes And The Prices of Sodas And Other Drinks: Evidence From Mexico
"To combat a growing obesity problem, Mexico imposed a nationwide tax on drinks with added sugar, popularly referred to as a “soda tax,” effective January 2014. I analyze data on taxed and untaxed products collected as part of Mexico’s Consumer Price Index program to estimate how prices responded to the tax. Prices of regular sodas jumped by more than the amount of the tax in the month that the tax took effect. The prices of other taxed drinks also rose, though by a smaller amount. Diet soda prices rose as well, suggesting that consumers may have substituted toward diet sodas after regular sodas became taxable. The prices of bottled water, pure (untaxed) juices, and milk were largely unchanged. A companion analysis of untaxed comparison products showed no general price increases around the time that the soda tax was imposed."
AUTHOR
Jeffrey Grogger
PUBLISHED
2017 in American Journal of Agricultural Economics

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The association of soda sales tax and school nutrition laws: a concordance of policies.
"Objective: The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools.

Design: The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states' competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states' disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state.

Setting: Data from BTG and CLASS were used.

Subjects: BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used.

Results: A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %.

Conclusions: These data suggest a concordance between states' soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.

"
AUTHORS
Frank M Perna
Tanya Agurs-Collins
Richard P Moser
Jamie Chriqui
K Leigh Greathouse
PUBLISHED
2014 in Public Health Nutrition

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Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Demand and Tax Simulation for Federal Food Assistance Participants: A Case of Two New England States
FUNDERS
Economic Research Service , Rudd Foundation
"Background: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is a major concern in the efforts to improve diet and reduce obesity in USA, particularly among low-income populations. One of the most commonly proposed strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is increasing beverage prices through taxation.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether and how price-based policies could reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among participants in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

Methods: Using point-of-sale data from a regional supermarket chain (58 stores), we estimated the responsiveness of demand to sugar-sweetened beverage price changes among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-participating families with young children. Own-price and cross-price elasticities for non-alcoholic beverages were estimated using a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model.

Results: The study found evidence that a tax-induced sugar-sweetened beverage price increase would reduce total sugar-sweetened beverage purchases among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants, who were driven by purchase shifts away from taxed sodas and sports drinks to non-taxed beverages (bottled water, juice, milk). The substitution of non-taxed caloric beverages decreases the marginal effects of the sugar-sweetened beverage tax, yet the direct tax effects are large enough to reduce the overall caloric intake, with the average net reduction in monthly calories from sugar-sweetened beverages estimated at around 8% for a half-cent per ounce tax and 16% for a one cent per ounce tax.

Conclusion: A beverage price increase in the form of an excise tax would reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and increase healthier beverage purchases among low-income families.

"
AUTHORS
Tatiana Andreyeva
Theepakorn Jithitikulchai
PUBLISHED
2018 in Applied Health Economics and Health Policy

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