Do weather conditions influence the spread of COVID-19?

Submitted by: OMatsushita 109

Yes. Note that some studies in this list give us reason to question their conclusions. This may be because they were published in sources that are not peer-reviewed, are low ranked or not ranked at all, which may indicate limited editorial oversight. Carefully review the individual study summaries below for more information.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 7 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 7 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
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Do adults get sick from COVID-19 more often than children?
10 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Do cloth masks reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
10 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 117

Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?
7 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?
6 studies
Submitted by: KKrista 83

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 7
Sorted by publication year
1
The role of absolute humidity on transmission rates of the COVID-19 outbreak
"A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province,China, in December 2019 and has caused over 40,000 cases worldwide to date.Previous studies have supported an epidemiological hypothesis that cold anddry (low absolute humidity) environments facilitate the survival and spreadof droplet-mediated viral diseases, and warm and humid (high absolute humidity) environments see attenuated viral transmission (i.e., influenza). However, the role of absolute humidity in transmission of COVID-19 has not yetbeen established. Here, we examine province-level variability of the basicreproductive numbers of COVID-19 across China and find that changes inweather alone (i.e., increase of temperature and humidity as spring and summer months arrive in the North Hemisphere) will not necessarily lead to declines in COVID-19 case counts without the implementation of extensive publichealth interventions."
AUTHORS
Diambo Liu
Mauricio Santillana
Marc Lipsitch
Wei Luo
Canelle Poirier
Kenneth D Mandl et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in medRxiv
Preprint
No
No
2
Preliminary evidence that higher temperatures are associated with lower incidence of COVID-19, for cases reported globally up to 29th February 2020
"Seasonal variation in COVID-19 incidence could impact the trajectory of the pandemic. Using global linelist data on COVID-19 cases reported until 29th February 2020 and global gridded temperature data, andafter adjusting for surveillance capacity and time since first imported case, higher average temperature wasstrongly associated with lower COVID-19 incidence for temperatures of 1°C and higher. However,temperature explained a relatively modest amount of the total variation in COVID-19 incidence. Thesepreliminary findings support stringent containment efforts in Europe and elsewhere."
AUTHORS
Celine Faverjon
Angus Cameron
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell
Anne Meyer
PUBLISHED
2020 in medRxiv
Preprint
Yes
Yes
3
High Temperature and High Humidity Reduce the Transmission of COVID-19
"This paper investigates how air temperature and humidity influence the transmission of COVID-19. After estimating the serial interval of COVID-19 from 105 pairs of the virus carrier and the infected, we calculate the daily effective reproductive number, R, for each of all 100 Chinese cities with more than 40 cases. Using the daily R values from January 21 to 23, 2020 as proxies of non-intervened transmission intensity, we find, under a linear regression framework for 100 Chinese cities, high temperature and high relative humidity significantly reduce the transmission of COVID-19, respectively, even after controlling for population density and GDP per capita of cities. One degree Celsius increase in temperature and one percent increase in relative humidity lower R by 0.0383 and 0.0224, respectively. This result is consistent with the fact that the high temperature and high humidity significantly reduce the transmission of influenza. It indicates that the arrival of summer and rainy season in the northern hemisphere can effectively reduce the transmission of the COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Kai Feng
Ke Tang
Weifeng Lv
Jingyuan Wang
PUBLISHED
2020 in SSRN Electronic Journal
Preprint
Yes
Yes
4
Effects of temperature variation and humidity on the mortality of COVID-19 in Wuhan
"Object Meteorological parameters are the important factors influencing the infectious diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This study aims to explore the association between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) death and weather parameters. Methods In this study, we collected the daily death number of COVID-19, meteorological and air pollutant data from 20 January, 2020 to 29 February, 2020 in Wuhan, China. Then, the generalized additive model was applied to explore the impact of temperature, humidity and diurnal temperature range on daily mortality of COVID-19. Results There were in total 2299 COVID-19 mortality counts in Wuhan. A positive association with COVID-19 mortality was observed for diurnal temperature range (r = 0.44), but negative association for relative humidity (r = −0.32). In addition, each 1 unit increase in diurnal temperature range was only associated with a 2.92% (95% CI: 0.61%, 5.28%) increase in COVID-19 mortality at lag 3. However, both per 1 unit increase of temperature and absolute humidity were related to the decreased COVID-19 mortality at lag 3 and lag 5, respectively. Conclusion In summary, this study suggests the temperature variation and humidity may be important factors affecting the COVID-19 mortality."
AUTHORS
Ziaotao He
Yueling Ma
Bo Wang
Shihua Fu
Yadong Zhao
Jun Yan
PUBLISHED
2020 in medRxiv
Preprint
Yes
Yes
5
Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate
"As new cases of SARS CoV-2 (aka 2019-nCoV) Coronavirus are confirmed throughout the world and millions of people are being put into quarantine, hit the developing world, such as sub-Saharan Africa, potentially leading to a global human calamity. It is still early days, but using existing data we develop a large ensemble of ecological niche models that project monthly variation in climate suitability of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus throughout a typical climatological year. The current spread suggests a degree of climate determination with Coronavirus displaying preference for cool and dry conditions. The predecessor SARS-CoV was linked to similar climate conditions. Should the spread of SARS CoV-2 continue to follow current trends, a worst-case scenario of synchronous global pandemic is improbable. More probable is the emergence of asynchronous seasonal global outbreaks much like other respiratory diseases. People in temperate warm and cold climates are more vulnerable. Those in arid climates follow next in vulnerability, while the disease will likely marginally affect the tropics. Our projections minimize uncertainties related with spread of SARS CoV-2, providing critical information for anticipating the adequate social, economic and political responses."
AUTHORS
Miguel B. Araujo
Babak Naimi
PUBLISHED
2020 in medRxiv
Preprint
Yes
Yes
6
Potential impact of seasonal forcing on a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
"A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first detected in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly since December 2019, causing more than 80,000 confirmed infections and 2,700 fatalities (as of Feb 27, 2020). Imported cases and transmission clusters of various sizes have been reported globally suggesting a pandemic is likely. Here, we explore how seasonal variation in transmissibility could modulate a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Data from routine diagnostics show a strong and consistent seasonal variation of the four endemic coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43) and we parameterize our model for SARS-CoV-2 using these data. The model allows for many subpopulations of different size with variable parameters. Simulations of different scenarios show that plausible parameters result in a small peak in early 2020 in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and a larger peak in winter 2020/2021. Variation in transmission and migration rates can result in substantial variation in prevalence between regions. While the uncertainty in parameters is large, the scenarios we explore show that transient reductions in the incidence rate might be due to a combination of seasonal variation and infection control efforts but do not necessarily mean the epidemic is contained. Seasonal forcing on SARS-CoV-2 should thus be taken into account in the further monitoring of the global transmission. The likely aggregated effect of seasonal variation, infection control measures and transmission rate variation is a prolonged pandemic wave with lower prevalence at any given time, thereby providing a window of opportunity for better preparation of health care systems."
AUTHORS
Robert Dyrdak
Jan Albert
Richard A. Neher
Valentin Druelle
Emma B. Hodcroft
PUBLISHED
2020 in medRxiv
Preprint
Yes
Yes
7
Temperature significant change COVID-19 Transmission in 429 cities
"Background There is no evidence supporting that temperature changes COVID-19 transmission. Methods We collected the cumulative number of confirmed cases of all cities and regions affected by COVID-19 in the world from January 20 to February 4, 2020, and calculated the daily means of the average, minimum and maximum temperatures in January. Then, restricted cubic spline function and generalized linear mixture model were used to analyze the relationships. Results There were in total 24,232 confirmed cases in China and 26 overseas countries. In total, 16,480 cases (68.01%) were from Hubei Province. The lgN rose as the average temperature went up to a peak of 8.72℃ and then slowly declined. The apexes of the minimum temperature and the maximum temperature were 6.70℃ and 12.42℃ respectively. The curves shared similar shapes. Under the circumstance of lower temperature, every 1℃ increase in average, minimum and maximum temperatures led to an increase of the cumulative number of cases by 0.83, 0.82 and 0.83 respectively. In the single-factor model of the higher-temperature group, every 1℃ increase in the minimum temperature led to a decrease of the cumulative number of cases by 0.86. Conclusion The study found that, to certain extent, temperature could significant change COVID-19 transmission, and there might be a best temperature for the viral transmission, which may partly explain why it first broke out in Wuhan. It is suggested that countries and regions with a lower temperature in the world adopt the strictest control measures to prevent future reversal."
AUTHORS
Mao Wang
Aili Jiang
Chuyi Li
Lijuan Gong
Wenbin Guo
Lina Luo
PUBLISHED
2020 in medRxiv
Preprint
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 50
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Do weather conditions influence the spread of COVID-19?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Predict the next moves of COVID-19: reveal the temperate and tropical countries scenario
"The spread of COVID-19 engulfs almost all the countries and territories of the planet, and infections and fatality are increasing rapidly. The first epi-center of its' massive spread was in Wuhan, Hubei province, China having a temperate weather, but the spread has got an unprecedented momentum in European temperate countries mainly in Italy and Spain (as of March 30, 2020). However, Malaysia and Singapore and the neighboring tropical countries of China got relatively low spread and fatality that created a research interest on whether there are potential impacts of weather condition on COVID-19 spread. Adopting the SIR (Susceptible Infected Removed) deviated model to predict potential cases and death in the coming days from COVID-19 was done using the secondary and official sources of data. This study shows that COVID-19 spread and fatality tend to be high across the world but compared to tropical countries, it is going to be incredibly high in the temperate countries having lower temperature (7-16°C) and humidity (80-90%) in last March. However, some literature predicted that this might not to be true, rather irrespective of weather conditions there might be a continuous spread and death. Moreover, a large number of asymptotic COVID-19 carrier in both temperate and tropical countries may re-outbreak in the coming winter. Therefore, a comprehensive global program with the leadership of WHO for testing of entire population of the world is required, which will be very useful for the individual states to take proper political action, social movement and medical services."
AUTHORS
Mohammad Mahfujul Haque
Neaz A. Hasan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Eco-epidemiological assessment of the COVID-19 epidemic in China, January-February 2020
"Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 in China in early 2020 provides a rich data source for exploring the ecological determinants of this new infection, which may be of relevance elsewhere.
Objectives: Assessing the spread of the COVID-19 across China, in relation to associations between cases and ecological factors including population density, temperature, solar radiation and precipitation.
Methods: Open-access COVID-19 case data include 18,069 geo-located cases in China during January and February 2020, which were mapped onto a 0.25° latitude/longitude grid together with population and weather data (temperature, solar radiation and precipitation). Of 15,539 grid cells, 559 (3.6%) contained at least one case, and these were used to construct a Poisson regression model of cell-weeks. Weather parameters were taken for the preceding week given the established 5-7 day incubation period for COVID-19. The dependent variable in the Poisson model was incident cases per cell-week and exposure was cell population, allowing for clustering of cells over weeks, to give incidence rate ratios.
Results: The overall COVID-19 incidence rate in cells with confirmed cases was 0.12 per 1,000. There was a single case in 113/559 (20.2%) of cells, while two grid cells recorded over 1,000 cases. Weekly means of maximum daily temperature varied from -28.0 to 30.1 °C, minimum daily temperature from -42.4 to 23.0 °C, maximum solar radiation from 0.04 to 2.74 MJm-2 and total precipitation from 0 to 72.6 mm. Adjusted incidence rate ratios suggested brighter, warmer and drier conditions were associated with lower incidence.
Conclusion: Though not demonstrating cause and effect, there were appreciable associations between weather and COVID-19 incidence during the epidemic in China. This does not mean the pandemic will go away with summer weather but demonstrates the importance of using weather conditions in understanding and forecasting the spread of COVID-19."
AUTHOR
Peter Byass
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Impacts of social and economic factors on the transmission of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China
"This paper examines the role of various socioeconomic factors in mediating the local and cross-city transmissions of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in China. We implement a machine learning approach to select instrumental variables that strongly predict virus transmission among the rich exogenous weather characteristics. Our 2SLS estimates show that the stringent quarantine, massive lockdown and other public health measures imposed in late January significantly reduced the transmission rate of COVID-19. By early February, the virus spread had been contained. While many socioeconomic factors mediate the virus spread, a robust government response since late January played a determinant role in the containment of the virus. We also demonstrate that the actual population flow from the outbreak source poses a higher risk to the destination than other factors such as geographic proximity and similarity in economic conditions. The results have rich implications for ongoing global efforts in containment of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei Shi
Yun Qiu
Xi Chen
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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COVID-19 Infection and Transmission are Observably Less in Highly Dengue-endemic Countries
"We observed that global severity maps of ongoing dengue epidemic and COVID-19 pandemic do not overlap. Countries where dengue is highly endemic (>1.5 million cases/year) appear to be less hit by COVID-19 pandemic in terms of infection and transmission. Other evidences also support our proposition that pre-exposure to other wide-spread viral infections like dengue may thwart the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic."
AUTHORS
Subhajit Biswas
Soumi Sukla
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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COVID-19 infection and transmission are observably less in highly Dengue-endemic countries
"We observed that global severity maps of ongoing dengue epidemic and COVID-19 pandemic do not overlap. Countries where dengue is highly endemic (>1.5 million cases/year) appear to be less hit by COVID-19 pandemic in terms of infection and transmission. Other evidences also support our proposition that pre-exposure to other wide-spread viral infections like dengue may thwart the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic."
AUTHORS
Subhajit Biswas
Soumi Sukla
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Literature review
A systematic review investigating the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among medically not diagnosed individuals: shedding light on current recommendations provided to individuals not medically diagnosed with COVID-19
"Abstract

BackgroundFace masks are being used by individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 as a means to limit the spread of COVID-19 in several countries around the world. While some countries recommend the use of face masks, other countries do not recommend their use to limit the transmission of COVID-19 among this specific population. Because of contradicting recommendations provided by health authorities of different countries, this paper aims to investigate the availability of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 through a systematic review search. This paper will further discuss concerns around current recommendations provided to those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 regarding face mask use in the context of available evidence.MethodsTo carry out the systematic review on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, databases Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. Two groups of keywords were combined: those relating to face masks and COVID-19.ResultsThe systematic review search did not find any studies that investigated the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of this specific virus, COVID-19 among this specific population, those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19.ConclusionsIn light of the finding of this systematic review search, which is a lack of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face masks in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, the significance of this finding is highlighted and extensively discussed in this paper. This paper calls for, but does not limit to; 1) evidence-based recommendations; 2) considerations when providing recommendations in the absence of evidence; 3) evidence and knowledge transparency on current recommendations with the public; 4) global alignment on recommendations; and 5) further research.
"
AUTHOR
Keshini Madara Marasinghe
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Literature review
A systematic review investigating the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among medically not diagnosed individuals: shedding light on current recommendations provided to individuals not medically diagnosed with COVID-19
"Abstract

BackgroundFace masks are being used by individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 as a means to limit the spread of COVID-19 in several countries around the world. While some countries recommend the use of face masks, other countries do not recommend their use to limit the transmission of COVID-19 among this specific population. Because of contradicting recommendations provided by health authorities of different countries, this paper aims to investigate the availability of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 through a systematic review search. This paper will further discuss concerns around current recommendations provided to those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 regarding face mask use in the context of available evidence.MethodsTo carry out the systematic review on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, databases Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. Two groups of keywords were combined: those relating to face masks and COVID-19.ResultsThe systematic review search did not find any studies that investigated the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of this specific virus, COVID-19 among this specific population, those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19.ConclusionsIn light of the finding of this systematic review search, which is a lack of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face masks in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, the significance of this finding is highlighted and extensively discussed in this paper. This paper calls for, but does not limit to; 1) evidence-based recommendations; 2) considerations when providing recommendations in the absence of evidence; 3) evidence and knowledge transparency on current recommendations with the public; 4) global alignment on recommendations; and 5) further research.
"
AUTHOR
Keshini Madara Marasinghe
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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A Retrospective Analysis of Influence of Environmental/Air Temperature and Relative Humidity on SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak
"The pandemic threat SARS-CoV-2 is now beyond control though the country of origin of this virus had already been limited for the new infection. Number of infected people and countries have been increasing day by day. Considering the previous pandemic flues, it is hypothesizing that COVID-19 will be reduced with warming the global environmental temperature. Therefore, the current study was aimed to analyze the effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on spreading of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The COVID-19 confirmed cases of 31 different states in China and 70 cities of 11 countries were obtained from several online databases. The real time temperature and humidity of the respective regions were taken from an online weather forecasting data source. Correlation analyses showed that SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and spreading negatively correlated with temperature of most of the states of China or cities of the world or in a country. The effect of humidity on COVID-19 was found to be positively correlated inside the China and difference of humidity was not found among countries and/or various regions of the world. Moreover, a minimum number of COVID-19 cases have been confirmed in the temperate regions compared to regions/countries compared to regions/countries with relatively low temperature. In conclusion, the SARS-CoV-2 infection has been found in a wide range of temperatures. It might be hypothesized that comparatively elevated air temperature could play a detrimental effect for SARS-CoV-2 spread."
AUTHORS
Md Sayeedul Islam
Atul Chandra Singha
Md. Golzar Hossain
Md. Arifur Rahman
Md Ariful Islam
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Lactoferrin as potential preventative and treatment for COVID-19
"The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly advancing across the globe despite public and personal health measures. Antivirals and nutritional supplements have been proposed as potentially useful against SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19), but few have been clinically established. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that is orally available as a nutritional supplement and has established in vitro anti-viral efficacy against a wide range of virus including SARS-CoV, a closely related corona virus to SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19). Furthermore, Lf possesses unique immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that maybe especially relevant to the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 cases. We review the underlying biological mechanisms of Lf as antiviral and immune regulator, and propose its unique potential as preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. We hope that further research and development of Lf nutritional supplementation would establish its role for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei-Zen Sun
Raymond Chang
Tzi Bun Ng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
" The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threating respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true. "
AUTHOR
David A. Schwartz
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
"The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threatening respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true."
AUTHOR
Schwartz DA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Three Unsuspected CT Diagnoses of COVID-19
"Abstract

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel strain of coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has quickly spread around the globe. Health care facilities in the United States currently do not have an adequate supply of COVID-19 tests to meet the growing demand. Imaging findings for COVID-19 are nonspecific but include pulmonary parenchymal ground-glass opacities in a predominantly basal and peripheral distribution.METHODS: Three patients imaged for non-respiratory related symptoms with a portion of the lungs in the imaged field.RESULTS: Each patient had suspicious imaging findings for COVID-19, prompting the interpreting radiologist to suggest testing for COVID-19. All 3 patients turned out to be infected with COVID-19 and one patient is the first reported case of the coincident presentation of COVID-19 and an intraparenchymal hemorrhage.CONCLUSION: Using imaging characteristics of COVID-19 on abdominal or neck CT when a portion of the lungs is included, patients not initially suspected of COVID-19 infection can be quarantined earlier to limit exposure to others.
"
AUTHORS
Mark Flyer
Daniel Masri
Woo Sung Choi
Maryanne Ruggiero
David Vu
Evan G. Stein et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Three Unsuspected CT Diagnoses of COVID-19
"Abstract

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel strain of coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has quickly spread around the globe. Health care facilities in the United States currently do not have an adequate supply of COVID-19 tests to meet the growing demand. Imaging findings for COVID-19 are nonspecific but include pulmonary parenchymal ground-glass opacities in a predominantly basal and peripheral distribution.METHODS: Three patients imaged for non-respiratory related symptoms with a portion of the lungs in the imaged field.RESULTS: Each patient had suspicious imaging findings for COVID-19, prompting the interpreting radiologist to suggest testing for COVID-19. All 3 patients turned out to be infected with COVID-19 and one patient is the first reported case of the coincident presentation of COVID-19 and an intraparenchymal hemorrhage.CONCLUSION: Using imaging characteristics of COVID-19 on abdominal or neck CT when a portion of the lungs is included, patients not initially suspected of COVID-19 infection can be quarantined earlier to limit exposure to others.
"
AUTHORS
Mark Flyer
Daniel Masri
Woo Sung Choi
Maryanne Ruggiero
David Vu
Evan G. Stein et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and different domestic animals to SARS-coronavirus-2
"AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the infectious disease COVID-19, which was first reported in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. Despite the tremendous efforts to control the disease, COVID-19 has now spread to over 100 countries and caused a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are completely unknown. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but efficiently in ferrets and cats. We found that the virus transmits in cats via respiratory droplets. Our study provides important insights into the animal reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID-19 control."
AUTHORS
Hualan Chen
Yuntao Guan
Xijun He
Libin Liang
Yubo Zhao
Ziruo Sun et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2
FUNDERS
The National Key Research and Development Program of China
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the infectious disease COVID-19, which was first reported in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. Despite the tremendous efforts to control the disease, COVID-19 has now spread to over 100 countries and caused a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are completely unknown. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but ferrets and cats are permissive to infection. We found experimentally that cats are susceptible to airborne infection. Our study provides important insights into the animal models for SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID-19 control."
AUTHORS
Yuntao Guan
Hualan Chen
Zhiyuan Wen
Gongxun Zhong
Peipei Liu
Chong Wang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science

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Highly regarded source
Autopsy in suspected COVID-19 cases
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) outbreak in Wuhan, China has now spread to many countries across the world including the UK with an increasing death toll. This will inevitably lead to an increase in the number of suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related deaths at autopsy. The Royal College of Pathologists has responded to this concern with the release of a briefing on autopsy practice relating to COVID-19. The following article is a summary and interpretation of these guidelines. It includes a description of hazard group 3 organisms, the category to which SARS-CoV-2 has been assigned, a brief description of what is currently known about the pathological and autopsy findings in COVID-19, a summary of the recommendations for conducting autopsies in suspected COVID-19 cases and the techniques for making the diagnosis at autopsy. It concludes by considering the clinicopathological correlation and notification of such cases."
AUTHORS
Michael Osborn
Benjamin Swift
Esther Youd
Sebastian B Lucas
Brian Hanley
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Clinical Pathology

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Do Weather Temperature and Median-age affect COVID-19 Transmission?
"It was observed that the coldest countries and the eldest in terms of median-age were most distressed by COVID-19 pandemic, while the warmest countries and that have younger-aged population were the least affected. Therefore, this study utilized the non-linear least squares method to estimate the impact of weather temperatures and median age on COVID-19 cases per million in thirty-nine countries divided into two groups. The first group composed of twenty-four countries that announced the first COVID-19 case in January 2020, while the second group contains fifteen countries that witnessed the pandemic for the first time in February of the same year. The study revealed some major findings, which are: COVID-19 cases per million were not significantly affected by weather temperature or the median age in “January-group” countries (after 72.67 days on average), while COVID-19 cases per million increased significantly by decreasing temperatures, and increasing the median age in case of “February-group” countries (after an average of 44.80 days). This means that weather temperature and median age may influence the transmission rates of COVID-19 in its early stages, while weather temperature or median age no longer have effects in the advanced stages of the pandemic."
AUTHOR
Aly Zein Elabdeen Kassem
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Forecasting the novel coronavirus COVID-19
"What will be the global impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19)? Answering this question requires accurate forecasting the spread of confirmed cases as well as analysis of the number of deaths and recoveries. Forecasting, however, requires ample historical data. At the same time, no prediction is certain as the future rarely repeats itself in the same way as the past. Moreover, forecasts are influenced by the reliability of the data, vested interests, and what variables are being predicted. Also, psychological factors play a significant role in how people perceive and react to the danger from the disease and the fear that it may affect them personally. This paper introduces an objective approach to predicting the continuation of the COVID-19 using a simple, but powerful method to do so. Assuming that the data used is reliable and that the future will continue to follow the past pattern of the disease, our forecasts suggest a continuing increase in the confirmed COVID-19 cases with sizable associated uncertainty. The risks are far from symmetric as underestimating its spread like a pandemic and not doing enough to contain it is much more severe than overspending and being over careful when it will not be needed. This paper describes the timeline of a live forecasting exercise with massive potential implications for planning and decision making and provides objective forecasts for the confirmed cases of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Fotios Petropoulos
Spyros Makridakis
PUBLISHED
2020 in PLoS ONE

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Transmissibility of COVID-19 and its association with temperature and humidity
"Abstract

Background: The new coronavirus disease COVID-19 outbroke in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019, and has spread by human-to-human transmission to other areas. This study evaluated the transmissibility of the infectious disease and analyzed its association with temperature and humidity, in order to put forward suggestions on how to suppress the transmission. Methods: In this study, we revised the reported data in Wuhan to estimate the actual number of confirmed cases. Then we used the equation derived from the Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious–Recovered (SEIR) model to calculate R0 from January 24, 2020 to February 13, 2020 in 11 major cities in China for comparison. With the calculation results, we conducted correlation analysis and regression analysis between R0 and temperature and humidity to see the impact of weather on the transmissibility of COVID-19. Results: It was estimated that the cumulative number of confirmed cases had exceeded 45,000 by February 13, 2020 in Wuhan. The average R0 in Wuhan was 2.7011, significantly higher than those in other cities ranging from 1.7762 to 2.3700. The inflection points in the cities outside Hubei Province were between January 30, 2020 and February 3, 2020, while there had not been an obvious downward trend of R0 in Wuhan. R0 negatively correlated with both temperature and humidity, which was significant at the 0.01 level. Conclusions: The transmissibility of COVID-19 was strong and importance should be attached to the intervention of its transmission especially in Wuhan. According to the correlation between R0 and weather, the spread of disease will be suppressed as the weather warms.
"
AUTHORS
Hui Zhang
Yi-Ping Zeng
Xiao-Jing Guo
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Financial Fragility impacts Beliefs about Personal Risk and National Spread of COVID-19
"Experts estimate that there could be millions of cases of COVID-19 in the US, leading to potentially 100,000 or more deaths. Beliefs about the severity of the spread of COVID-19 and one's own likelihood of being infected have implications for individual behavior and consequently for the spread of the virus. The current research explores key factors that enter into these beliefs. Using nationally representative surveys with more than 3,800 participants, we find that key factors epidemiological models typically use in their predictions (e.g., concentration of cases in a given area) do not meaningfully enter into individuals' beliefs. We draw on the reality that we currently face not only a health crisis, but a financial crisis as well to identify financial fragility as a key factor influencing beliefs."
AUTHORS
Jennifer Trueblood
Abigail Sussman
Daniel O'Leary
William Holmes
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives
"Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, Central China, and has spread quickly to 72 countries to date. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [previously provisionally known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)]. At present, the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 has caused a large number of deaths with tens of thousands of confirmed cases worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health. However, there are no clinically approved vaccines or specific therapeutic drugs available for COVID-19. Intensive research on the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiological characteristics and to identify potential drug targets, which will contribute to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Hence, this review will focus on recent progress regarding the structure of SARS-CoV-2 and the characteristics of COVID-19, such as the aetiology, pathogenesis and epidemiological characteristics."
AUTHORS
Shang-Ming Liu
Heng Li
Chao-Ke Tang
Shi-Lin Tang
Xiao-Hua Yu
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

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COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses
"The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize and comparatively analyze the emergence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection and previous human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We also discuss the approaches for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to cope with this viral outbreak."
AUTHORS
Nadia Bashir
Muhammad Adnan Shereen
Abeer Kazmi
Rabeea Siddique
Suliman Khan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Advanced Research

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Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). To date, no prophylactic vaccines or approved therapeutic agents are available for preventing and treating this highly transmittable disease. Here we report two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cloned from memory B cells of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, and both mAbs specifically bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, block the binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and effectively neutralize S protein-pseudotyped virus infection. These human mAbs hold the promise for the prevention and treatment of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Lilin Ye
Zhirong Li
Jianfang Tang
Xiangyu Chen
Zhaohui Qian
Yang Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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COVID-19: A promising cure for the global panic
FUNDERS
Science and Engineering Research Board , Research England , The Advanced Level State Biotech Hub , Expanding Excellence in England
"The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. The outbreak of COVID-19 is wreaking havoc worldwide due to inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation. The COVID-19 pandemic has entered a dangerous new phase. When compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due to increased globalization and adaptation of the virus in every environment. Slowing the spread of the COVID-19 cases will significantly reduce the strain on the healthcare system of the country by limiting the number of people who are severely sick by COVID-19 and need hospital care. Hence, the recent outburst of COVID-19 highlights an urgent need for therapeutics targeting SARS-CoV-2. Here, we have discussed the structure of virus; varying symptoms among COVID-19, SARS, MERS and common flu; the probable mechanism behind the infection and its immune response. Further, the current treatment options, drugs available, ongoing trials and recent diagnostics for COVID-19 have been discussed. We suggest traditional Indian medicinal plants as possible novel therapeutic approaches, exclusively targeting SARS-CoV-2 and its pathways."
AUTHORS
Mohana Devi Subramaniam
Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman
Kamarajan Rajagopalan
Harsha Ganesan
Ssang-Goo Cho
Dhivya Venkatesan et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science of the Total Environment

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Mutated COVID-19, May Foretells Mankind in a Great Risk in the Future
"Corona virus disease 2019 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a zoonotic virus causing a variety of severe of respiratory diseases. SARS-CoV-2 is closest to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in structure. The highly prevalence of COVID-19 is due to the lack onset of symptoms. Our study aimed to present an overview of the virus in terms of structure, epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. Conduct the differences of whole genome sequence and some viral proteins to determine the gap and the change alternation of nucleotides and amino acids sequences. We evaluate 11 complete genome sequence of different coronavirus using BAST and MAFFT software. We also selected 7 types of structural proteins. We were conclude that COVID-19 might be created new mutations specifically in glycoproteins hence requires caution and complete preparation by health authorities."
AUTHOR
Ali A. Dawood
PUBLISHED
2020 in New Microbes and New Infections

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The Challenge of Using Epidemiological Case Count Data: The Example of Confirmed COVID-19 Cases and the Weather
"The publicly available data on COVID-19 cases provides an opportunity to better understand this new disease. However, strong attention needs to be paid to the limitations of the data to avoid making inaccurate conclusions. This article, which focuses on the relationship between the weather and COVID-19, raises the concern that the same factors influencing the spread of the disease might also affect the number of tests performed and who gets tested. For example, weather conditions impact the prevalence of respiratory diseases with symptoms similar to COVID-19, and this will likely influence the number of tests performed. This general limitation could severely undermine any similar analysis using existing COVID-19 data or similar epidemiological data, which could, therefore, mislead decision-makers on questions of great policy relevance."
AUTHORS
Anant Jani
Yangsiyu Lu
Sihan Li
Moritz Schwarz
Francois Cohen
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Weather Conditions and COVID-19 Transmission: Estimates and Projections
"Background: Understanding and projecting the spread of COVID-19 requires reliable estimates of how weather components are associated with the transmission of the virus. Prior research on this topic has been inconclusive. Identifying key challenges to reliable estimation of weather impact on transmission we study this question using one of the largest assembled databases of COVID-19 infections and weather.
Methods: We assemble a dataset that includes virus transmission and weather data across 3,739 locations from December 12, 2019 to April 22, 2020. Using simulation, we identify key challenges to reliable estimation of weather impacts on transmission, design a statistical method to overcome these challenges, and validate it in a blinded simulation study. Using this method and controlling for location-specific response trends we estimate how different weather variables are associated with the reproduction number for COVID-19. We then use the estimates to project the relative weather-related risk of COVID-19 transmission across the world and in large cities.
Results: We show that the delay between exposure and detection of infection complicates the estimation of weather impact on COVID-19 transmission, potentially explaining significant variability in results to-date. Correcting for that distributed delay and offering conservative estimates, we find a negative relationship between temperatures above 25 degrees Celsius and estimated reproduction number (R̂), with each degree Celsius associated with a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.5% to 4.8%) reduction in R̂. Higher levels of relative humidity strengthen the negative effect of temperature above 25 degrees. Moreover, one millibar of additional pressure increases R̂ by approximately 0.8 percent (95% CI, 0.6% to 1%) at the median pressure (1016 millibars) in our sample. We also find significant positive effects for wind speed, precipitation, and diurnal temperature on R̂. Sensitivity analysis and simulations show that results are robust to multiple assumptions. Despite conservative estimates, weather effects are associated with a 43% change in R̂ between the 5th and 95th percentile of weather conditions in our sample.
Conclusions: These results provide evidence for the relationship between several weather variables and the spread of COVID-19. However, the (conservatively) estimated relationships are not strong enough to seasonally control the epidemic in most locations."
AUTHORS
Ran Xu
Mohammad S. Jalali
Navid Ghaffarzadegan
Catherine DiGennaro
Marichi Gupta
Hazhir Rahmandad
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Seasonality and uncertainty in COVID-19 growth rates
"The virus causing COVID-19 has spread rapidly worldwide and threatens millions of lives. It remains unknown if summer weather will reduce its continued spread, thereby alleviating strains on hospitals and providing time for vaccine development. Early insights from laboratory studies of related coronaviruses predicted that COVID-19 would decline at higher temperatures, humidity, and ultraviolet light. Using current, fine-scaled weather data and global reports of infection we developed a model that explained 36% of variation in early growth rates before intervention, with 17% based on weather or demography and 19% based on country-specific effects. We found that ultraviolet light was most strongly associated with lower COVID-19 growth rates. Projections suggest that, in the absence of intervention, COVID-19 will decrease temporarily during summer, rebound by autumn, and peak next winter. However, uncertainty remains high and the probability of a weekly doubling rate remained >20% throughout the summer in the absence of control. Consequently, aggressive policy interventions will likely be needed in spite of seasonal trends."
AUTHORS
Mark C Urban
Cory Merow
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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COVID-19: Effects of weather conditions on the propagation of respiratory droplets
"As the number of confirmed cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to increase, there has been a rising concern regarding the effect of weather conditions, especially over the upcoming summer, on the transmission of this disease. In this study, we assess the transmission of COVID-19 under different weather conditions by investigating the propagation of infectious respiratory droplets. A comprehensive mathematical model is established to explore their evaporation, heat transfer and kinematics under different temperature, humidity and ventilation conditions. The transmitting pathway of COVID-19 through respiratory droplets is divided into short-range droplet contacts and long-range aerosol exposure. We show that the effect of weather conditions is not monotonic: low temperature and high humidity facilitate droplet contact transmission, while high temperature and low humidity promote the formation of aerosol particles and accumulation of particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5). Our model suggests that the 6 ft of social distance recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) may be insufficient in certain environmental conditions, as the droplet spreading distance can be as long as 6 m (19.7 ft) in cold and humid weather. The results of this study suggest that the current pandemic may not ebb in the summer of the northern hemisphere without proper intervention, as there is an increasing chance of aerosol transmission. We also emphasize that the meticulous design of building ventilation systems is critical in containing both the droplet contact infections and aerosol exposures."
AUTHORS
Yangying Zhu
Yi Cui
Paolo Luzzatto-Fegiz
Yuhang Qi
Lei Zhao
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Predictors of COVID-19 incidence, mortality, and epidemic growth rate at the country level
"Background. The burden of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been geographically disproportionate. Certain weather factors and population characteristics are thought to drive transmission, but studies examining these factors are limited. We aimed to identify weather, sociodemographic, and geographic drivers of COVID-19 at the global scale using a comprehensive collection of country/territory-level data, and to use discovered associations to estimate the timing of community transmission.

Methods. We examined COVID-19 cases and deaths reported up to May 2, 2020 across 205 countries and territories in relation to weather data collected from capital cities for the eight weeks prior to and four weeks after the date of the first reported case, as well as country/territory-level population, geographic, and planetary data. We performed univariable and multivariable regression modeling and odds ratio analyses to investigate associations with COVID-19 cases, deaths, and epidemic growth rate. We also conducted maximum likelihood analysis to estimate the timing of initial community spread.

Findings. Lower temperature (p<0.0001), lower humidity (p=0.006), higher altitude (p=0.0080), higher percentage of urban population (p<0.0001), increased air travelers (p=0.00019), and higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.0001) were strong independent predictors of national COVID-19 incidence, mortality, and epidemic growth rate. Temperature at 5-7 weeks before the first reported case best predicted epidemic growth, suggesting that significant community transmission was occurring on average 1-2 months prior to detection.

Interpretation. The results of this ecologic analysis demonstrate that global COVID-19 burden and timing of country-level epidemic growth can be predicted by weather and population factors. In particular, we find that cool, dry, and higher altitude environments, as well as more urban and obese populations, may be conducive to more rapid epidemic spread.

Funding sources: None."
AUTHORS
Philip L. Bulterys
Michelle A. Bulterys
Nicole Y. Leung
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Warmer weather and global trends in the coronavirus COVID-19
"Predicting COVID-19 epidemic development in the upcoming warm season has attracted much attention in the hope of providing helps to fight the epidemic. It requires weather (environmental) factors to be included in prediction models, but there are few models to achieve it successfully. In this study, we proposed a new concept of environmental infection rate (RE), based on floating time of respiratory droplets in the air and inactivation rate of virus to solve the problem. More than half of the particles in the droplets can float in the atmosphere for 1-2 hours. The prediction results showed that high RE values (>3.5) are scattered around 30N in winter (Dec.-Feb.). As the weather warms, its distribution area expands and extends to higher latitudes of northern hemisphere, reaching its maximum in April, and then shrinking northward. These indicated that the spread of COVID-19 in most parts of the northern hemisphere is expected to decline after Apr., but the risks in high latitudes will remain high in May. In the south of southern hemisphere, the RE values tend to subside from Apr. to July. The high modeled RE values up to July, however, suggested that warmer weather will not stop COVID-19 from spreading. Public health intervention is needed to overcome the outbreak."
AUTHORS
Hong Li
Cheng Liu
Huayun Xiao
Chengxing Sun
Renguo Zhu
Hongwei Xiao
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Proactive COVID-19 Infection Prevention Measures in a Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Center
"Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and its subsequent global spread, Taiwan has been combatting this pandemic. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through droplets and aerosols, we cannot ignore the risk of transmission during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center prioritizes preventing the spread of COVID-19 and maintaining operation for the patients during the pandemic. The aim of this article is to share the protocol that we have adopted in our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center to help prevent the spread of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Ching-Tzu Hung
Hsiao-Chen Lee
Su-Shin Lee
Hsiu-Ying Lee
Su-Chen Wang
Jing-Jou Lo et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Medicina

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Literature review
Know the unknown fact of novel COVID -19 corona virus
"Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a contagious disease triggered by the novel coronavirus. A novel coronavirus was observed as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). In December 2019, a disruption of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread across China and beyond. In India, the first case of CORONA virus was reported in Kerala state on 30 January 2020. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases infection can give rise to pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and even death. The period within which the symptoms would appear is 1-14 days i.e. the incubation period of COVID-19. The present review highlights the types, etiology, transmission stages, manifestations, prevention, therapeutic options, learning points from outbreak, and initiative taken by Government of India (GOI) to control the spread of literary deathly disease."
PUBLISHED
2020 in Letters in Applied NanoBioScience

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Corona kills corona: convalescent sera option for global war against corona virus disease 2019
"On December 31st, 2019 China reported first case of atypical pneumonia in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province. The causative virus was found to be a beta coronavirus, closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) from 2003 and similar to Sarbeco viruses isolated from bats. It was therefore termed SARS-CoV-2 and the disease was named corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The outbreak in Wuhan expanded quickly and led to the lockdown of Wuhan and other parts of China. While the lockdown, at least temporarily, brought the situation under control in China, but SARS-CoV-2 spread globally causing a pandemic with more than 4 lakh infections and about 19000 fatalities (as of March 25, 2020). Nucleic acid tests that detect the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome were quickly developed and are now widely employed to diagnose COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Babita .
Mahavir Jangra
S. K. Jha
Anita Punia
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health

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The novel coronavirus and its possible treatment by vaccines, therapeutics and drug delivery systems: Current status and future perspectives
"In the mid-end of December 2019, several cases of pneumonia outbreak of unknown cause and etiology were identified in Wuhan City of Hubei province in China, a city with a population of over 11 million.Till date(April 2020) around 1,051,635 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and 56,985 confirmed deaths have been reported according to COVID-19 Situation Report – 75 by WHO. On 7th January 2020, the causative agent was identified and named consequently as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) from throat swab samples. Later, on 12th January 2020, this coronavirus was named as 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by World Health Organization (WHO) and in 11th February 2020,it has been declared the epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) as it is spreading rapidly from its origin in Wuhan City to the rest of the world. In this context, the current review provides a landscape of the novel Corona Virus including its origin, transmission, epidemiology, drugs and vaccines in clinical trials for better understanding to the reads and peoples the status and future perspectives of this pandemic disease"
AUTHORS
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy Somanathan Balasubramanian
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Madhurya Kadavakollu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Diligent medical activities of a publicly designated medical institution for infectious diseases pave the way for overcoming COVID-19: A positive message to people working at the cutting edge
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is highly infectious and has spread worldwide. An important factor compounding spread is the infection of medical staff with SARS-CoV-2, which threatens the collapse of the very institutions required to treat COVID-19. The possibility of virus transmission from patients with COVID-19 to medical staff is thus of primary concern. Asymptomatic COVID-19 carriage among hospital staff could also be conceivable to act as a potent source of ongoing transmission. Here we show that, surprisingly, none of the medical staff working at a hospital with COVID-19 patients had IgG antibodies for SARS-CoV-2, indicating that virus transmission from patients to medical staff did not occur in these medical workers. These results show that standard preventive measures against infectious diseases can prevent SARS-CoV-2 exposure in medical staff, and should greatly encourage medical practitioners at the front line of this pandemic."
AUTHORS
Yoshihiro Nishimura
Keiji Iida
Naofumi Yoshida
Mitsuhiro Nishimura
Jun Arii
Tatsuya Nagano et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Exploring Dependence of COVID-19 on Environmental Factors and Spread Prediction in India
"Abstract
The pandemic of “Corona Virus Disease 2019” or COVID-19 has taken the world by storm. Majority of nations of the world have been challenged by the novel coronavirus, which is supposedly of zoonotic origin and is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The present work attempts to evaluate the spread of COVID-19 in India. The methodology of assessment uses SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed) model to establish the impact of socio-behavioural aspect, especially social distancing, affecting the numbers of COVID-19 cases per day. The lockdown initiated by Government of India (GoI) scenario is weighed against a scenario with a possible initiation of community spread due to crowded gatherings in India. The resultant changes, as against the lockdown scenario, has been reported in terms of the increase in the number of cases and stretch of the timeline to mitigate the COVID-19 spread. Impact of environmental factors like temperature and relative humidity have also been analyzed using statistical methods, including Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Correlation. It has been found that the spread of cases is dependent on environmental conditions, i.e. temperature and relative humidity. This study is expected to help the policymakers and stakeholders to device an improved action plan to alleviate the COVID-19 spread, especially in India."
AUTHORS
Rakesh Kumar
Avneesh Anshul
Saima Anjum
Ankit Gupta
Hemant Bherwani
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Seasonal Variations and Immune Responses: Any Succor for COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria
"There is a global rise in the emergence of infectious diseases and the enigmatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being the most recent one. It is ravaging the world with little understanding of its etiology and factors affecting its transmission dynamics. Meanwhile, seasonal variations in weather are major factors impacting infectious disease transmission patterns. Developing countries are likely to be most affected by weather changes, largely because of challenges such as inadequate drainage and sewage management systems, healthcare facilities, education, and funding to efficiently mitigate infectious diseases. In Nigeria, weather conditions alternate between rainy and dry seasons. Conditions such as rainfall, flood, and humidity have been reported to influence infectious disease transmission. Thus, understanding the impact of weather changes in transmission dynamics and immune response to COVID 19 will help in preventive measures and policy making to curtail its spread most especially in Nigeria as the rainy season fully sets in."
AUTHORS
Adeleye Adeshakin
Xiaochun Wan
Samuel Essien-Baidoo
Ganiyu Alli-Balogun
Funmilayo Adeshakin
Lukman Afolabi et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Coronavirus Pandemic vs. Temperature in the context of Indian Subcontinent – A preliminary statistical analysis
"Abstract
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has unleashed havoc across different countries and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Since certain evidences indicate a direct relationship of various viruses with the weather (temperature in particular), the same is being speculated about COVID-19; however, it is still under investigation as the pandemic is advancing the world over. In this study, we tried to analyze the spread of COVID-19 in the Indian sub-continent with respect to the local temperature regimes from 9 March, 2020, to 27 May, 2020. To establish the relation between COVID-19 and temperature in India, three different eco-geographical regions having significant temperature differences were taken into consideration for the analysis. We observed that except Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Kashmir showed a significantly positive correlation between the number of COVID-19 cases and the temperature during the period of study. The evidences based on the results presented in this research lead us to believe that the increasing temperature is beneficial to the COVID-19 spread, and the cases are going to rise further with the increasing temperature over India. We, therefore, conclude that the existing data, though limited, suggests that the spread of COVID-19 in India is not explained by the variation of temperature alone and is most likely driven by a host of other factors related to epidemiology, socio-economics and other climatic factors. Based on the results, it is suggested that temperature should not be considered as a yardstick for planning intervention strategies for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic."
AUTHORS
M. S. Nathawat
Shakil A. Romshoo Sudhanshu
Shakil A. Romshoo
Suraj Kumar Singh
Majid Farooq
Gowhar Meraj et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Literature review
Literature Review of Epidemiological Phenomena: Corona Virus Disease Pandemic 2019
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or Corona virus is a new type of coronavirus that is transmitted to humans. Corona virus infection called COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) was first discovered in the city of Wuhan, China at the end of December 2019. Until March 2, 2020, more than 80 thousand confirmed cases have been reported in China. Of these cases, 49 thousand were identified in Wuhan City. Epidemiologically, the spread or distribution of this disease has a wide social and economic impact on the world. Many literature studies about the COVID-19 outbreak, such as causes, natural history of the disease, even to the preventive and medical treatment. Since the end of 2019 until April 2020, there have been many published literature or literature studies at both national and international levels, so this paper aims to examine literature studies related to COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Zakiyuddin Zakiyuddin
Fitriani Fitriani
Teungku Nih Farisni
Yarmaliza Yarmaliza
Lili Eky Nursia N
Safrizal Safrizal et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences

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COVID-19 pandemic: environmental and social factors influencing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the expanded metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil
"Abstract
The new Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than three million people worldwide so far. Brazil is currently the second leading country in number of critical cases and the third in number of new deaths caused by COVID-19, while São Paulo State accounts for more than 33% of total confirmed cases in Brazil. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 spread in São Paulo State is an important task. The aim of this study was to assess environmental and social factors influencing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the expanded metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. Firstly, a spatial analysis was conducted to provide insights into the spread of COVID-19 within the expanded metropolitan area. Moreover, statistical analyses were performed to assess social indicators and environmental conditions which possibly influence the incidence of COVID-19. Our results reveal that the spread of COVID-19 from the capital city São Paulo – its epicenter in Brazil – is directly associated with the availability of highways within the expanded metropolitan area of São Paulo. As for social aspects, cumulative COVID-19 confirmed cases were found to be both positively correlated with population density, and negatively correlated with social isolation rate, hence, indicating that social distancing has been effective in reducing the COVID-19 transmission. Finally, cumulative COVID-19 confirmed cases were found to be inversely correlated with both temperature and UV radiation. Together with recent literature our study suggests that the UV radiation provided by sunlight might reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2."
AUTHORS
Liane Nakada
Rodrigo Urban
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Effects of Weather on Coronavirus Pandemic
"The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. While influenza virus shows seasonality, it is unknown if COVID-19 has any weather-related affect. In this work, we analyze the patterns in local weather of all the regions affected by COVID-19 globally. Our results indicate that approximately 85% of the COVID-19 reported cases until 1 May 2020, making approximately 3 million reported cases (out of approximately 29 million tests performed) have occurred in regions with temperature between 3 and 17 °C and absolute humidity between 1 and 9 g/m3. Similarly, hot and humid regions outside these ranges have only reported around 15% or approximately 0.5 million cases (out of approximately 7 million tests performed). This suggests that weather might be playing a role in COVID-19 spread across the world. However, this role could be limited in US and European cities (above 45 N), as mean temperature and absolute humidity levels do not reach these ranges even during the peak summer months. For hot and humid countries, most of them have already been experiencing temperatures >35 °C and absolute humidity >9 g/m3 since the beginning of March, and therefore the effect of weather, however little it is, has already been accounted for in the COVID-19 spread in those regions, and they must take strict social distancing measures to stop the further spread of COVID-19. Our analysis showed that the effect of weather may have only resulted in comparatively slower spread of COVID-19, but not halted it. We found that cases in warm and humid countries have consistently increased, accounting for approximately 500,000 cases in regions with absolute humidity >9 g/m3, therefore effective public health interventions must be implemented to stop the spread of COVID-19. This also means that ‘summer’ would not alone stop the spread of COVID-19 in any part of the world."
AUTHORS
Sheraz Khan
Ralph B. D’Agostino Sr.
Joseph M. Massaro
Qasim Bukhari
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

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The impact of climate temperature on counts, recovery, and death rates due to SARS-CoV-2 in South Africa. (Preprint)
"
BACKGROUND
The impact of climate temperature on the counts (number of positive COVID-19 cases reported), recovery, and death rates of COVID-19 cases in South Africa's nine provinces was investigated. The data for confirmed cases of COVID-19 were collected for March 25 and June 30, 2020 (14 weeks) from South Africa's Government COVID-19 online resource, while the daily provincial climate temperatures were collected from the website of the South African Weather Service. Our result indicates that a higher or lower climate temperature does not prevent or delay the spread and death rates but shows significant positive impacts on the recovery rates of COVID-19 patients. Thus, it indicates that the climate temperature is unlikely to impose a strict limit on the spread of COVID-19. There is no correlation between the cases and death rates, an indicator that no particular temperature range is closely associated with a faster or slower death rate of COVID-19 patients. As evidence from our study, a warm climate temperature can only increase the recovery rate of COVID-19 patients, ultimately impacting the death and active case rates and freeing up resources quicker to enable health facilities to deal with those patients' climbing rates who need treatment.


OBJECTIVE
This study aims to investigate the impact of climate temperature variation on the counts, recovery, and death rates of COVID-19 cases in all South Africa's provinces. The findings were compared with those of countries with comparable climate temperature values.


METHODS
The data for confirmed cases of COVID-19 were collected for March 25 and June 30 (14 weeks) for South African provinces, including daily counts, death, and recovery rates. The dates were grouped into two, wherein weeks 1-5 represent the periods of total lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19 in South Africa. Weeks 6-14 are periods where the lockdown was eased to various levels 4 and 3. The daily information of COVID-19 count, death, and recovery was obtained from South Africa's Government COVID-19 online resource (https://sacoronavirus.co.za). Daily provincial climate temperatures were collected from the website of the South African Weather Service (https://www.weathersa.co.za). The provinces of South Africa are Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Northern Cape, Limpopo, Northwest, Mpumalanga, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape, and Gauteng. Weekly consideration was given to the daily climate temperature (average minimum and maximum). The recorded values were considered, respectively, to be in the ratio of death-to-count (D/C) and recovery-to-count (R/C).

Descriptive statistics were performed for all the data collected for this study. The analyses were performed using the Person’s bivariate correlation to analyze the association between climate temperature, death-to-count, and recovery-to-count ratios of COVID-19.


RESULTS
The results showed that higher climate temperatures aren't essential to avoid the COVID-19 from being spread. The present results conform to the reports that suggested that COVID-19 is unlike the seasonal flu, which does dissipate as the climate temperature rises [17]. Accordingly, the ratio of counts and death-to-count cannot be concluded to be influenced by variations in the climate temperatures within the study areas.


CONCLUSIONS
The study investigates the impact of climate temperature on the counts, recovery, and death rates of COVID-19 cases in all South Africa's provinces. The findings were compared with those of countries with comparable climate temperatures as South Africa. Our result indicates that a higher or lower climate temperature does not prevent or delay the spread and death rates but shows significant positive impacts on the recovery rates of COVID-19 patients. Warm climate temperatures seem not to restrict the spread of the COVID-19 as the count rate was substantial at every climate temperatures. Thus, it indicates that the climate temperature is unlikely to impose a strict limit on the spread of COVID-19. There is no correlation between the cases and death rates, an indicator that there is no particular temperature range of the climatic conditions closely associated with a faster or slower death rate of COVID-19 patients. However, other shortcomings in this study's process should not be ignored. Some other factors may have contributed to recovery rates, such as the South African government's timely intervention to announce a national lockout at the early stage of the outbreak, the availability of intensive medical care, and social distancing effects. Nevertheless, this study shows that a warm climate temperature can only help COVID-19 patients recover more quickly, thereby having huge impacts on the death and active case rates.
"
AUTHORS
Bamise Adeleye
Neven Chetty
Abiola Olawale Ilori
PUBLISHED
2020 in JMIR Publications Inc.

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Literature review
The effect of climate on the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic: A review of findings, and statistical and modelling techniques
FUNDERS
Fundación Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir
" The new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has spread rapidly around the world since it was first reported in humans in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 after being contracted from a zoonotic source. This new virus produces the so-called coronavirus 2019 or COVID-19. Although several studies have supported the epidemiological hypothesis that weather patterns may affect the survival and spread of droplet-mediated viral diseases, the most recent have concluded that summer weather may offer partial or no relief of the COVID-19 pandemic to some regions of the world. Some of these studies have considered only meteorological variables, while others have included non-meteorological factors. The statistical and modelling techniques considered in this research line have included correlation analyses, generalized linear models, generalized additive models, differential equations, or spatio-temporal models, among others. In this paper we provide a systematic review of the recent literature on the effects of climate on COVID-19’s global expansion. The review focuses on both the findings and the statistical and modelling techniques used. The disparate findings reported seem to indicate that the estimated impact of hot weather on the transmission risk is not large enough to control the pandemic, although the wide range of statistical and modelling approaches considered may have partly contributed to the inconsistency of the findings. In this regard, we highlight the importance of being aware of the limitations of the different mathematical approaches, the influence of choosing geographical units and the need to analyse COVID-19 data with great caution. The review seems to indicate that governments should remain vigilant and maintain the restrictions in force against the pandemic rather than assume that warm weather and ultraviolet exposure will naturally reduce COVID-19 transmission. "
AUTHORS
Álvaro Briz-Redón
Ángel Serrano-Aroca
PUBLISHED
2020 in Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment

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Physiological and clinical aspects in COVID-19
"There is a new public health crises threatening globally with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel corona virus (COVID-19) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In very recent decade we have seen endemic outbreaks in the form of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Now we again see the emergence of another serious outbreak due to a new strain called the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This SARS-CoV-2 initially presented as pneumonia of unknown etiology with group of symptoms including fever, dry cough and shortness of breath in a cluster of patients in December 2019 Wuhan, China. COVID-19 now has quickly became a health emergency now across worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging human infectious corona virus that causes COVID-19, now this has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March, 2020. Because of the pathogenesis and proliferation pathways of COVID-19 are still unknown the development of vaccine was not developed yet and definitive treatment was not implemented. Therefore, in this article, new potential COVID-19 therapies are briefly reviewed. The world is in emergent need for searching of possible medications for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
S. Jayachandra
J. Sorout
R. Kodidala Satyanath
S. Kacker
A. Gandhi
PUBLISHED
2020 in RUDN Journal of Medicine

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COVID-19: ACE-2 Receptor, TMPRSS2, Cathepsin-L/B and CD-147 Receptor
"COVID-19 shows an extremely rapid spreading pattern, classified as SARS-CoV-2, has become a worldwide health problem. Relating to biological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the new viral agent was comprehensively summarized in order to optimize the date research on this novel disease and make adequate therapeutic decisions. The structure of COVID-19 virus is partially similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and to date, the origin is not clearly ruled out in detail. COVID-19 in general shows, without any adequate measurement, an exponential reproductive rate, an incubation of nearly 14 days. The clinical appearance and the pandemic spread of COVID-19 were very similar to earlier SARS epidemics. The occurrence of SARS-CoV-2; previously provisionally referred to as novel coronavirus 2019 or 2019-nCoV (COVID-19) in China in late 2019, has induced a global spreading and is a worldwide public health problem. At the end of January 2020, the World Health Organization described COVID-19 as the sixth international public health emergency. SARS-CoV-2 is similar to severe corona viruses similar to acute respiratory syndrome of bat origin, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. The transmission is based on by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact or stool, whereas the infection seems to have an incubation period of up to 14 days and a reproduction rate of 2.24-3.58. In patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia, fever was the prominent symptom in these patients followed by cough. Currently, stopping the rapid spreading of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention in health care management. However, health authorities should continue to monitor the situation closely."
AUTHOR
Stefan Bittmann
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Regenerative Biology and Medicine

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Front-line Healthcare Workers in COVID-19: The Way from Elbow-Bump Greeting to Closing Body Bags
"COVID-19 is a serious coronavirus disease that is spreading all over the world. As of the date of this publication, 2.834.134 people have been infected with COVID-19 and 197.924 deaths have been recorded in 185 countries (John Hopkins Corona Resource Center, 25th April 2020) [1]. This overwhelming mortality rate requires intensive research activities around the world. To date, the number of deaths per day in the United States is still killing, indicating an uncontrollable state of infection spread. SARS-CoV-2 binds to the angiotensin II receptor in various tissues of the human body, particularly in the oral cavity and tongue. SARS-CoV-2 requires the cheerful TMPRSS2 to activate this inertia. SARS-CoV-2 uses the ACE2 receptor as a gateway to the lungs. The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds with the spike protein to the ACE2 receptor. COVID-19 is more common among African Americans in the USA (Science 10th April 2020). The comfort and the emotional loading capacity of the employees in the health service are key components for the maintenance of the essential health services during the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus (Coronavirus) [2,3]. Hence, it will be important to anticipate the charges linked with this work and to release support for employees in the health service. The supervision and assessment of the psychic health and the well-being of the employees in the health service will be important, just as the efforts to guarantee a successful reunion with colleagues if they are infected."
AUTHOR
Stefan Bittmann
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Regenerative Biology and Medicine

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Literature review
Highlights on Evidence-Based Treatment Strategies for COVID-19: a Review
"21st century is considered a well-modernized era, but recently a new public health emergency triggered by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with the emergence of treatment therapy globally. WHO named it Covid-19 on February 11, 2020, and announced this rapidly spreading corona outbreak a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Currently, there is no known specific vaccine or drug to treat COVID-19. The Coronavirus was first noticed in Wuhan Hubei city of China, in December 2019. COVID-19 originated from an animal source, thus named SARS-CoV-2 that causes mild to severe illness from the common cold to diseased conditions such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) & the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Various key proteins as targets have been identified, which are responsible for its virulence and cause infections in humans. Since it has been started, much research has been conducted and still going on to develop a suitable candidate to inhibit its virulence targeting its key protein targets with in-silico docking studies. This review highlights the viral introduction, its genome, spike protein interaction WHO guidelines and current treatment or drugs, and in-silico docking studies related to SARS-CoV-2."
PUBLISHED
2020 in Letters in Applied NanoBioScience

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