Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?

Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Yes. The studies in this list for which we have identified answers are unanimous on this conclusion. Note that some studies in this list give us reason to question their conclusions. This may be because they were published in sources that are not peer-reviewed, are low ranked or not ranked at all, which may indicate limited editorial oversight. Alternatively, it may be because they were criticized in a published article or produced by a financially interested or ideologically motivated source. Carefully review the individual study summaries below for more information.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 7 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 7 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 7
Sorted by publication year
1
Is there an association between the level of ambient air pollution and COVID-19?
" Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors (eg. air pollution) can influence the spread and infectivity of COVID-19, however, very few papers have investigated or discussed the mechanism behind the phenomenon. Given the fact that pollution will increase as social distancing rules are relaxed, we summarised the current understanding of how air pollution may affect COVID-19 transmission and discussed several possible mechanisms. Air pollution exposure can dysregulate the human immune response and make people more susceptible to infections, and effect infectivity. For example, in response to exposure to air pollution, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 will increase, which is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. This may increase the efficiency of viral infection. It is also possible that air pollution can facilitate SARS-CoV-2 spread by increasing the transmission, and potentially SARS-CoV-2 can also survive longer when attached to a pollutant. "
AUTHORS
Hui Chen
Brian G. Oliver
Yik Lung Chan
Baoming Wang
PUBLISHED
2020 in American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
High quality source
FUNDERS
China Scholarship Council , National Health & Medical Research Council Australia
Yes
Yes
2
Air Pollution and Covid-19: The Role of Particulate Matter in the Spread and Increase of Covid-19's Morbidity and Mortality
"Sars-cov-2 virus (Covid-19) is a member of the coronavirus family and is responsible for the pandemic recently declared by the World Health Organization. A positive correlation has been observed between the spread of the virus and air pollution, one of the greatest challenges of our millennium. Covid-19 could have an air transmission and atmospheric particulate matter (PM) could create a suitable environment for transporting the virus at greater distances than those considered for close contact. Moreover, PM induces inflammation in lung cells and exposure to PM could increase the susceptibility and severity of the Covid-19 patient symptoms. The new coronavirus has been shown to trigger an inflammatory storm that would be sustained in the case of pre-exposure to polluting agents. In this review, we highlight the potential role of PM in the spread of Covid-19, focusing on Italian cities whose PM daily concentrations were found to be higher than the annual average allowed during the months preceding the epidemic. Furthermore, we analyze the positive correlation between the virus spread, PM, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor involved in the entry of the virus into pulmonary cells and inflammation."
AUTHORS
Silvia Comunian
Paola Palestini
Chiara Milani
Dario Dongo
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Q2
Yes
Yes
3
The Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution Concentrations and Lockdowns on Covid-19 Infections in Wuhan and Other Provincial Capitals in China
"Background: Covid-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China in Dec 2019. Since then, it has been transmitted rapidly in China and the rest of the world. While Covid-19 transmission rate has been declining in China, it is increasing exponentially in Europe and America. Although there are numerous studies examining Covid-19 infection, including an archived paper looking into the meteorological effect, the role of outdoor air pollution has yet to be explored rigorously. It has been shown that air pollution will weaken the immune system, and increase the rate of respiratory virus infection. We postulate that outdoor air pollution concentrations will have a negative effect on Covid-19 infections in China, whilst lockdowns, characterized by strong social distancing and home isolation measures, will help to moderate such negative effect. Methods: We will collect the number of daily confirmed Covid-19 cases in 31 provincial capital cities in China during the period of 1 Dec 2019 to 20 Mar 2020 (from a popular Chinese online platform which aggregates all cases reported by the Chinese national/provincial health authorities). We will also collect daily air pollution and meteorology data at the city-level (from the Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center and the US National Climatic Data Center), daily inter-city migration flows and intra-city movements (from Baidu). City-level demographics including age distribution and gender, education, and median household income can be obtained from the statistical yearbooks. City-level co-morbidity indicators including rates of chronic disease and co-infection can be obtained from related research articles. A regression model is developed to model the relationship between the infection rate of Covid-19 (number of confirmed cases/population at the city level) and outdoor air pollution at the city level, after taking into account confounding factors such as meteorology, inter- and intra-city movements, demographics, and co-morbidity and co-infection rates. In particular, we shall study how air pollution affects infection rates across different cities, including Wuhan. Our model will also study air pollution would affect infection rates in Wuhan before and after the lockdown. Expected findings: We expect there be a correlation between Covid-19 infection rate and outdoor air pollution. We also expect that reduced intra-city movement after the lockdowns in Wuhan and the rest of China will play an important role in reducing the infection rate. Interpretation: Infection rate is growing exponentially in major cities worldwide. We expect Covid-19 infection rate is related to the air pollution concentration, and is strongly dependent on inter- and intra-city movements. To reduce the infection rate, the international community may deploy effective air pollution reduction plans and social distancing policies."
AUTHORS
Victor OK Li
Jacqueline CK Lam
Zafar Gilani
Andong Wang
Yang Han
Qi Zhang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
4
Association between short-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 infection: Evidence from China
"The novel coronavirus pneumonia, namely COVID-19, has become a global public health problem. Previous studies have found that air pollution is a risk factor for respiratory infection by carrying microorganisms and affecting body's immunity. This study aimed to explore the relationship between ambient air pollutants and the infection caused by the novel coronavirus. Daily confirmed cases, air pollution concentration and meteorological variables in 120 cities were obtained from January 23, 2020 to February 29, 2020 in China. We applied a generalized additive model to investigate the associations of six air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2 and O3) with COVID-19 confirmed cases. We observed significantly positive associations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 in the last two weeks with newly COVID-19 confirmed cases. A 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0–14) in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 was associated with a 2.24% (95% CI: 1.02 to 3.46), 1.76% (95% CI: 0.89 to 2.63), 6.94% (95% CI: 2.38 to 11.51), and 4.76% (95% CI: 1.99 to 7.52) increase in the daily counts of confirmed cases, respectively. However, a 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0–14) in SO2 was associated with a 7.79% decrease (95% CI: −14.57 to −1.01) in COVID-19 confirmed cases. Our results indicate that there is a significant relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 infection, which could partially explain the effect of national lockdown and provide implications for the control and prevention of this novel disease."
AUTHORS
Yongjian Zu
Fengming Huang
Jingui Xie
Liqing Cao
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science of the Total Environment
High quality source
FUNDERS
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Yes
Yes
5
An effect assessment of Airborne particulate matter pollution on COVID-19: A multi-city Study in China
"Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious infectious disease, which has caused great number of deaths and health problems worldwide. This study aims to examine the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution on COVID-19 across China.Methods: In this study, we obtained confirmed cases of COVID-19, the data of airborne ambient PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10 μm (PM10), ambient temperature (AT), absolute humidity (AH) and migration scale index (MSI) in 72 cities of China (excluded Wuhan city) on a daily basis, each of which confirmed more than 50 cases from January 20th to March 2nd, 2020. We applied a two-stage analysis. Generalized additive models with quasi-Poisson distribution was first fitted to estimate city-specific effects of PM10 and PM2.5 on daily confirmed COVID-19 cases while controlling AT, AH and MSI. Then, we used meta-analysis to generate the pooled effect estimates from city-specific results.Results: During the study period, there were a total of 24 939 COVID-19 cases, most of which were reported in Hubei Province. In our meta-analysis, we found each 10 μg/m3 increase in concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in single day lag (from lag 0 to lag 7 and lag 14) were positively associated with confirmed cases of COVID-19, not including PM10 at lag 5, lag 6 and lag 7, and PM2.5 at lag 5, lag 6. Similar trend was also found in different cumulative lag days (from lag 01 to lag 07 and lag 014). The effects of PM2.5 and PM10 on daily COVID-19 confirmed cases are statistically significant for three cumulative lag periods over 3, 7 and 14 days with the greatest effect over 14 days. The estimated RRs of which were 1.64 (95% CIs: 1.47, 1.82) and 1.47 (95% CIs: 1.34, 1.61) with each 10 μg/m3 increase in concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. In addition, we found that the effects of PM2.5 on daily confirmed cases were greater than PM10 in all included lag days.Conclusions: This nationwide study suggests that airborne PM pollution likely increases the risk of getting COVID-19 in China."
AUTHORS
BO WANG
Lanyu Li
JiangTao Liu
Yueling Ma
Xiaocheng Xu
Shihua Fu
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
6
Two mechanisms for accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 outbreaks in regions with high intensity of population and polluting industrialization: the air pollution-to-human and human-to-human transmission dynamics
"What is COVID-19? Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is viral infection that generates a severe acute respiratory syndrome with serious pneumonia that may result in progressive respiratory failure and death. What are the goals of this investigation? This study explains the geo-environmental determinants of the accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 in Italy that is generating a high level of deaths and suggests general lessons learned for a strategy to cope with future epidemics similar to COVID-19 to reduce viral infectivity and negative impacts in economic systems and society. What are the results of this study? The main results are:o The accelerate and vast diffusion of COVID-19 in North Italy has a high association with air pollution.o Hinterland cities have average days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter) equal to 80 days, and an average number of infected more than 2,000 individuals as of April 1st, 2020, coastal cities have days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 equal to 60 days and have about 700 infected in average.o Cities that average number of 125 days exceeding the limits set for PM10, last year, they have an average number of infected individual higher than 3,200 units, whereas cities having less than 100 days (average number of 48 days) exceeding the limits set for PM10, they have an average number of about 900 infected individuals. o The results reveal that accelerated transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in specific environments is due to two mechanisms given by: air pollution-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission; in particular, the mechanisms of air pollution-to-human transmission play a critical role rather than human-to-human transmission. o The finding here suggests that to minimize future epidemic similar to COVID-19, the max number of days per year in which cities can exceed the limits set for PM10 or for ozone, considering their meteorological condition, is less than 50 days. After this critical threshold, the analytical output here suggests that environmental inconsistencies because of the combination between air pollution and meteorological conditions (with high moisture%, low wind speed and fog) trigger a take-off of viral infectivity (accelerated epidemic diffusion) with damages for health of population, economy and society. What is a socioeconomic strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to COVID-19? Considering the complex interaction between air pollution, meteorological conditions and biological characteristics of viral infectivity, lessons learned for COVID-19 have to be applied for a proactive socioeconomic strategy to cope with future epidemics, especially an environmental policy based on reduction of air pollution mainly in hinterland zones of countries, having low wind speed, high percentage of moisture and fog that create an environment that can damage immune system of people and foster a fast transmission of viral infectivity similar to the COVID-19. This study must conclude that a strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to COVID 19 has also to be designed in environmental and sustainability science and not only in terms of biology."
AUTHOR
MARIO COCCIA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
7
A vulnerability-based approach to human-mobility reduction for countering COVID-19 transmission in London while considering local air quality
"An ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between air pollution, and COVID-19 cases and fatality rates in London. The analysis demonstrated a strong correlation (R2>0.7) between increment in air pollution and an increase in the risk of COVID-19 transmission within London boroughs. Particularly, strong correlations (R2>0.72) between the risk of COVID-19 fatality and NO2 and PM2.5 pollution concentrations were also found. Although this study assumed the same level of air pollution across a particular London borough, it demonstrates the possibility to employ air pollution as an indicator to rapidly identify the vulnerable regions within a city. Such an approach can inform the decisions to suspend or reduce the operation of different public transport modes within a city. The methodology and learnings from the study can thus aid public transport to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak by adopting different levels of human-mobility reduction strategies based on the vulnerability of a given region."
AUTHORS
Ajith Kumar Parlikad
Manu Sasidharan
Ajit Singh
Mehran Eskandari Torbaghan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 36
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Early evidence that COVID-19 government policies reduce urban air pollution
"Governments have a solemn responsibility to ensure the health and well-being of the populations they govern. The COVID-19 pandemic reveals just how serious governments take this responsibility and that restricting activity to limit pathogen spread can have other public health repercussions. Comparisons between February 2019 and 2020 air quality measures reveal that six cities that were impacted early by government restrictions in response to COVID-19 show consistent declines in five of six major air pollutants. Given that air pollution causes more than four million premature deaths annually, the declines in air pollution in response to activity changes confirm that governments have the capability to improve air quality through policy change."
AUTHOR
Marc Cadotte
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Two mechanisms for accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 outbreaks in regions with high intensity of population and polluting industrialization: the air pollution-to-human and human-to-human transmission dynamics (Preprint)
"
BACKGROUND
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is viral infection that generates a severe acute respiratory syndrome with serious pneumonia that may result in progressive respiratory failure and death.


OBJECTIVE
This study has two goals. The first is to explain the main factors determining the diffusion of COVID-19 that is generating a high level of deaths. The second is to suggest a strategy to cope with future epidemic threats with of accelerated viral infectivity in society.


METHODS
Correlation and regression analyses on on data of N=55 Italian province capitals, and data of infected individuals at as of April 2020.


RESULTS
The main results are:
o The accelerate and vast diffusion of COVID-19 in North Italy has a high association with air pollution.
o Hinterland cities have average days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter) equal to 80 days, and an average number of infected more than 2,000 individuals as of April 1st, 2020, coastal cities have days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 equal to 60 days and have about 700 infected in average.
o Cities that average number of 125 days exceeding the limits set for PM10, last year, they have an average number of infected individual higher than 3,200 units, whereas cities having less than 100 days (average number of 48 days) exceeding the limits set for PM10, they have an average number of about 900 infected individuals.
o The results reveal that accelerated transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in specific environments is due to two mechanisms given by: air pollution-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission; in particular, the mechanisms of air pollution-to-human transmission play a critical role rather than human-to-human transmission.
o The finding here suggests that to minimize future epidemic similar to COVID-19, the max number of days per year in which cities can exceed the limits set for PM10 or for ozone, considering their meteorological condition, is less than 50 days. After this critical threshold, the analytical output here suggests that environmental inconsistencies because of the combination between air pollution and meteorological conditions (with high moisture%, low wind speed and fog) trigger a take-off of viral infectivity (accelerated epidemic diffusion) with damages for health of population, economy and society.


CONCLUSIONS
Considering the complex interaction between air pollution, meteorological conditions and biological characteristics of viral infectivity, lessons learned for COVID-19 have to be applied for a proactive socioeconomic strategy to cope with future epidemics, especially an environmental policy based on reduction of air pollution mainly in hinterland zones of countries, having low wind speed, high percentage of moisture and fog that create an environment that can damage immune system of people and foster a fast transmission of viral infectivity similar to the COVID-19.


CLINICALTRIAL
not applicable
"
AUTHOR
Mario Coccia
PUBLISHED
2020 in JMIR Publications Inc.

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COVID-19, City Lockdown, and Air Pollution: Evidence from China
"The rapid spread of COVID-19 is a global public health challenge. To prevent the escalation of its transmission, China locked down one-third of its cities and strictly restricted human mobility and economic activities. Using timely and comprehensive air quality data in China, we show that these counter-COVID-19 measures led to remarkable improvement in air quality. Within weeks, the Air Quality Index and PM2.5 concentrations were brought down by 25%. The effects are larger in colder, richer, and more industrialized cities. We estimate that such improvement would avert 24,000 to 36,000 premature deaths from air pollution on a monthly basis."
AUTHORS
Takanao Tanaka
Yuhang Pan
Guojun He
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Enhanced secondary pollution offset reduction of primary emissions during COVID-19 lockdown in China
"In order to control the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), China imposed nationwide restrictions on the movement of its population (lockdown) after the Chinese New Year in January of 2020, leading to large reductions in economic activities and associated emissions. However, despite such large decreases in primary pollution, there were nonetheless several periods of heavy haze pollution in East China during the COVID-19 lockdown, raising questions about the well-established relationship between human activities and air quality. Here, using comprehensive in situ measurements and chemical transport modeling, we show the haze events during the COVID lockdown were driven by enhancements of secondary pollution. In particular, large decreases in NOx emissions from transportation increased ozone and nighttime NO3 radical formation, and these increases in atmospheric oxidizing capacity in turn facilitated the formation of secondary inorganic and organic particulate matter. Our results, afforded by the tragic natural experiment of the COVID-19 pandemic, indicate that mitigation of Chinese haze pollution may depend upon a coordinated and balanced strategy for controlling multiple pollutants."
AUTHORS
Liangduo Chen
Kebin He
Chuanhua Ren
Derong Zhou
Steven J. Davis
Wei Nie et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Links between air pollution and COVID-19 in England
"In December 2019 a novel disease [coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) emerged in the Wuhan province of the People's Republic of China. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) thought to have jumped species, from another mammal to humans. A pandemic caused by this virus is running rampant throughout the world. Thousands of cases of COVID-19 are reported in England and over 10,000 patients have died. Whilst there has been progress in managing this disease, it is not clear which factors, besides age, affect the severity and mortality of COVID-19. A recent analysis of COVID-19 in Italy identified links between air pollution and death rates. Here, we explored the correlation between three major air pollutants linked to fossil fuels and SARS-CoV-2 lethality in England. We compare up-to-date, real-time SARS-CoV-2 cases and death measurements from public databases to air pollution data monitored across over 120 sites in different regions. We found that the levels of some markers of poor air quality, nitrogen oxides and ozone, are associated with COVID-19 lethality in different English regions. We conclude that the levels of some air pollutants are linked to COVID-19 cases and morbidity. We suggest that our study provides a useful framework to guide health policy in countries affected by this pandemic."
AUTHORS
Nuno Leal
Yizhou Yu
Rebeka Popovic
Marco Travaglio
L. Miguel Martins
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Good in The Worst: COVID-19 Restrictions and Ease in Global Air Pollution
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known to cause 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a zoonotic coronavirus and crosses species to infect human populations, where an efficient transmission of virus occurs human-to-human. Nationwide lockdown is being adopted to stop public transport, keep people at their homes and out of their work, and maintain social distancing. In turn, large geographic areas in the world (including China, Italy, Spain, and USA) has been almost halted. This temporary halt is significantly slashing down the air pollution (air pollutants and warming gases) in most cities across the world. This paper: (i) introduces both COVID-19 and air pollution; (ii) overviews the relation of air pollution with respiratory/lung diseases; (iii) compiles and highlights major data appeared in media and journals reporting lowering of air pollution in major cities those have been highly impacted by the COVID-19; and also (iv) lists the way forward in the present context. Because COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic and currently far from over, strong conclusions could not be drawn with very limited data at present. The temporary slashed down global air pollution as a result of COVID-19 restrictions are expected to stimulate the researchers, policy makers and governments for the judicious use of resources; thereby minimise the global emissions, and maintain their economies once the pandemic eases. On the other, lifting of the nationwide lockdown and eventual normalisation of the temporarily halted sectors may also reverse the currently COVID-19 pandemic-led significantly slashed down global air pollution that could make the future respiratory health crisis grimmer."
AUTHOR
Naser A. Anjum
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives
"Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, Central China, and has spread quickly to 72 countries to date. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [previously provisionally known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)]. At present, the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 has caused a large number of deaths with tens of thousands of confirmed cases worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health. However, there are no clinically approved vaccines or specific therapeutic drugs available for COVID-19. Intensive research on the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiological characteristics and to identify potential drug targets, which will contribute to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Hence, this review will focus on recent progress regarding the structure of SARS-CoV-2 and the characteristics of COVID-19, such as the aetiology, pathogenesis and epidemiological characteristics."
AUTHORS
Shang-Ming Liu
Heng Li
Chao-Ke Tang
Shi-Lin Tang
Xiao-Hua Yu
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Lactoferrin as potential preventative and treatment for COVID-19
"The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly advancing across the globe despite public and personal health measures. Antivirals and nutritional supplements have been proposed as potentially useful against SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19), but few have been clinically established. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that is orally available as a nutritional supplement and has established in vitro anti-viral efficacy against a wide range of virus including SARS-CoV, a closely related corona virus to SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19). Furthermore, Lf possesses unique immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that maybe especially relevant to the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 cases. We review the underlying biological mechanisms of Lf as antiviral and immune regulator, and propose its unique potential as preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. We hope that further research and development of Lf nutritional supplementation would establish its role for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei-Zen Sun
Raymond Chang
Tzi Bun Ng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses
"The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize and comparatively analyze the emergence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection and previous human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We also discuss the approaches for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to cope with this viral outbreak."
AUTHORS
Nadia Bashir
Muhammad Adnan Shereen
Abeer Kazmi
Rabeea Siddique
Suliman Khan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Advanced Research

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
" The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threating respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true. "
AUTHOR
David A. Schwartz
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). To date, no prophylactic vaccines or approved therapeutic agents are available for preventing and treating this highly transmittable disease. Here we report two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cloned from memory B cells of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, and both mAbs specifically bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, block the binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and effectively neutralize S protein-pseudotyped virus infection. These human mAbs hold the promise for the prevention and treatment of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Lilin Ye
Zhirong Li
Jianfang Tang
Xiangyu Chen
Zhaohui Qian
Yang Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
"The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threatening respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true."
AUTHOR
Schwartz DA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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COVID-19: A promising cure for the global panic
FUNDERS
Science and Engineering Research Board , Research England , The Advanced Level State Biotech Hub , Expanding Excellence in England
"The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. The outbreak of COVID-19 is wreaking havoc worldwide due to inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation. The COVID-19 pandemic has entered a dangerous new phase. When compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due to increased globalization and adaptation of the virus in every environment. Slowing the spread of the COVID-19 cases will significantly reduce the strain on the healthcare system of the country by limiting the number of people who are severely sick by COVID-19 and need hospital care. Hence, the recent outburst of COVID-19 highlights an urgent need for therapeutics targeting SARS-CoV-2. Here, we have discussed the structure of virus; varying symptoms among COVID-19, SARS, MERS and common flu; the probable mechanism behind the infection and its immune response. Further, the current treatment options, drugs available, ongoing trials and recent diagnostics for COVID-19 have been discussed. We suggest traditional Indian medicinal plants as possible novel therapeutic approaches, exclusively targeting SARS-CoV-2 and its pathways."
AUTHORS
Mohana Devi Subramaniam
Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman
Kamarajan Rajagopalan
Harsha Ganesan
Ssang-Goo Cho
Dhivya Venkatesan et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science of the Total Environment

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Effect of ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors on COVID-19 transmission
"Abstract
Background

Since its first appearance in Wuhan China in December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic. Although the COVID-19 is known to cause by human-to-human transmission, it remains largely unclear whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors could promote its transmission process.
Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to understand the correlation between COVID-19 incidence and eight ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, and O3-8 h) and three meteorological variables (temperature, humidity and wind level) in China’s two worst-hit cities, Wuhan and XiaoGan, between Jan 25th to Feb 29th in 2020.
Results

Our data showed that the COVID-19 incidence was constantly correlated with PM2.5, NO2 and local temperature in both cities. Specifically, in Wuhan, the tightest correlation was observed between NO2 and COVID-19 incidence (R2 = 0.329, p < 0.01). The PM2.5 and CO also present tight correlation with the incidence number, whose R2 equaled 0.174 (p < 0.01) and 0.203 (p < 0.05), respectively. In XiaoGan, in addition to the PM2.5 (R2 = 0.23, p < 0.01) and NO2 (R2 = 0.158, p < 0.05), a notable correlation was also observed between the PM10 and incidence cases (R2 = 0.158, p < 0.05). Moreover, temperature is the only meteorological factors that constantly correlated well with COVID-19 incidence in both Wuhan and XiaoGan, but in a negative pattern (R2 = 0.126 and 0.13, respectively, both p < 0.05).
Conclusion

Our data concludes that ambient air pollutants, especially PM2.5 and NO2, and temperature are three variables that could potential promote the sustained transmission of COVID-19. Thus, personal protective devices, especially the facial mask and eye goggle, shall be suggested to residents for SARS-CoV-2 protection in highly polluted regions."
AUTHORS
Xiao-Long Xu
Guang-Ming Wang
Ying Jiang
Yan-Jun Guan
Jun-Yu Wang
Xiao-Jun Wu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Incidence of COVID-19 and Connections with Air Pollution Exposure: Evidence from the Netherlands
"The fast spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has resulted in the emergence of several hot-spots around the world. Several of these are located in areas associated with high levels of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between exposure to particulate matter and COVID-19 incidence in 355 municipalities in the Netherlands. The results show that atmospheric particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 is a highly significant predictor of the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and related hospital admissions. The estimates suggest that expected COVID-19 cases increase by nearly 100 percent when pollution concentrations increase by 20 percent. The association between air pollution and case incidence is robust in the presence of data on health-related preconditions, proxies for symptom severity, and demographic control variables. The results are obtained with ground-measurements and satellite-derived measures of atmospheric particulate matter as well as COVID-19 data from alternative dates. The findings call for further investigation into the association between air pollution and SARS-CoV-2 infection risk. If particulate matter plays a significant role in COVID-19 incidence, it has strong implications for the mitigation strategies required to prevent spreading."
AUTHOR
Bo Pieter Johannes Andree
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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The nexus of travel restriction, air pollution and COVID-19 infection: Investigation from a megacity of the southern China
"To control and prevent the spread of COVID-19, generalized social distancing measures, such as traffic control and travel restriction acted in China. Previous studies indicated that the traffic conditions had significant influence on the air quality, and which was related to the respiratory diseases. This study aimed to reveal the nexus of travel restriction, air pollution and COVID-19. Shenzhen, one of the top 4 megacities in China was considered as the study area, statistical analysis methods, including linear/nonlinear regression and bivariate correlation was conducted to evaluate the relationship of the traffic and passenger population, travel intensity, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases. The results suggested that traffic control and travel restriction had a significant correlation with the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases, which shown negative correlation with the traffic intensity of the city, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 show significant positive correlation with the traffic intensity, traffic control and travel restriction would slow down and prevent the spread of the viruses at the outbreak period. Different study scale might results in different results, thus the research focused on the nexus of traffic control and travel restriction, air pollution and COVID-19 should been enhanced in future, and differentiated epidemic control and prevention measures should be considered according to the different situation of cities as well as countries."
AUTHORS
Xiaohong Chen
Chunxing Chen
wei li
Guowei Liao
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Diagnostic Comparison of Changes in Air Quality over China before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
"Abstract
The rapid spread of Covid-19 has affected the political, social, and economic sectors, which inevitably will also affect the environmental component. This contagious virus led the worldwide countries to make securities measures such as lockdown to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and protect human health. In contrast to the negative impacts of this virus on the economy, it has influenced the environment positively. As reported by station and program for monitoring the Earth, the air quality has improved after the lockdown. The present study compares the air level pollution one year before and during the spread of Coronavirus in China. Accordingly, we investigate the change of the concentrations of three air pollutants, namely, O3, NO2, and black carbon. The study of the measured parameter between December 2019 and March 2020 exhibit an apparent decrease in their concentrations because of the imposing lockdown of cities and restriction on chemical industries and factories."
AUTHORS
Jais Jose
Aswin S
Neha Bhadauria
Amina Othmani
Diksha Chauhan
Arjun Suresh et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Indian agriculture, air pollution, and public health in the age of COVID
"Emerging evidence supports the intuitive link between chronic health conditions associated with air pollution and the vulnerability of individuals and communities to COVID-19. Poor air quality already imposes a highly significant public health burden in Northwest India, with pollution levels spiking to hazardous levels in November and early December when rice crop residues are burned. The urgency of curtailing the COVID-19 pandemic and mitigating a potential resurgence later in the year provides even more justification for accelerating efforts to dramatically reduce open agricultural burning in India."
AUTHORS
Jon Hellin
Peter Craufurd
M.L. Jat
Andrew J McDonald Balwinder-Singh
Andrew J McDonald
Avinash Kishore et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Ambient air pollutants, meteorological factors and their interactions affect confirmed cases of COVID-19 in 120 Chinese cities
"Emerging evidences have confirmed effects of meteorological factors on novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few studies verify the impact of air pollutants on this pandemic. This study aims to explore the association of ambient air pollutants, meteorological factors and their interactions effect confirmed case counts of COVID-19 in 120 Chinese cities. Here, we collected total confirmed cases of COVID-19 by combining with meteorological factors and air pollutants data from 15th January 2020 to 18th March 2020 in 120 Chinese cities. Spearman correlation analysis was employed to estimate the association between two variables; univariate and multivariate negative binomial regression analysis were applied to explore the effect of air pollutants and meteorological parameters on the COVID-19 confirmed cases. Positive associations were found between the confirmed cases of COVID-19 and carbon monoxide (CO), aerodynamic particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 um (PM2.5), relative humidity (RH) and air pressure (AP). And negative association was found for sulfur dioxide (SO2). In addition, multivariate negative binomial regression analysis suggested that confirmed cases of COVID-19 was positively correlated with ozone (O3) in lag 0 day while it was negatively associated with wind velocity (WV) in lag 14 days, and the pollutants-meteorological factors interactions also associate with COVID-19. In conclusions, air pollutants and meteorological factors and their interactions all associate with COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Linyuan Qin
Jianli Zhou
Nan Liu
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Proactive COVID-19 Infection Prevention Measures in a Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Center
"Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and its subsequent global spread, Taiwan has been combatting this pandemic. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through droplets and aerosols, we cannot ignore the risk of transmission during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center prioritizes preventing the spread of COVID-19 and maintaining operation for the patients during the pandemic. The aim of this article is to share the protocol that we have adopted in our hyperbaric oxygen therapy center to help prevent the spread of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Ching-Tzu Hung
Hsiao-Chen Lee
Su-Shin Lee
Hsiu-Ying Lee
Su-Chen Wang
Jing-Jou Lo et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Medicina

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Literature review
Know the unknown fact of novel COVID -19 corona virus
"Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a contagious disease triggered by the novel coronavirus. A novel coronavirus was observed as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). In December 2019, a disruption of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread across China and beyond. In India, the first case of CORONA virus was reported in Kerala state on 30 January 2020. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases infection can give rise to pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and even death. The period within which the symptoms would appear is 1-14 days i.e. the incubation period of COVID-19. The present review highlights the types, etiology, transmission stages, manifestations, prevention, therapeutic options, learning points from outbreak, and initiative taken by Government of India (GOI) to control the spread of literary deathly disease."
PUBLISHED
2020 in Letters in Applied NanoBioScience

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Corona kills corona: convalescent sera option for global war against corona virus disease 2019
"On December 31st, 2019 China reported first case of atypical pneumonia in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province. The causative virus was found to be a beta coronavirus, closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) from 2003 and similar to Sarbeco viruses isolated from bats. It was therefore termed SARS-CoV-2 and the disease was named corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The outbreak in Wuhan expanded quickly and led to the lockdown of Wuhan and other parts of China. While the lockdown, at least temporarily, brought the situation under control in China, but SARS-CoV-2 spread globally causing a pandemic with more than 4 lakh infections and about 19000 fatalities (as of March 25, 2020). Nucleic acid tests that detect the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome were quickly developed and are now widely employed to diagnose COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Babita .
Mahavir Jangra
S. K. Jha
Anita Punia
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health

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The novel coronavirus and its possible treatment by vaccines, therapeutics and drug delivery systems: Current status and future perspectives
"In the mid-end of December 2019, several cases of pneumonia outbreak of unknown cause and etiology were identified in Wuhan City of Hubei province in China, a city with a population of over 11 million.Till date(April 2020) around 1,051,635 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and 56,985 confirmed deaths have been reported according to COVID-19 Situation Report – 75 by WHO. On 7th January 2020, the causative agent was identified and named consequently as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) from throat swab samples. Later, on 12th January 2020, this coronavirus was named as 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by World Health Organization (WHO) and in 11th February 2020,it has been declared the epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) as it is spreading rapidly from its origin in Wuhan City to the rest of the world. In this context, the current review provides a landscape of the novel Corona Virus including its origin, transmission, epidemiology, drugs and vaccines in clinical trials for better understanding to the reads and peoples the status and future perspectives of this pandemic disease"
AUTHORS
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy Somanathan Balasubramanian
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Madhurya Kadavakollu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Diligent medical activities of a publicly designated medical institution for infectious diseases pave the way for overcoming COVID-19: A positive message to people working at the cutting edge
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is highly infectious and has spread worldwide. An important factor compounding spread is the infection of medical staff with SARS-CoV-2, which threatens the collapse of the very institutions required to treat COVID-19. The possibility of virus transmission from patients with COVID-19 to medical staff is thus of primary concern. Asymptomatic COVID-19 carriage among hospital staff could also be conceivable to act as a potent source of ongoing transmission. Here we show that, surprisingly, none of the medical staff working at a hospital with COVID-19 patients had IgG antibodies for SARS-CoV-2, indicating that virus transmission from patients to medical staff did not occur in these medical workers. These results show that standard preventive measures against infectious diseases can prevent SARS-CoV-2 exposure in medical staff, and should greatly encourage medical practitioners at the front line of this pandemic."
AUTHORS
Yoshihiro Nishimura
Keiji Iida
Naofumi Yoshida
Mitsuhiro Nishimura
Jun Arii
Tatsuya Nagano et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Household air pollution and COVID-19 risk in India: A potential concern.
"One in every two Indian households continues to rely on highly-polluting solid fuels to meet their cooking and other energy demands. Recent evidence demonstrates that people suffering from preconditions associated with air pollution and those with short-term exposures to air pollution are highly susceptible to the novel Coronavirus infection and associated morbidity and mortality. And as for many Indians, especially those with pre-existing health conditions and the elderly, home-based isolation and confinement practices are likely to continue, exposure to household air pollution may render such population groups more susceptible to COVID-19. This warrants caution and demands immediate and specific actions; which are discussed. To protect the health and wellbeing of millions of Indians, during the COVID-19 crisis and beyond, addressing household air pollution should be prioritized and aligned with long term environmental health initiatives in the country."
AUTHORS
Md Mahbub Hossain
Rachit Sharma
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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CoViD-19 outbreak in Northern Italy: Did particulate matter really play a key role?
"Northern Italian regions have been the most affected from CoViD-19 compared to other Italian areas and are also the zones where air pollutants concentration has been higher than in the rest of Italy. The aim of the research is analysing possible correlations between air pollutants PM10 and PM2.5 and the rapidity of the spread of the infection caused by CoViD-19 in Northern Italy. PM10 and PM2.5 data for all the 41 studied cities were collected from the local environmental protection agencies. In order to compare air quality data with epidemiological data (Td), a statistical analysis was conducted identifying the correlation matrices of Pearson and Spearman, considering the possible incubation period of the disease. The results exclude a strong direct correlation between PM in the air and the diffusion rate of CoViD-19. Further developments are necessary for a better comprehension of the influence of atmospheric pollution parameters on the rapidity of spread of the virus SARS-CoV-2, since a synergistic action with other factors, such as meteorological factors, could not be excluded."
AUTHORS
Marco Baldi
Roberta Pedrazzani
Giorgio Bertanza
Francesca Maria Caccamo
Alessandro Abb&agrave
Maria Cristina Collivignarelli et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Atmospheric Conditions Affecting the Transmission of Covid-19 Virus
"The physical environment plays an important role in the transmission of respiratory infections like Covid-19. To find relevant articles on environmental factors influencing respiratory infection outbreaks, we searched Pub med Central on the following topics: 1. Environmental pollution causing coronavirus fatality- 73 results, relevant 1 article, 2. Environmental factors affecting Covid-19, 149 results from which there were 6 relevant articles, 3. Impact of air pollution on Covid-19 fatality, 10 results, relevant 3 articles, 4. Environmental factors affecting respiratory viruses- 10646 results were obtained, 2 relevant articles. We searched Google scholar on environmental factors affecting Covid-19 transmission and found 7 relevant papers. We excluded the duplicates in each of the key words search. Date of search was on 20th April 2020. All articles included in results were scrutinized and relevance of articles was based on their content that discussed meteorological and physical environment factors in the spread and severity of Covid-19. We have discussed factors like air pollution, smoking, air temperature, humidity and air velocity as contributing factors. If meteorological factors are conducive to spread in a particular area, we need protective measures way before a respiratory infection outbreak occurs. Covid-19 is a lesson learnt the hard way, and we must enable people to practice hygienic practices with limited resources but high level of protection that it provides. Air pollution control can prevent priming of respiratory system which shall further protect from pulmonary infections."
AUTHORS
Dr Gagan Deep Kaur
Dr. Purva Shoor
Dr Amanjot Kaur Chauhan
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Short-Term Effects of Ambient Ozone, PM2.5, and Meteorological Factors on COVID-19 Confirmed Cases and Deaths in Queens, New York
"The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, has been rapidly increasing in the United States. Boroughs of New York City, including Queens county, turn out to be the epicenters of this infection. According to the data provided by the New York State Department of Health, most of the cases of new COVID-19 infections in New York City have been found in the Queens county where 42,023 people have tested positive, and 3221 people have died as of 20 April 2020. Person-to-person transmission and travels were implicated in the initial spread of the outbreaks, but factors related to the late phase of rapidly spreading outbreaks in March and April are still uncertain. A few previous studies have explored the links between air pollution and COVID-19 infections, but more data is needed to understand the effects of short-term exposures of air pollutants and meteorological factors on the spread of COVID-19 infections, particularly in the U.S. disease epicenters. In this study, we have focused on ozone and PM2.5, two major air pollutants in New York City, which were previously found to be associated with respiratory viral infections. The aim of our regression modeling was to explore the associations among ozone, PM2.5, daily meteorological variables (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, absolute humidity, cloud percentages, and precipitation levels), and COVID-19 confirmed new cases and new deaths in Queens county, New York during March and April 2020. The results from these analyses showed that daily average temperature, daily maximum eight-hour ozone concentration, average relative humidity, and cloud percentages were significantly and positively associated with new confirmed cases related to COVID-19; none of these variables showed significant associations with new deaths related to COVID-19. The findings indicate that short-term exposures to ozone and other meteorological factors can influence COVID-19 transmission and initiation of the disease, but disease aggravation and mortality depend on other factors."
AUTHORS
Jingjing Yin
Atin Adhikari
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

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In-depth virological assessment of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread widely, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and significant mortality. However, data on viral loads and antibody kinetics in immunocompromised populations are lacking. We aimed to determine nasopharyngeal and plasma viral loads via RT-PCR and SARS-CoV-2 serology via ELISA and study their association with severe forms of COVID-19 and death in kidney transplant recipients. In this study we examined hospitalized kidney transplant recipients with non-severe (n = 21) and severe (n =19) COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal and plasma viral load and serological response were evaluated based on outcomes and disease severity. Ten recipients (25%) displayed persistent viral shedding 30 days after symptom onset. The SARS-CoV-2 viral load of the upper respiratory tract was not associated with severe COVID-19, whereas the plasma viral load was associated with COVID-19 severity (p=0.0087) and mortality (p=0.024). All patients harbored antibodies the second week after symptom onset that persisted for two months. We conclude that plasma viral load is associated with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, whereas nasopharyngeal viral load is not. SARS-CoV-2 shedding is prolonged in kidney transplant recipients and the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 does not show significant impairment in this series of transplant recipients."
AUTHORS
Peggy Perrin
Maris-Josee Wendling
Gabriela Gautier-Vargas
Samira Fafi-Kremer
Ilies Benotmane
Floriane Gallais et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Literature review
Literature Review of Epidemiological Phenomena: Corona Virus Disease Pandemic 2019
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or Corona virus is a new type of coronavirus that is transmitted to humans. Corona virus infection called COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) was first discovered in the city of Wuhan, China at the end of December 2019. Until March 2, 2020, more than 80 thousand confirmed cases have been reported in China. Of these cases, 49 thousand were identified in Wuhan City. Epidemiologically, the spread or distribution of this disease has a wide social and economic impact on the world. Many literature studies about the COVID-19 outbreak, such as causes, natural history of the disease, even to the preventive and medical treatment. Since the end of 2019 until April 2020, there have been many published literature or literature studies at both national and international levels, so this paper aims to examine literature studies related to COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Zakiyuddin Zakiyuddin
Fitriani Fitriani
Teungku Nih Farisni
Yarmaliza Yarmaliza
Lili Eky Nursia N
Safrizal Safrizal et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences

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Literature review
Associations of ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors with COVID-19 transmission in 31 Chinese provinces: A time-series study
"Background: Evidence regarding the effects of ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors on COVID-19 transmission is limited.
Objectives: To explore the associations of air pollutants and meteorological factors with COVID-19 confirmed cases across 31 Chinese provinces during the outbreak period.
Methods: The number of COVID-19 confirmed cases, air pollutant concentrations and meteorological factors in 31 Chinese provinces from January 25 to February 29, 2020 were extracted from authoritative electronic databases. The associations were estimated for a single-day lag (lag0-lag6) as well as moving averages lag (lag01-lag05) using generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs), adjusted for time trends, day of the week, holidays and meteorological variables. Region-specific analyses and meta-analysis were conducted in five selected regions with diverse air pollution levels and weather conditions. Nonlinear exposure-response analyses were performed.
Results: We examined 77,578 COVID-19 confirmed cases across 31 Chinese provinces during the study period. An increase of each interquartile range in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO at lag4 corresponded to 1.40 (1.37-1.43), 1.35 (1.32-1.37), 1.01 (1.00-1.02), 1.08 (1.07-1.10), 1.28 (1.27-1.29) and 1.26 (1.24-1.28) odds ratios (ORs) of daily COVID-19 confirmed new cases, respectively. For 1 oc, 1% and 1 m/s increase in temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, the ORs were 0.97 (0.97-0.98), 0.96 (0.96-0.97), and 0.94 (0.92-0.95), respectively. The estimates of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and all meteorological factors remained statistically significant after meta-analysis for the five selected regions. The exposure-response relationships showed that higher concentrations of air pollutants and lower meteorological factors were associated with daily COVID-19 confirmed new cases increasing.
Conclusions: Higher air pollutant concentrations and lower temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity may favor COVID-19 transmission. As summer months are arriving in the Northern Hemisphere, the environmental factors and implementation of public health control measures may play an optimistic role in controlling COVID-19 epidemic."
AUTHORS
Bingxiao Li
Han Cao
Ling ZHANG
Kai Meng
Xiaohui Liu
Tianlun Gu
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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How a Deadly Pandemic Cleared the Air: Narratives and Practices Linking COVID-19 with Air Pollution and Climate Change
" The recent COVID-19 pandemic revealed the intricate connections between human and planetary health. Air pollution cleared over the countries ordering lockdowns of nonessential businesses to flatten the curve of the pandemic. The links between pandemics and pollution are not obvious at first, yet the two phenomena have several characteristics in common. Both pandemics and pollution originate from specific locations but then spread globally, and both are human-induced rather than natural–hazard disasters. I examine narratives and practices linking COVID-19 with air pollution and climate change as the pandemic unfolds. I compare these findings with research on the Black Death plague in Europe and the air pollution in China’s Haze City. Applying the analytical frameworks from these two studies, I analyze media articles and reports on COVID-19 to explore risk experience, stress behaviours, and resistant discourse during the adaptive cycles of the pandemic to gain insights into current and future changes to sustainability. "
AUTHOR
Eva Angelyna (Evalyna) Bogdan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Space and Culture

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Impact of meteorology and air pollution on Covid-19 pandemic transmission in Lombardy region, Northern Italy
"Abstract
Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the Covid-19 transmission in Lombardy (Northern Italy), the region epicenter of the virus outbreak. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM2.5) shows a positive correlation. In other words, Covid-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For these reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks."
AUTHORS
Gemine Vivone
Sheng-Hsiang Wang
Ying-Chieh Chen
Simone Lolli
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Impact of Long-Term Air Pollution on the Case Fatality Rate of COVID-19
"Abstract
Background There is preliminary evidence of the long-term exposure to air pollution will affect the outcome of patients with COVID-19. More information is needed about relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and case fatality rate (CFR) of patients with COVID-19.Methods In this study, we have collected the data of Air Quality Index (AQI), PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 14 representative cities in China in the past 5 years, and calculated the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in the corresponding city. First, we explored correlation relationship between CFR and long-term air quality indicators. Then, we try to point out the air pollutants that affect the level of CFR and evaluated their predictive value.Results We have observed a positive correlation between the CFR and AQI (1-year, 3-year, 5-year), PM2.5 (1-year, 3-year, 5-year), and PM10 (1-year, 3-year, 5-year). Meanwhile, AQI (3-year, 5-year) and PM2.5 (1-year, 3-year, 5-year) were significantly higher in the high CFR group. Moderate predictive value of air pollution indicator to CFR such as AQI (1-year, 3-year, 5-year), PM2.5 (1-year, 3-year, 5-year) have been found.Conclusions Our results indicate that long-term exposure to the environment with severe air pollution is associated with CFR of COVID-19. Air pollutants such as PM2.5 may have potential ability to predict the CFR of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Xin-yu Yang
Quan-lei Liu
Ya-fei Qin
Chang-kai Hou
Hao Wang
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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