Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?

Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Yes. The studies in this list for which we have identified answers are unanimous on this conclusion. Note that some studies in this list give us reason to question their conclusions. This may be because they were published in sources that are not peer-reviewed, are low ranked or not ranked at all, which may indicate limited editorial oversight. Alternatively, it may be because they were criticized in a published article or produced by a financially interested or ideologically motivated source. Carefully review the individual study summaries below for more information.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 5 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 5 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

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Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 5
Sorted by publication year
1
The Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution Concentrations and Lockdowns on Covid-19 Infections in Wuhan and Other Provincial Capitals in China
"Background: Covid-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China in Dec 2019. Since then, it has been transmitted rapidly in China and the rest of the world. While Covid-19 transmission rate has been declining in China, it is increasing exponentially in Europe and America. Although there are numerous studies examining Covid-19 infection, including an archived paper looking into the meteorological effect, the role of outdoor air pollution has yet to be explored rigorously. It has been shown that air pollution will weaken the immune system, and increase the rate of respiratory virus infection. We postulate that outdoor air pollution concentrations will have a negative effect on Covid-19 infections in China, whilst lockdowns, characterized by strong social distancing and home isolation measures, will help to moderate such negative effect. Methods: We will collect the number of daily confirmed Covid-19 cases in 31 provincial capital cities in China during the period of 1 Dec 2019 to 20 Mar 2020 (from a popular Chinese online platform which aggregates all cases reported by the Chinese national/provincial health authorities). We will also collect daily air pollution and meteorology data at the city-level (from the Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center and the US National Climatic Data Center), daily inter-city migration flows and intra-city movements (from Baidu). City-level demographics including age distribution and gender, education, and median household income can be obtained from the statistical yearbooks. City-level co-morbidity indicators including rates of chronic disease and co-infection can be obtained from related research articles. A regression model is developed to model the relationship between the infection rate of Covid-19 (number of confirmed cases/population at the city level) and outdoor air pollution at the city level, after taking into account confounding factors such as meteorology, inter- and intra-city movements, demographics, and co-morbidity and co-infection rates. In particular, we shall study how air pollution affects infection rates across different cities, including Wuhan. Our model will also study air pollution would affect infection rates in Wuhan before and after the lockdown. Expected findings: We expect there be a correlation between Covid-19 infection rate and outdoor air pollution. We also expect that reduced intra-city movement after the lockdowns in Wuhan and the rest of China will play an important role in reducing the infection rate. Interpretation: Infection rate is growing exponentially in major cities worldwide. We expect Covid-19 infection rate is related to the air pollution concentration, and is strongly dependent on inter- and intra-city movements. To reduce the infection rate, the international community may deploy effective air pollution reduction plans and social distancing policies."
AUTHORS
Andong Wang
Zafar Gilani
Yang Han
Jon Crowcroft
Shanshan Wang
Qi Zhang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
2
Association between short-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 infection: Evidence from China
"The novel coronavirus pneumonia, namely COVID-19, has become a global public health problem. Previous studies have found that air pollution is a risk factor for respiratory infection by carrying microorganisms and affecting body's immunity. This study aimed to explore the relationship between ambient air pollutants and the infection caused by the novel coronavirus. Daily confirmed cases, air pollution concentration and meteorological variables in 120 cities were obtained from January 23, 2020 to February 29, 2020 in China. We applied a generalized additive model to investigate the associations of six air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2 and O3) with COVID-19 confirmed cases. We observed significantly positive associations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 in the last two weeks with newly COVID-19 confirmed cases. A 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0–14) in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 was associated with a 2.24% (95% CI: 1.02 to 3.46), 1.76% (95% CI: 0.89 to 2.63), 6.94% (95% CI: 2.38 to 11.51), and 4.76% (95% CI: 1.99 to 7.52) increase in the daily counts of confirmed cases, respectively. However, a 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0–14) in SO2 was associated with a 7.79% decrease (95% CI: −14.57 to −1.01) in COVID-19 confirmed cases. Our results indicate that there is a significant relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 infection, which could partially explain the effect of national lockdown and provide implications for the control and prevention of this novel disease."
AUTHORS
Yongjian Zu
Liqing Cao
Fengming Huang
Jingui Xie
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science of the Total Environment
High quality source
FUNDERS
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Yes
Yes
3
An effect assessment of Airborne particulate matter pollution on COVID-19: A multi-city Study in China
"Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious infectious disease, which has caused great number of deaths and health problems worldwide. This study aims to examine the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution on COVID-19 across China.Methods: In this study, we obtained confirmed cases of COVID-19, the data of airborne ambient PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10 μm (PM10), ambient temperature (AT), absolute humidity (AH) and migration scale index (MSI) in 72 cities of China (excluded Wuhan city) on a daily basis, each of which confirmed more than 50 cases from January 20th to March 2nd, 2020. We applied a two-stage analysis. Generalized additive models with quasi-Poisson distribution was first fitted to estimate city-specific effects of PM10 and PM2.5 on daily confirmed COVID-19 cases while controlling AT, AH and MSI. Then, we used meta-analysis to generate the pooled effect estimates from city-specific results.Results: During the study period, there were a total of 24 939 COVID-19 cases, most of which were reported in Hubei Province. In our meta-analysis, we found each 10 μg/m3 increase in concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in single day lag (from lag 0 to lag 7 and lag 14) were positively associated with confirmed cases of COVID-19, not including PM10 at lag 5, lag 6 and lag 7, and PM2.5 at lag 5, lag 6. Similar trend was also found in different cumulative lag days (from lag 01 to lag 07 and lag 014). The effects of PM2.5 and PM10 on daily COVID-19 confirmed cases are statistically significant for three cumulative lag periods over 3, 7 and 14 days with the greatest effect over 14 days. The estimated RRs of which were 1.64 (95% CIs: 1.47, 1.82) and 1.47 (95% CIs: 1.34, 1.61) with each 10 μg/m3 increase in concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. In addition, we found that the effects of PM2.5 on daily confirmed cases were greater than PM10 in all included lag days.Conclusions: This nationwide study suggests that airborne PM pollution likely increases the risk of getting COVID-19 in China."
AUTHORS
Yueling Ma
JiangTao Liu
Lanyu Li
Xiaocheng Xu
Shihua Fu
BO WANG
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
4
Two mechanisms for accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 outbreaks in regions with high intensity of population and polluting industrialization: the air pollution-to-human and human-to-human transmission dynamics
"What is COVID-19? Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is viral infection that generates a severe acute respiratory syndrome with serious pneumonia that may result in progressive respiratory failure and death. What are the goals of this investigation? This study explains the geo-environmental determinants of the accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 in Italy that is generating a high level of deaths and suggests general lessons learned for a strategy to cope with future epidemics similar to COVID-19 to reduce viral infectivity and negative impacts in economic systems and society. What are the results of this study? The main results are:o The accelerate and vast diffusion of COVID-19 in North Italy has a high association with air pollution.o Hinterland cities have average days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter) equal to 80 days, and an average number of infected more than 2,000 individuals as of April 1st, 2020, coastal cities have days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 equal to 60 days and have about 700 infected in average.o Cities that average number of 125 days exceeding the limits set for PM10, last year, they have an average number of infected individual higher than 3,200 units, whereas cities having less than 100 days (average number of 48 days) exceeding the limits set for PM10, they have an average number of about 900 infected individuals. o The results reveal that accelerated transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in specific environments is due to two mechanisms given by: air pollution-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission; in particular, the mechanisms of air pollution-to-human transmission play a critical role rather than human-to-human transmission. o The finding here suggests that to minimize future epidemic similar to COVID-19, the max number of days per year in which cities can exceed the limits set for PM10 or for ozone, considering their meteorological condition, is less than 50 days. After this critical threshold, the analytical output here suggests that environmental inconsistencies because of the combination between air pollution and meteorological conditions (with high moisture%, low wind speed and fog) trigger a take-off of viral infectivity (accelerated epidemic diffusion) with damages for health of population, economy and society. What is a socioeconomic strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to COVID-19? Considering the complex interaction between air pollution, meteorological conditions and biological characteristics of viral infectivity, lessons learned for COVID-19 have to be applied for a proactive socioeconomic strategy to cope with future epidemics, especially an environmental policy based on reduction of air pollution mainly in hinterland zones of countries, having low wind speed, high percentage of moisture and fog that create an environment that can damage immune system of people and foster a fast transmission of viral infectivity similar to the COVID-19. This study must conclude that a strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to COVID 19 has also to be designed in environmental and sustainability science and not only in terms of biology."
AUTHOR
MARIO COCCIA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
5
A vulnerability-based approach to human-mobility reduction for countering COVID-19 transmission in London while considering local air quality
"An ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between air pollution, and COVID-19 cases and fatality rates in London. The analysis demonstrated a strong correlation (R2>0.7) between increment in air pollution and an increase in the risk of COVID-19 transmission within London boroughs. Particularly, strong correlations (R2>0.72) between the risk of COVID-19 fatality and NO2 and PM2.5 pollution concentrations were also found. Although this study assumed the same level of air pollution across a particular London borough, it demonstrates the possibility to employ air pollution as an indicator to rapidly identify the vulnerable regions within a city. Such an approach can inform the decisions to suspend or reduce the operation of different public transport modes within a city. The methodology and learnings from the study can thus aid public transport to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak by adopting different levels of human-mobility reduction strategies based on the vulnerability of a given region."
AUTHORS
Mehran Eskandari Torbaghan
Manu Sasidharan
Ajith Kumar Parlikad
Ajit Singh
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 16
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Early evidence that COVID-19 government policies reduce urban air pollution
"Governments have a solemn responsibility to ensure the health and well-being of the populations they govern. The COVID-19 pandemic reveals just how serious governments take this responsibility and that restricting activity to limit pathogen spread can have other public health repercussions. Comparisons between February 2019 and 2020 air quality measures reveal that six cities that were impacted early by government restrictions in response to COVID-19 show consistent declines in five of six major air pollutants. Given that air pollution causes more than four million premature deaths annually, the declines in air pollution in response to activity changes confirm that governments have the capability to improve air quality through policy change."
AUTHOR
Marc Cadotte
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Two mechanisms for accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 outbreaks in regions with high intensity of population and polluting industrialization: the air pollution-to-human and human-to-human transmission dynamics (Preprint)
"
BACKGROUND
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is viral infection that generates a severe acute respiratory syndrome with serious pneumonia that may result in progressive respiratory failure and death.


OBJECTIVE
This study has two goals. The first is to explain the main factors determining the diffusion of COVID-19 that is generating a high level of deaths. The second is to suggest a strategy to cope with future epidemic threats with of accelerated viral infectivity in society.


METHODS
Correlation and regression analyses on on data of N=55 Italian province capitals, and data of infected individuals at as of April 2020.


RESULTS
The main results are:
o The accelerate and vast diffusion of COVID-19 in North Italy has a high association with air pollution.
o Hinterland cities have average days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter) equal to 80 days, and an average number of infected more than 2,000 individuals as of April 1st, 2020, coastal cities have days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 equal to 60 days and have about 700 infected in average.
o Cities that average number of 125 days exceeding the limits set for PM10, last year, they have an average number of infected individual higher than 3,200 units, whereas cities having less than 100 days (average number of 48 days) exceeding the limits set for PM10, they have an average number of about 900 infected individuals.
o The results reveal that accelerated transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in specific environments is due to two mechanisms given by: air pollution-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission; in particular, the mechanisms of air pollution-to-human transmission play a critical role rather than human-to-human transmission.
o The finding here suggests that to minimize future epidemic similar to COVID-19, the max number of days per year in which cities can exceed the limits set for PM10 or for ozone, considering their meteorological condition, is less than 50 days. After this critical threshold, the analytical output here suggests that environmental inconsistencies because of the combination between air pollution and meteorological conditions (with high moisture%, low wind speed and fog) trigger a take-off of viral infectivity (accelerated epidemic diffusion) with damages for health of population, economy and society.


CONCLUSIONS
Considering the complex interaction between air pollution, meteorological conditions and biological characteristics of viral infectivity, lessons learned for COVID-19 have to be applied for a proactive socioeconomic strategy to cope with future epidemics, especially an environmental policy based on reduction of air pollution mainly in hinterland zones of countries, having low wind speed, high percentage of moisture and fog that create an environment that can damage immune system of people and foster a fast transmission of viral infectivity similar to the COVID-19.


CLINICALTRIAL
not applicable
"
AUTHOR
Mario Coccia
PUBLISHED
2020 in JMIR Publications Inc.

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COVID-19, City Lockdown, and Air Pollution: Evidence from China
"The rapid spread of COVID-19 is a global public health challenge. To prevent the escalation of its transmission, China locked down one-third of its cities and strictly restricted human mobility and economic activities. Using timely and comprehensive air quality data in China, we show that these counter-COVID-19 measures led to remarkable improvement in air quality. Within weeks, the Air Quality Index and PM2.5 concentrations were brought down by 25%. The effects are larger in colder, richer, and more industrialized cities. We estimate that such improvement would avert 24,000 to 36,000 premature deaths from air pollution on a monthly basis."
AUTHORS
Takanao Tanaka
Yuhang Pan
Guojun He
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Enhanced secondary pollution offset reduction of primary emissions during COVID-19 lockdown in China
"In order to control the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), China imposed nationwide restrictions on the movement of its population (lockdown) after the Chinese New Year in January of 2020, leading to large reductions in economic activities and associated emissions. However, despite such large decreases in primary pollution, there were nonetheless several periods of heavy haze pollution in East China during the COVID-19 lockdown, raising questions about the well-established relationship between human activities and air quality. Here, using comprehensive in situ measurements and chemical transport modeling, we show the haze events during the COVID lockdown were driven by enhancements of secondary pollution. In particular, large decreases in NOx emissions from transportation increased ozone and nighttime NO3 radical formation, and these increases in atmospheric oxidizing capacity in turn facilitated the formation of secondary inorganic and organic particulate matter. Our results, afforded by the tragic natural experiment of the COVID-19 pandemic, indicate that mitigation of Chinese haze pollution may depend upon a coordinated and balanced strategy for controlling multiple pollutants."
AUTHORS
Liangduo Chen
Kebin He
Chuanhua Ren
Derong Zhou
Steven J. Davis
Wei Nie et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Links between air pollution and COVID-19 in England
"In December 2019 a novel disease [coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) emerged in the Wuhan province of the People's Republic of China. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) thought to have jumped species, from another mammal to humans. A pandemic caused by this virus is running rampant throughout the world. Thousands of cases of COVID-19 are reported in England and over 10,000 patients have died. Whilst there has been progress in managing this disease, it is not clear which factors, besides age, affect the severity and mortality of COVID-19. A recent analysis of COVID-19 in Italy identified links between air pollution and death rates. Here, we explored the correlation between three major air pollutants linked to fossil fuels and SARS-CoV-2 lethality in England. We compare up-to-date, real-time SARS-CoV-2 cases and death measurements from public databases to air pollution data monitored across over 120 sites in different regions. We found that the levels of some markers of poor air quality, nitrogen oxides and ozone, are associated with COVID-19 lethality in different English regions. We conclude that the levels of some air pollutants are linked to COVID-19 cases and morbidity. We suggest that our study provides a useful framework to guide health policy in countries affected by this pandemic."
AUTHORS
Nuno Leal
Yizhou Yu
Rebeka Popovic
Marco Travaglio
L. Miguel Martins
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Good in The Worst: COVID-19 Restrictions and Ease in Global Air Pollution
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known to cause 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a zoonotic coronavirus and crosses species to infect human populations, where an efficient transmission of virus occurs human-to-human. Nationwide lockdown is being adopted to stop public transport, keep people at their homes and out of their work, and maintain social distancing. In turn, large geographic areas in the world (including China, Italy, Spain, and USA) has been almost halted. This temporary halt is significantly slashing down the air pollution (air pollutants and warming gases) in most cities across the world. This paper: (i) introduces both COVID-19 and air pollution; (ii) overviews the relation of air pollution with respiratory/lung diseases; (iii) compiles and highlights major data appeared in media and journals reporting lowering of air pollution in major cities those have been highly impacted by the COVID-19; and also (iv) lists the way forward in the present context. Because COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic and currently far from over, strong conclusions could not be drawn with very limited data at present. The temporary slashed down global air pollution as a result of COVID-19 restrictions are expected to stimulate the researchers, policy makers and governments for the judicious use of resources; thereby minimise the global emissions, and maintain their economies once the pandemic eases. On the other, lifting of the nationwide lockdown and eventual normalisation of the temporarily halted sectors may also reverse the currently COVID-19 pandemic-led significantly slashed down global air pollution that could make the future respiratory health crisis grimmer."
AUTHOR
Naser A. Anjum
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives
"Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, Central China, and has spread quickly to 72 countries to date. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [previously provisionally known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)]. At present, the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 has caused a large number of deaths with tens of thousands of confirmed cases worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health. However, there are no clinically approved vaccines or specific therapeutic drugs available for COVID-19. Intensive research on the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiological characteristics and to identify potential drug targets, which will contribute to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Hence, this review will focus on recent progress regarding the structure of SARS-CoV-2 and the characteristics of COVID-19, such as the aetiology, pathogenesis and epidemiological characteristics."
AUTHORS
Shang-Ming Liu
Heng Li
Chao-Ke Tang
Shi-Lin Tang
Xiao-Hua Yu
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Lactoferrin as potential preventative and treatment for COVID-19
"The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly advancing across the globe despite public and personal health measures. Antivirals and nutritional supplements have been proposed as potentially useful against SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19), but few have been clinically established. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that is orally available as a nutritional supplement and has established in vitro anti-viral efficacy against a wide range of virus including SARS-CoV, a closely related corona virus to SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19). Furthermore, Lf possesses unique immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that maybe especially relevant to the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 cases. We review the underlying biological mechanisms of Lf as antiviral and immune regulator, and propose its unique potential as preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. We hope that further research and development of Lf nutritional supplementation would establish its role for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei-Zen Sun
Raymond Chang
Tzi Bun Ng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses
"The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize and comparatively analyze the emergence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection and previous human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We also discuss the approaches for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to cope with this viral outbreak."
AUTHORS
Nadia Bashir
Muhammad Adnan Shereen
Abeer Kazmi
Rabeea Siddique
Suliman Khan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Advanced Research

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
" The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threating respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true. "
AUTHOR
David A. Schwartz
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). To date, no prophylactic vaccines or approved therapeutic agents are available for preventing and treating this highly transmittable disease. Here we report two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cloned from memory B cells of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, and both mAbs specifically bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, block the binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and effectively neutralize S protein-pseudotyped virus infection. These human mAbs hold the promise for the prevention and treatment of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Lilin Ye
Zhirong Li
Jianfang Tang
Xiangyu Chen
Zhaohui Qian
Yang Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
"The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threatening respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true."
AUTHOR
Schwartz DA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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COVID-19: A promising cure for the global panic
FUNDERS
Science and Engineering Research Board , Research England , The Advanced Level State Biotech Hub , Expanding Excellence in England
"The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. The outbreak of COVID-19 is wreaking havoc worldwide due to inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation. The COVID-19 pandemic has entered a dangerous new phase. When compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due to increased globalization and adaptation of the virus in every environment. Slowing the spread of the COVID-19 cases will significantly reduce the strain on the healthcare system of the country by limiting the number of people who are severely sick by COVID-19 and need hospital care. Hence, the recent outburst of COVID-19 highlights an urgent need for therapeutics targeting SARS-CoV-2. Here, we have discussed the structure of virus; varying symptoms among COVID-19, SARS, MERS and common flu; the probable mechanism behind the infection and its immune response. Further, the current treatment options, drugs available, ongoing trials and recent diagnostics for COVID-19 have been discussed. We suggest traditional Indian medicinal plants as possible novel therapeutic approaches, exclusively targeting SARS-CoV-2 and its pathways."
AUTHORS
Mohana Devi Subramaniam
Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman
Kamarajan Rajagopalan
Harsha Ganesan
Ssang-Goo Cho
Dhivya Venkatesan et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science of the Total Environment

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Effect of ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors on COVID-19 transmission
"Abstract
Background

Since its first appearance in Wuhan China in December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic. Although the COVID-19 is known to cause by human-to-human transmission, it remains largely unclear whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors could promote its transmission process.
Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to understand the correlation between COVID-19 incidence and eight ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, and O3-8 h) and three meteorological variables (temperature, humidity and wind level) in China’s two worst-hit cities, Wuhan and XiaoGan, between Jan 25th to Feb 29th in 2020.
Results

Our data showed that the COVID-19 incidence was constantly correlated with PM2.5, NO2 and local temperature in both cities. Specifically, in Wuhan, the tightest correlation was observed between NO2 and COVID-19 incidence (R2 = 0.329, p < 0.01). The PM2.5 and CO also present tight correlation with the incidence number, whose R2 equaled 0.174 (p < 0.01) and 0.203 (p < 0.05), respectively. In XiaoGan, in addition to the PM2.5 (R2 = 0.23, p < 0.01) and NO2 (R2 = 0.158, p < 0.05), a notable correlation was also observed between the PM10 and incidence cases (R2 = 0.158, p < 0.05). Moreover, temperature is the only meteorological factors that constantly correlated well with COVID-19 incidence in both Wuhan and XiaoGan, but in a negative pattern (R2 = 0.126 and 0.13, respectively, both p < 0.05).
Conclusion

Our data concludes that ambient air pollutants, especially PM2.5 and NO2, and temperature are three variables that could potential promote the sustained transmission of COVID-19. Thus, personal protective devices, especially the facial mask and eye goggle, shall be suggested to residents for SARS-CoV-2 protection in highly polluted regions."
AUTHORS
Xiao-Long Xu
Guang-Ming Wang
Ying Jiang
Yan-Jun Guan
Jun-Yu Wang
Xiao-Jun Wu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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