Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?

Submitted by: KKrista 83

Yes. The studies in this list for which we have identified answers are unanimous on this conclusion. Note that some studies in this list give us reason to question their conclusions. This may be because they were published in sources that are not peer-reviewed, are low ranked or not ranked at all, which may indicate limited editorial oversight. Alternatively, it may be because they were criticized in a published article or produced by a financially interested or ideologically motivated source. Carefully review the individual study summaries below for more information.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 6 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 6 studies examining this question

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 6
Sorted by publication year
1
Can atmospheric pollution be considered a co-factor in extremely high level of SARS-CoV-2 lethality in Northern Italy?
"This paper investigates the correlation between the high level of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lethality and the atmospheric pollution in Northern Italy. Indeed, Lombardy and Emilia Romagna are Italian regions with both the highest level of virus lethality in the world and one of Europe's most polluted area. Based on this correlation, this paper analyzes the possible link between pollution and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and eventually death. We provide evidence that people living in an area with high levels of pollutant are more prone to develop chronic respiratory conditions and suitable to any infective agent. Moreover, a prolonged exposure to air pollution leads to a chronic inflammatory stimulus, even in young and healthy subjects. We conclude that the high level of pollution in Northern Italy should be considered an additional co-factor of the high level of lethality recorded in that area."
AUTHORS
Dario Caro
Bruno Frediani
Edoardo Conticini
PUBLISHED
2020 in Environmental Pollution
High quality source
Yes
Yes
2
Exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 mortality in the United States
"Background: United States government scientists estimate that COVID-19 may kill between 100,000 and 240,000 Americans. The majority of the pre-existing conditions that increase the risk of death for COVID-19 are the same diseases that are affected by long-term exposure to air pollution. We investigate whether long-term average exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of COVID-19 deaths in the United States.Methods: Data was collected for approximately 3,000 counties in the United States (98% of the population) up to April 04, 2020. We fit zero-inflated negative binomial mixed models using county-level COVID-19 deaths as the outcome and county level long-term average of PM2.5 as the exposure. We adjust by population size, hospital beds, number of individuals tested, weather, and socioeconomic and behavioral variables including, but not limited to obesity and smoking. We include a random intercept by state to account for potential correlation in counties within the same state. Results: We found that an increase of only 1 μg/m3 in PM2.5 is associated with a 15% increase in the COVID-19 death rate, 95% confidence interval (CI) (5%, 25%). Results are statistically significant and robust to secondary and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: A small increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 leads to a large increase in COVID-19 death rate, with the magnitude of increase 20 times that observed for PM2.5 and all-cause mortality. The study results underscore the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations to protect human health both during and after the COVID-19 crisis."
AUTHORS
Rachel C. Nethery
Xiao Wu
Benjamin M. Sabath
Danielle Braun
Francesca Dominici
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
3
Initial evidence of higher morbidity and mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 in regions with lower air quality
"COVID-19 has spread from China to the rest of the world in a span of just over three months, escalating into a pandemic that poses several humanitarian as well as scientific challenges. We here investigated the geographical expansion of the infection and correlate it with the annual indexes of air quality observed from the Sentinel-5 satellite orbiting around China, Italy and the U.S.A. Controlling for population size, we find more viral infections in those areas afflicted by Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2). Higher mortality was also correlated with poor air quality, namely with high PM2.5, CO and NO2 values. In Italy, the correspondence between poor air quality and SARS-CoV-2 appearance and induced mortality was the starkest. Similar to smoking, people living in polluted areas are more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infections and induced mortality. This further suggests the detrimental impact of climate change on the prevention of epidemics."
AUTHORS
Davide Fornacca
Riccardo Pansini
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
4
Links between air pollution and COVID-19 in England
"In December 2019 a novel disease [coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) emerged in the Wuhan province of the People's Republic of China. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) thought to have jumped species, from another mammal to humans. A pandemic caused by this virus is running rampant throughout the world. Thousands of cases of COVID-19 are reported in England and over 10,000 patients have died. Whilst there has been progress in managing this disease, it is not clear which factors, besides age, affect the severity and mortality of COVID-19. A recent analysis of COVID-19 in Italy identified links between air pollution and death rates. Here, we explored the correlation between three major air pollutants linked to fossil fuels and SARS-CoV-2 lethality in England. We compare up-to-date, real-time SARS-CoV-2 cases and death measurements from public databases to air pollution data monitored across over 120 sites in different regions. We found that the levels of some markers of poor air quality, nitrogen oxides and ozone, are associated with COVID-19 lethality in different English regions. We conclude that the levels of some air pollutants are linked to COVID-19 cases and morbidity. We suggest that our study provides a useful framework to guide health policy in countries affected by this pandemic."
AUTHORS
Nuno Leal
Yizhou Yu
Rebeka Popovic
Marco Travaglio
L. Miguel Martins
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
5
Relationship between ambient air pollution and daily mortality of SARS in Beijing
"OBJECTIVETo study the relationship between ambient air pollution and daily mortality of SARS in Beijing.METHODSThe approach of time-series Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between daily SARS mortality, ambient air pollution, and other factors from April 25 to May 31, 2003 in Beijing.RESULTSAn increase of each 10 microg/m3 over a 5-day moving average of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to 1.06 (1.00-1.12), 0.74 (0.48-1.13) and 1.22 (1.01-1.48) relative risks (RRs) of daily SARS mortality, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) values depended largely on the selection of lag days.CONCLUSIONThe daily mortality of SARS might be associated with certain air pollutants in Beijing"
AUTHORS
Shun-zhang Yu
Chao-wei Fu
Bing-heng Chen
Haidong Kan
Li-na Mu
PUBLISHED
2005 in Biomedical and Environmental Sciences
Q2
Yes
Yes
6
Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study
"BackgroundSevere acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level.MethodsPublicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API) derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS.ResultsEcologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API). Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40). Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65). Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association.ConclusionOur studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation."
AUTHORS
John Froines
Shun-Zhang Yu
Zuo-Feng Zhang
Roger Detels
Jinkou Zhao
Yan Cui et al
PUBLISHED
2003 in Environmental Health
High quality source
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 56
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Does Air Pollution Influence COVID-19 Outbreaks?
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [...]"
AUTHORS
Francesca Costabile
Daniele Contini
PUBLISHED
2020 in Atmosphere

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Mutated COVID-19, May Foretells Mankind in a Great Risk in the Future
"Corona virus disease 2019 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a zoonotic virus causing a variety of severe of respiratory diseases. SARS-CoV-2 is closest to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in structure. The highly prevalence of COVID-19 is due to the lack onset of symptoms. Our study aimed to present an overview of the virus in terms of structure, epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. Conduct the differences of whole genome sequence and some viral proteins to determine the gap and the change alternation of nucleotides and amino acids sequences. We evaluate 11 complete genome sequence of different coronavirus using BAST and MAFFT software. We also selected 7 types of structural proteins. We were conclude that COVID-19 might be created new mutations specifically in glycoproteins hence requires caution and complete preparation by health authorities."
AUTHOR
Ali A. Dawood
PUBLISHED
2020 in New Microbes and New Infections

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Lactoferrin as potential preventative and treatment for COVID-19
"The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly advancing across the globe despite public and personal health measures. Antivirals and nutritional supplements have been proposed as potentially useful against SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19), but few have been clinically established. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that is orally available as a nutritional supplement and has established in vitro anti-viral efficacy against a wide range of virus including SARS-CoV, a closely related corona virus to SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19). Furthermore, Lf possesses unique immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that maybe especially relevant to the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 cases. We review the underlying biological mechanisms of Lf as antiviral and immune regulator, and propose its unique potential as preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. We hope that further research and development of Lf nutritional supplementation would establish its role for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei-Zen Sun
Raymond Chang
Tzi Bun Ng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Good in The Worst: COVID-19 Restrictions and Ease in Global Air Pollution
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known to cause 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a zoonotic coronavirus and crosses species to infect human populations, where an efficient transmission of virus occurs human-to-human. Nationwide lockdown is being adopted to stop public transport, keep people at their homes and out of their work, and maintain social distancing. In turn, large geographic areas in the world (including China, Italy, Spain, and USA) has been almost halted. This temporary halt is significantly slashing down the air pollution (air pollutants and warming gases) in most cities across the world. This paper: (i) introduces both COVID-19 and air pollution; (ii) overviews the relation of air pollution with respiratory/lung diseases; (iii) compiles and highlights major data appeared in media and journals reporting lowering of air pollution in major cities those have been highly impacted by the COVID-19; and also (iv) lists the way forward in the present context. Because COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic and currently far from over, strong conclusions could not be drawn with very limited data at present. The temporary slashed down global air pollution as a result of COVID-19 restrictions are expected to stimulate the researchers, policy makers and governments for the judicious use of resources; thereby minimise the global emissions, and maintain their economies once the pandemic eases. On the other, lifting of the nationwide lockdown and eventual normalisation of the temporarily halted sectors may also reverse the currently COVID-19 pandemic-led significantly slashed down global air pollution that could make the future respiratory health crisis grimmer."
AUTHOR
Naser A. Anjum
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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A vulnerability-based approach to human-mobility reduction for countering COVID-19 transmission in London while considering local air quality
"An ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between air pollution, and COVID-19 cases and fatality rates in London. The analysis demonstrated a strong correlation (R2>0.7) between increment in air pollution and an increase in the risk of COVID-19 transmission within London boroughs. Particularly, strong correlations (R2>0.72) between the risk of COVID-19 fatality and NO2 and PM2.5 pollution concentrations were also found. Although this study assumed the same level of air pollution across a particular London borough, it demonstrates the possibility to employ air pollution as an indicator to rapidly identify the vulnerable regions within a city. Such an approach can inform the decisions to suspend or reduce the operation of different public transport modes within a city. The methodology and learnings from the study can thus aid public transport to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak by adopting different levels of human-mobility reduction strategies based on the vulnerability of a given region."
AUTHORS
Ajith Kumar Parlikad
Manu Sasidharan
Ajit Singh
Mehran Eskandari Torbaghan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Association between short-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 infection: Evidence from China
FUNDERS
National Natural Science Foundation of China
"The novel coronavirus pneumonia, namely COVID-19, has become a global public health problem. Previous studies have found that air pollution is a risk factor for respiratory infection by carrying microorganisms and affecting body's immunity. This study aimed to explore the relationship between ambient air pollutants and the infection caused by the novel coronavirus. Daily confirmed cases, air pollution concentration and meteorological variables in 120 cities were obtained from January 23, 2020 to February 29, 2020 in China. We applied a generalized additive model to investigate the associations of six air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2 and O3) with COVID-19 confirmed cases. We observed significantly positive associations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 in the last two weeks with newly COVID-19 confirmed cases. A 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0–14) in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 was associated with a 2.24% (95% CI: 1.02 to 3.46), 1.76% (95% CI: 0.89 to 2.63), 6.94% (95% CI: 2.38 to 11.51), and 4.76% (95% CI: 1.99 to 7.52) increase in the daily counts of confirmed cases, respectively. However, a 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0–14) in SO2 was associated with a 7.79% decrease (95% CI: −14.57 to −1.01) in COVID-19 confirmed cases. Our results indicate that there is a significant relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 infection, which could partially explain the effect of national lockdown and provide implications for the control and prevention of this novel disease."
AUTHORS
Yongjian Zu
Fengming Huang
Jingui Xie
Liqing Cao
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science of the Total Environment

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The Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution Concentrations and Lockdowns on Covid-19 Infections in Wuhan and Other Provincial Capitals in China
"Background: Covid-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China in Dec 2019. Since then, it has been transmitted rapidly in China and the rest of the world. While Covid-19 transmission rate has been declining in China, it is increasing exponentially in Europe and America. Although there are numerous studies examining Covid-19 infection, including an archived paper looking into the meteorological effect, the role of outdoor air pollution has yet to be explored rigorously. It has been shown that air pollution will weaken the immune system, and increase the rate of respiratory virus infection. We postulate that outdoor air pollution concentrations will have a negative effect on Covid-19 infections in China, whilst lockdowns, characterized by strong social distancing and home isolation measures, will help to moderate such negative effect. Methods: We will collect the number of daily confirmed Covid-19 cases in 31 provincial capital cities in China during the period of 1 Dec 2019 to 20 Mar 2020 (from a popular Chinese online platform which aggregates all cases reported by the Chinese national/provincial health authorities). We will also collect daily air pollution and meteorology data at the city-level (from the Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center and the US National Climatic Data Center), daily inter-city migration flows and intra-city movements (from Baidu). City-level demographics including age distribution and gender, education, and median household income can be obtained from the statistical yearbooks. City-level co-morbidity indicators including rates of chronic disease and co-infection can be obtained from related research articles. A regression model is developed to model the relationship between the infection rate of Covid-19 (number of confirmed cases/population at the city level) and outdoor air pollution at the city level, after taking into account confounding factors such as meteorology, inter- and intra-city movements, demographics, and co-morbidity and co-infection rates. In particular, we shall study how air pollution affects infection rates across different cities, including Wuhan. Our model will also study air pollution would affect infection rates in Wuhan before and after the lockdown. Expected findings: We expect there be a correlation between Covid-19 infection rate and outdoor air pollution. We also expect that reduced intra-city movement after the lockdowns in Wuhan and the rest of China will play an important role in reducing the infection rate. Interpretation: Infection rate is growing exponentially in major cities worldwide. We expect Covid-19 infection rate is related to the air pollution concentration, and is strongly dependent on inter- and intra-city movements. To reduce the infection rate, the international community may deploy effective air pollution reduction plans and social distancing policies."
AUTHORS
Victor OK Li
Jacqueline CK Lam
Zafar Gilani
Andong Wang
Yang Han
Qi Zhang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Enhanced secondary pollution offset reduction of primary emissions during COVID-19 lockdown in China
"In order to control the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), China imposed nationwide restrictions on the movement of its population (lockdown) after the Chinese New Year in January of 2020, leading to large reductions in economic activities and associated emissions. However, despite such large decreases in primary pollution, there were nonetheless several periods of heavy haze pollution in East China during the COVID-19 lockdown, raising questions about the well-established relationship between human activities and air quality. Here, using comprehensive in situ measurements and chemical transport modeling, we show the haze events during the COVID lockdown were driven by enhancements of secondary pollution. In particular, large decreases in NOx emissions from transportation increased ozone and nighttime NO3 radical formation, and these increases in atmospheric oxidizing capacity in turn facilitated the formation of secondary inorganic and organic particulate matter. Our results, afforded by the tragic natural experiment of the COVID-19 pandemic, indicate that mitigation of Chinese haze pollution may depend upon a coordinated and balanced strategy for controlling multiple pollutants."
AUTHORS
Liangduo Chen
Kebin He
Chuanhua Ren
Derong Zhou
Steven J. Davis
Wei Nie et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Effects of temperature variation and humidity on the mortality of COVID-19 in Wuhan
"Object Meteorological parameters are the important factors influencing the infectious diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This study aims to explore the association between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) death and weather parameters. Methods In this study, we collected the daily death number of COVID-19, meteorological and air pollutant data from 20 January, 2020 to 29 February, 2020 in Wuhan, China. Then, the generalized additive model was applied to explore the impact of temperature, humidity and diurnal temperature range on daily mortality of COVID-19. Results There were in total 2299 COVID-19 mortality counts in Wuhan. A positive association with COVID-19 mortality was observed for diurnal temperature range (r = 0.44), but negative association for relative humidity (r = −0.32). In addition, each 1 unit increase in diurnal temperature range was only associated with a 2.92% (95% CI: 0.61%, 5.28%) increase in COVID-19 mortality at lag 3. However, both per 1 unit increase of temperature and absolute humidity were related to the decreased COVID-19 mortality at lag 3 and lag 5, respectively. Conclusion In summary, this study suggests the temperature variation and humidity may be important factors affecting the COVID-19 mortality."
AUTHORS
Ziaotao He
Yueling Ma
Bo Wang
Shihua Fu
Yadong Zhao
Jun Yan
PUBLISHED
2020 in medRxiv

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Two mechanisms for accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 outbreaks in regions with high intensity of population and polluting industrialization: the air pollution-to-human and human-to-human transmission dynamics
"What is COVID-19?
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is viral infection that generates a severe acute respiratory syndrome with serious pneumonia that may result in progressive respiratory failure and death.

What are the goals of this investigation?
This study explains the geo-environmental determinants of the accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 in Italy that is generating a high level of deaths and suggests general lessons learned for a strategy to cope with future epidemics similar to COVID-19 to reduce viral infectivity and negative impacts in economic systems and society.

What are the results of this study?
The main results are:
o The accelerate and vast diffusion of COVID-19 in North Italy has a high association with air pollution.
o Hinterland cities have average days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter) equal to 80 days, and an average number of infected more than 2,000 individuals as of April 1st, 2020, coastal cities have days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 equal to 60 days and have about 700 infected in average.
o Cities that average number of 125 days exceeding the limits set for PM10, last year, they have an average number of infected individual higher than 3,200 units, whereas cities having less than 100 days (average number of 48 days) exceeding the limits set for PM10, they have an average number of about 900 infected individuals.
o The results reveal that accelerated transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in specific environments is due to two mechanisms given by: air pollution-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission; in particular, the mechanisms of air pollution-to-human transmission play a critical role rather than human-to-human transmission.
o The finding here suggests that to minimize future epidemic similar to COVID-19, the max number of days per year in which cities can exceed the limits set for PM10 or for ozone, considering their meteorological condition, is less than 50 days. After this critical threshold, the analytical output here suggests that environmental inconsistencies because of the combination between air pollution and meteorological conditions (with high moisture%, low wind speed and fog) trigger a take-off of viral infectivity (accelerated epidemic diffusion) with damages for health of population, economy and society.

What is a socioeconomic strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to COVID-19?
Considering the complex interaction between air pollution, meteorological conditions and biological characteristics of viral infectivity, lessons learned for COVID-19 have to be applied for a proactive socioeconomic strategy to cope with future epidemics, especially an environmental policy based on reduction of air pollution mainly in hinterland zones of countries, having low wind speed, high percentage of moisture and fog that create an environment that can damage immune system of people and foster a fast transmission of viral infectivity similar to the COVID-19.

This study must conclude that a strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to COVID 19 has also to be designed in environmental and sustainability science and not only in terms of biology."
AUTHOR
MARIO COCCIA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). To date, no prophylactic vaccines or approved therapeutic agents are available for preventing and treating this highly transmittable disease. Here we report two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cloned from memory B cells of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, and both mAbs specifically bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, block the binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and effectively neutralize S protein-pseudotyped virus infection. These human mAbs hold the promise for the prevention and treatment of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Lilin Ye
Zhirong Li
Jianfang Tang
Xiangyu Chen
Zhaohui Qian
Yang Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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In search of feasible interventions for the prevention and cure of novel Coronavirus disease 2019
"COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical, phytopharmaceutical or traditional medicine for cure or prevention of COVID-19, although it is urgently needed. Based on the current understanding of the disease molecular mechanisms from the closest relatives of SARS-CoV-2 as well as novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, I attempt to translate this knowledge into identifying some naturally occurring plant based substances and Ayurvedic medicinal herbs that could feasibly be used as preventive as well as treatment options for COVID-19."
AUTHOR
Sunil Verma
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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The comparative superiority of IgM-IgG antibody test to real-time reverse transcriptase PCR detection for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis
"Background: As the increasing number of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients caused by the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused an outbreak initiated from Wuhan, China in December, 2019, the clinical features and treatment of COVID-19 patients have been understood. However, it is urgent to need the rapid and accurate detection for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the antibodies-based and nucleic acid-based tests (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.
Method: We retrospectively and observationally studied 133 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 and admitted in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, China, from Feb 17 to Mar 1, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, clinical examination, laboratory tests, and clinical outcomes were collected. Data were compared between IgM-IgG antibody test and real-time RT-PCR detection for COVID-19 patients.
Results: Of 133 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, there were 44 moderate cases, 52 severe cases, and 37 critical cases with no significant difference of gender and age among three subgroups. Overall, the positive ratio in IgM antibody test was higher than in RT-PCR detection. In RT-PCR detection, the positive ratio was 65.91%, 71.15%, and 67.57% in moderate, severe, and critical cases, respectively. Whereas, the positive ratio of IgM/IgG antibody detection in patients was 79.55%/93.18%, 82.69%/100%, and 72.97%/97.30% in moderate, severe, and critical cases, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of antibodies were also measured in three subgroups.
Conclusion: The IgM-IgG antibodies-based test exhibited a comparative superiority to the NAT for COVID-19 diagnosis, which provides an effective complement to the false negative results from NAT for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis."
AUTHORS
Zhen Luo
Dong Li
Muhammad Adnan Shereen
Huan Han
Kailang Wu
Rui Liu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19): Molecular Evolutionary Analysis, Global Burden and Possible Threat to Bangladesh
"Abstract

Recently a new coronavirus strain, COVID-19 has emerged in Wuhan City, China which cause disease and in many cases deaths to humans. Considering its severity a number of works are working on it and full genomic sequences has already released in the last few weeks to understand the evolutionary origin and molecular characteristics of this virus. Based on currently available genomic information a phylogenetic tree was constructed from four types of representative viral proteins (Spike, Membrane, Envelope and Nucleoproetin) of COVID-19, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63, HKU1, MERS-CoV, HKU4, HKU5 and BufCoV-HKU26 clearly demonstrated that the ancestral origin and distant evolutionary relation of newly epidemic novel coronavirus (COVID-19). It had been found that COVID-19 was evolutionary related to SARS-CoV. It was also found that COVID-19 proteins were almost more than ninety (90%) similar and identical with SARS-CoV proteins. The cross-checked conservancy analysis of COVID-19 antigenic epitopes showed significant conservancy with SARS-CoV proteins. VaxiJen server reveal almost 100% immunogenic potential of four viral proteins with COVID-19. In this article, we present an effort on molecular evolutionary analysis, temperature comparison and compile and analyze epidemiological outbreak information on the 2019 novel coronavirus based on the several open datasets on COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) and possible threat to Bangladesh.Authors Md Bashir Uddin and Mahmudul Hasan contributed equally to this work
"
AUTHORS
Syed Sayeem Uddin Ahmed
Md. Abdus Shukur Imran
Md. Irtija Ahsan
Mahmudul Hasan
Ahmed Harun-Al-Rashid
Md Bashir Uddin
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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An Update on SARS-COV-2/COVID-19 with Particular Reference on Its Clinical Pathology, Pathogenesis, Immunopathology and Mitigation Strategies – A Review
"Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in early December 2019 in China and attained a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to nearly 167 countries with 287.239 confirmed cases and 11.921 human deaths with a case fatality rate (CFR) of around 4 per cent. Bats were considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. Animals have anticipated culprit of SARS-CoV-2 as of now. The disease is mainly manifested by pneumonia and related respiratory signs and symptoms, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal system and nervous system is also suggested. The severe form of the disease associated with death is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with rampant inflammation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered as the leading killer of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients were reported with higher levels of many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines like IFN-g, IL-1b, IP-10, and MCP-1. Furthermore, severe cases of COVID-19 revealed higher levels of TNF-α, G-CSF, and MIP-1A. Blood profile of the COVID-19 patients exhibits lymphopenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and RNAaemia along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortalities unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. Rapid and confirmatory diagnostics have been developed, and high efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapeutic, internationally health care authorities are recommending adoption of effective prevention and control measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19 clinical pathology, pathogenesis and immunopathology along with a few recent research developments."
AUTHORS
Mamta Pathak
Shailesh Kumar Patel
Rajendra Singh
Kuldeep Dhama
Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Characteristics of Ocular Findings of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, China
"Importance: While the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in more than 100 000 infected individuals in China and worldwide, there are few reports on the association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with ocular abnormalities. Understanding ocular manifestations of patients with COVID-19 by ophthalmologists and others may facilitate the diagnosis and prevention of transmission of the disease.

Objective: To investigate ocular manifestations and viral prevalence in the conjunctiva of patients with COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this case series, patients with COVID-19 treated from February 9 to 15, 2020, at a hospital center in Hubei province, China, were retrospectively reviewed for ocular manifestations. During the period of treatment, the ocular signs and symptoms as well as results of blood tests and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs for SARS-CoV-2 were noted and analyzed.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Ocular signs and symptoms as well as results of blood tests and RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2.

Results: Of the 38 included patients with clinically confirmed COVID-19, 25 (65.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 65.8 (16.6) years. Among them, 28 patients (73.7%) had positive findings for COVID-19 on RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and of these, 2 patients (5.2%) yielded positive findings for SARS-CoV-2 in their conjunctival as well as nasopharyngeal specimens. A total of 12 of 38 patients (31.6%; 95% CI, 17.5-48.7) had ocular manifestations consistent with conjunctivitis, including conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, epiphora, or increased secretions. By univariate analysis, patients with ocular symptoms were more likely to have higher white blood cell and neutrophil counts and higher levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase than patients without ocular symptoms. In addition, 11 of 12 patients with ocular abnormalities (91.7%; 95% CI, 61.5-99.8) had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs. Of these, 2 (16.7%) had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR from both conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, one-third of patients with COVID-19 had ocular abnormalities, which frequently occurred in patients with more severe COVID-19. Although there is a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in tears, it is possible to transmit via the eyes.

"
AUTHORS
Xingguang Qu
Qiang Liu
Liang Liang
Fang Duan
Ping Wu
Kaili Wu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in JAMA Ophthalmology

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Assessing the Awareness of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Germany: A Google Trends Analysis (Preprint)
"
UNSTRUCTURED
On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization characterized the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) a pandemic. In this situation, evaluating a country’s awareness of a disease is crucial. Using online surveillance, we aimed to assess when and how the German population became aware about COVID-19.
We conducted a search on Google Trends from December 3, 2019 to March 20, 2020 using 5 keywords: Corona, Coronavirus, Corona symptome (corona symptoms), hände waschen (hand washing), gesichtsmaske (face mask). The data were collected for searches in Germany, and compared with the German COVID-19 incidence; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and a time-lag was used for analysis.
We found a strong correlation between online search trends and the incidence of COVID-19 in Germany for the following search terms: Corona (r>0.8), Coronavirus (r>0.8), hand washing (r>0.7) and Coronavirus symptoms (r>0.8). For these searches, online searches preceded the actual outbreak of COVID-19 from 1 to 6 days.
The increasing incidence of COVID-19 in Germany correlated with people searching about that disease and related terms online. Google Trends may be a low-cost tool for monitoring the awareness of the COVID-19 outbreak and other diseases in the future.
"
AUTHORS
Shan Ali
Ahmed Ali
Mohammed Alradhi
Emad Almohisin
Zahraa Al-Hakeem
Tomasz Szmuda et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in JMIR Publications Inc.

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Kebijakan Pemberlakuan Lock Down Sebagai Antisipasi Penyebaran Corona Virus Covid-19
"Abstract2020 is a worrying year for all countries, including Indonesia. This is due to the emergence of the Corona virus outbreak, which originated in Wuhan City of China, and spread throughout the world. Initially the government did not follow the method used by several other countries related to information provided about the corona covid-19 virus, namely by conducting a quick reaction of prevention socialization. The reason is so that the Indonesian people are not worried about issues that are worrying, other than to minimize the existence of Hoax news from a handful of irresponsible people. Finally the covid-19 outbreak also became a concern for the community, because many Indonesians were affected by the transmission of this virus. Therefore, the government took the initiative to take a lockdown policy for 14 days to anticipate the transmission of this corona outbreak. The study uses qualitative research methods with a literary and empirical approach. The data obtained comes from several regulations, such as the Governor of DKI Jakarta and several other regulations and policies, as well as phenomena that occur in the field. The results of the study stated that Indonesia had experienced a condition where the community's concern about Covid-19 was quite large, so that a government policy to lockdown was needed, as an effort to break the chain of the spread of the Corona Covid-19 virus.Keywords: Corona Virus, Lock Down, Government Policy AbstrakTahun 2020 merupakan tahun yang mengkhawatirkan seluruh negara, tanpa terkecuali negara Indonesia. Hal itu disebabkan munculkan wabah virus Corona, yang bermula dari Kota Wuhan China, dan menyebar ke seluruh penjuru dunia. Awalnya pemerintah tidak mengikuti cara yang digunakan oleh beberapa negara lainnya terkait informasi yang diberikan mengenai virus corona covid-19, yaitu dengan melakukan reaksi cepat sosialisasi pencegahan. Penyebabnya, agar masyarakat Indonesia  tidak khawatir dengan isu yang mengkhawatirkan, selain untuk meminimalisir adanya berita Hoax dari segelintir orang yang tidak bertanggung jawab. Akhirnya wabah covid-19 ini juga menjadi hal yang mengkhawatirkan bagi masyarakat, karena banyak warga Indonesia yang terkena dampak penularan virus ini. Oleh karenanya, pemerintah berinisiatif untuk mengambil kebijakan lockdown selama 14 hari guna mengantisipasi penularan wabah corona ini. Penelitian menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan literatur dan empiris. Data yang didapat berasal dari beberapa Peraturan, seperti Peraturan Gubernur DKI Jakarta dan beberapa peraturan dan kebijakan lainnya, serta fenomena yang terjadi di lapangan. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa Indonesia sudah mengalami kondisi dimana kekhawatiran masyarakat terhadap covid-19 cukup besar, sehingga diperlukan kebijakan pemerintah untuk melakukan Lockdown, sebagai upaya memutus mata rantai penyebaran virus corona Covid-19Kata kunci : Virus Corona, Lock Down, Kebijakan Pemerintah"
AUTHORS
Nur Rohim Yunus
Annissa Rezki
PUBLISHED
2020 in SALAM: Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Syar-i

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Urgent Prevention of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Chinese Eating and Mask-Wearing Cultures
"Chinese people have a very good mask-wearing culture; it is normal to wear masks to protect their faces from wind and pollution. Thus, they easily accept the wearing of masks to prevent infectious diseases, as seen with the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China today. However, Chinese people have a dangerous eating culture: they share foods or soups from the same bowls and pots using their personal chopsticks/spoons and emphasize loud talking when eating at banquets or at homes. We think this eating culture has raised the infection risk of COVID-19 from person to person by contamination. Therefore, in this paper, we propose models to elucidate how people are infected with COVID-19 through droplet transmission when eating with Chinese cultural context to address the urgent need to change Chinese eating culture; we believe these study models can help not only the Chinese people, but also other national people, to raise mindfulness of public health, prevent COVID-19 and other infectious diseases, at the present pandemic and in the future."
AUTHORS
Vivien Cheng
Changhua Zou
Yang Zou
Kang Cheng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Public Health International

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Ayurveda’s Holistic Lifestyle Approach for the Management of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Possible Role of Tulsi
"Coronavirus disease COVID-19 is caused by the recently discovered corona virus that can spread between animals and humans. The outbreak of the corona virus was begun in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The most common symptoms are fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some individuals also develop aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, or diarrhea. It was reported that traditional remedies may alleviate the symptoms of COVID-19. Ayurveda is the world's oldest medical system that can manage any disease without side effects. Ayurveda is equipped with varieties of treatment modalities to handle with any type of deadly diseases. However, a major drawback is a lack of adequate scientific basis. Tulsi has multi-modal therapeutic effects, we hypothesize that tulsi may be effective in the prevention and management of COVID-19. Though the existing literature supports the management of symptoms of COVID-19 using tulsi, a lack of standard formulation limits its use. This is the need of time to start with translational research to provide scientific evidence for the efficacy and to establish the standard formulation of tulsi in the management of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy Anita Choudhary Potey G G Hirok Chakraborty Arun HS Kumar
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy Anita Choudhary Potey G G Hirok Chakraborty
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy Anita Choudhary Potey G G
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy Anita Choudhary
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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A Mathematical Model of the Covid-19 Cases in Indonesia (Under and Without Lockdown Enforcement)
"COVID-19 stands for Corona (CO), Virus (VI), Disease (D) and year 2019 (19), which is COVID-19 first appeared in 2019. Mathematical model of covid deployment in Indonesia under and without lockdown case uses the SIRV model, such as Susceptible, Infected, Recovery, and Virus. The results of this model state that under lockdown the spread of COVID-19 could be stopped. If it were not under lockdown it can multiply 1,276 times higher over two months."
AUTHORS
Muchammad Abrori
Sugiyanto Sugiyanto
PUBLISHED
2020 in Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry

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Literature review
Konsep Tafakkur Dalam Alquran Dalam Menyikapi Coronavirus Covid-19
"Abstract:Tafakkur in Arabic is interpreted as an act of thinking to bridge the perceptions and conceptions of this world life to the afterlife, and from creatures to their Creator, namely Allah. Tafakkur goes beyond this life to a wider region, the hereafter, and transcends the superficiality of materialism to a deeper horizon, that is "spirit" which can motivate all external and internal activities of Muslims. According to Ibn Khaldun in the book Mukadimmah has a fairly broad understanding. Education is not only a teaching and learning process that is limited by four walls, but education is a process in which humans consciously capture, absorb, and experience natural events throughout the ages. This study aims to treat the epidemic of the Covid 19 virus corona with an Islamic Education perspective approach. This research is a qualitative research with a literature review approach. The results found that the tafakkur corona Covid 19 virus in the perspective of the Islamic religion produced findings through, namely; first, quarantine, namely isolating the area affected by the plague is an appropriate action; Second, be patient; Third, be kind and work hard; Fourth, pray a lot.Keywords: Tafakkur, Islamic Religious Education, Corona virus Covid 19 AbstrakTafakkur dalam bahasa Arab diartikan sebagai tindakan berpikir untuk menjembatani persepsi dan konsepsi dari kehidupan dunia ini ke kehidupan akhirat, dan dari makhluk ke Penciptanya, yaitu Allah Swt. Tafakkur melampaui hidup ini ke wilayah lebih luas, akhirat, dan melampaui kedangkalan materialisme menuju horizon lebih dalam, yaitu “ruh” yang dapat memotivasi seluruh aktivitas eksternal dan internal kaum muslim. Menurut Ibn Khaldun di dalam buku Mukadimmah mempunyai pengertian yang cukup luas. Pendidikan bukan hanya merupakan proses belajar mengajar yang dibatasi oleh empat dinding, tetapi pendidikan adalah suatu proses dimana manusia secara sadar menangkap, menyerap, dan menghayati peristiwa-peristiwa alam sepanjang zaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk men-tafakkuri wabah corona virus Covid 19 dengan pendekatan perspektif Pendidikan Islam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan literature review. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa tafakkur corona virus Covid 19 dalam perspektif Agama Islam menghasilkan temuan melalui, yaitu; pertama, karantina yaitu mengisolasi daerah yang terkena wabah adalah sebuah tindakan yang tepat; Kedua, bersabar; Ketiga, berbaik sangka dan berikhtiarlah; Keempat, banyak berdoalah.Kata Kunci: Tafakkur, Pendidikan Agama Islam, Coronavirus Covid 19"
AUTHOR
Indriya Indriya
PUBLISHED
2020 in SALAM: Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Syar-i

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Literature review
Konsep Tafakkur Dalam Alquran Dalam Menyikapi Coronavirus Covid-19
"Abstract:Tafakkur in Arabic is interpreted as an act of thinking to bridge the perceptions and conceptions of this world life to the afterlife, and from creatures to their Creator, namely Allah. Tafakkur goes beyond this life to a wider region, the hereafter, and transcends the superficiality of materialism to a deeper horizon, that is "spirit" which can motivate all external and internal activities of Muslims. According to Ibn Khaldun in the book Mukadimmah has a fairly broad understanding. Education is not only a teaching and learning process that is limited by four walls, but education is a process in which humans consciously capture, absorb, and experience natural events throughout the ages. This study aims to treat the epidemic of the Covid 19 virus corona with an Islamic Education perspective approach. This research is a qualitative research with a literature review approach. The results found that the tafakkur corona Covid 19 virus in the perspective of the Islamic religion produced findings through, namely; first, quarantine, namely isolating the area affected by the plague is an appropriate action; Second, be patient; Third, be kind and work hard; Fourth, pray a lot.Keywords: Tafakkur, Islamic Religious Education, Corona virus Covid 19 AbstrakTafakkur dalam bahasa Arab diartikan sebagai tindakan berpikir untuk menjembatani persepsi dan konsepsi dari kehidupan dunia ini ke kehidupan akhirat, dan dari makhluk ke Penciptanya, yaitu Allah Swt. Tafakkur melampaui hidup ini ke wilayah lebih luas, akhirat, dan melampaui kedangkalan materialisme menuju horizon lebih dalam, yaitu “ruh” yang dapat memotivasi seluruh aktivitas eksternal dan internal kaum muslim. Menurut Ibn Khaldun di dalam buku Mukadimmah mempunyai pengertian yang cukup luas. Pendidikan bukan hanya merupakan proses belajar mengajar yang dibatasi oleh empat dinding, tetapi pendidikan adalah suatu proses dimana manusia secara sadar menangkap, menyerap, dan menghayati peristiwa-peristiwa alam sepanjang zaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk men-tafakkuri wabah corona virus Covid 19 dengan pendekatan perspektif Pendidikan Islam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan literature review. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa tafakkur corona virus Covid 19 dalam perspektif Agama Islam menghasilkan temuan melalui, yaitu; pertama, karantina yaitu mengisolasi daerah yang terkena wabah adalah sebuah tindakan yang tepat; Kedua, bersabar; Ketiga, berbaik sangka dan berikhtiarlah; Keempat, banyak berdoalah.Kata Kunci: Tafakkur, Pendidikan Agama Islam, Coronavirus Covid 19"
AUTHOR
Indriya Indriya
PUBLISHED
2020 in SALAM: Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Syar-i

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No SARS-CoV-2 in expressed prostatic secretion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a descriptive multicentre study in China
"Abstract
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess whether SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) of patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods: 18 cases of COVID-19, and 5 suspected cases, were selected from three medical centers to detect the RNA expression of SARS-CoV-2 in their EPS with RT-PCR.
Results: Results were negative in all EPS samples for SARS-CoV-2 of suspected and confirmed patients.
Conclusions: No SARS-CoV-2 was expressed in EPS of patients with COVID-19."
AUTHORS
jinfei tian
qingyou zheng
weihe quan
yong zhao
haijia xu
hao chu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Coronavirus ORF1ab Polyprotein Associated Nsp16 Protein is a RlmE Methyltransferase and May Methylate 21S Mitochondrial rRNA of Most Mells Inhibiting Protein Synthesis
"Covid-19 infections are rapidly spreading worldwide with more than 100000 death and thus understanding the molecular mechanism of tropism of human cells is an urgent need for drug design. We have described here a bioinformatics approach to predict the functional aspects of non-structural nsp16 protein of Corona virus. The covid-19 7098 AA large polyprotein was degraded into sixteen proteins and last nsp16 protein was found an RlmE type rRNA methyltransferase. Nsp16 has no similarity to bacterial RlmABCD but has 25 percent similarity to the bacterial RlmE protein which methylates the U2551 2-hydroxy group of Ribose. The nsp16 proteins of different corona viruses like covid-19, bat-coronavirus, SARS and MERS have strong homology. Mrm2 and Dim1 like yeast and mammalian rRNA methyltransferases have 26-33 percent homologies but not with 2-O-capping MTase as reported previously. Rrp8 MTases also has no similarity to nsp16. We postulated that mitochondrial rRNA methylation of bronchial cells were mediated by the nsp16 protein causing inhibition of protein synthesis due to poor assembly of aminoacyl-tRNA or mRNA and peptidyl transferase at the PTC. This is one of the new molecular mechanism of corona virus cellular tropism and different than ACE-2 mediated blockage of cellular signalling to inhibit aldesterone biosynthesis with abnormal Na+ ions in cells. We also designed primers based on nsp16 cDNA sequence (nt 20659-21552, accession no MT121215) specific for Covid-19 diagnosis by RT-PCR."
AUTHOR
ASIT KUMAR CHAKRABORTY
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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SARS-CoV-2 / 2019-Novel Corona Virus: An Epidemic to Pandemic
"An unexpected outbreak of pneumonia of unfamiliar aetiology in Wuhan,Hubei, China was reported in December 2019. World Health Organization identified the pathogen and named it COVID-19. COVID-19 madethe world go through a cisis. The impact of this viral disease is now an issue of major concern. Respiratory infections, dry cough with fever are the major symptoms which are due to beta coronavirus, namely Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Within a short spell, COVID-19 spread all over China. Since January to today 24 March 2020 this epidemic turned into pandemic with continuous rise of cases and deaths. Italy, Germany, Spain, USA, Iran, France are the countries where the disease is spreading in a community level and rest of the countries over the globe the positive cases are also comingin.  As the disease is communicable, it is highly necessary to take measures before it starts spreading in countries like India where the population is very high. The treatment of this severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 is not clear so far. Prevention is the only way to stop spreading this fatal disease. In view of this, the total state of knowledge regarding COVID-19 and the suggestive prevention are discussed by considering countries (considering India) where the population is high and this pandemic has just started spreading. "
AUTHORS
Argha Sarkar Mayuri Kundu Padarthi Venkataramana Pinaki Chakraborty
Argha Sarkar Mayuri Kundu Padarthi Venkataramana
Argha Sarkar Mayuri Kundu
Argha Sarkar
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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The novel coronavirus and its possible treatment by vaccines, therapeutics and drug delivery systems: Current status and future perspectives
"In the mid-end of December 2019, several cases of pneumonia outbreak of unknown cause and etiology were identified in Wuhan City of Hubei province in China, a city with a population of over 11 million.Till date(April 2020) around 1,051,635 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and 56,985 confirmed deaths have been reported according to COVID-19 Situation Report – 75 by WHO. On 7th January 2020, the causative agent was identified and named consequently as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) from throat swab samples. Later, on 12th January 2020, this coronavirus was named as 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by World Health Organization (WHO) and in 11th February 2020,it has been declared the epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) as it is spreading rapidly from its origin in Wuhan City to the rest of the world. In this context, the current review provides a landscape of the novel Corona Virus including its origin, transmission, epidemiology, drugs and vaccines in clinical trials for better understanding to the reads and peoples the status and future perspectives of this pandemic disease"
AUTHORS
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy Somanathan Balasubramanian
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Madhurya Kadavakollu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Systemic and mucosal antibody secretion specific to SARS-CoV-2 during mild versus severe COVID-19
"AbstractBackgroundInfection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes an acute illness termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Humoral immune responses likely play an important role in containing SARS-CoV-2, however, the determinants of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses are unclear.MethodsUsing immunoassays specific for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we determined SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in sera and mucosal fluids of two cohorts, including patients with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 56; median age 61 years) with mild versus severe COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2-exposed healthcare workers (n = 109; median age 36 years) with or without symptoms and tested negative or positive by RT-qPCR.FindingsOn average, SARS-CoV-2-specific serum IgA titers in mild COVID-19 cases became positive eight days after symptom onset and were often transient, whereas serum IgG levels remained negative or reached positive values 9–10 days after symptom onset. Conversely, patients with severe COVID-19 showed a highly significant increase of SARS-CoV-2-specific serum IgA and IgG titers as a function of duration since symptom onset, independent of patient age and comorbidities. Very high levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific serum IgA correlated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Interestingly, some of the SARS-CoV-2-exposed healthcare workers with negative SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG serum titers had detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA antibodies in their nasal fluids and tears. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA levels in nasal fluids of these healthcare workers were inversely correlated with patient age.InterpretationThese data show that systemic IgA and IgG production against SARS-CoV-2 develops mainly in severe COVID-19, with very high IgA levels seen in patients with severe ARDS, whereas mild disease may be associated with transient serum titers of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies but stimulate mucosal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA secretion. The findings suggest four grades of antibody responses dependent on COVID-19 severity."
AUTHORS
Miro E. Raeber
Jens Schreiner
Alan Valaperti
Yves Zurbuchen
Jakob Nilsson
Carlo Cervia et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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THE FACTS ABOUT CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): THE CURRENT SCENARIO AND IMPORTANT LESSONS
"This paper discusses the important review about the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and main facts about it. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristic of Patients With COVID-19:The Wuhan city in China, faced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, with extreme acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being the causative agent. The clinical characteristics and the epidemiological criteria for COVID-19 patients were described. Still, the risk factors for mortality and a clear course of the disease clinically, including viral shedding, have not been identified. Corona Virus and its Types: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family which infect animals as well as humans. The name "coronavirus" was developed in 1968, which stemmed from the morphology similar to "corona" or crown-like. The Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV), Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV). Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub-genera or lineages. COVID-19 Strategic Prevention on different levels: In dealing with COVID-19 challenge, most countries are practicing a mix of inclusion and stopping crowds hoping to delay an increased number of affected individuals and minimizing the need for hospital facilities, as well as securing those at higher risk from being infected, especially old age population and people with long-standing illness"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Global Journal of Public Health Medicine

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Incidence of COVID-19 and Connections with Air Pollution Exposure: Evidence from the Netherlands
"The fast spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has resulted in the emergence of several hot-spots around the world. Several of these are located in areas associated with high levels of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between exposure to particulate matter and COVID-19 incidence in 355 municipalities in the Netherlands. The results show that atmospheric particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 is a highly significant predictor of the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and related hospital admissions. The estimates suggest that expected COVID-19 cases increase by nearly 100 percent when pollution concentrations increase by 20 percent. The association between air pollution and case incidence is robust in the presence of data on health-related preconditions, proxies for symptom severity, and demographic control variables. The results are obtained with ground-measurements and satellite-derived measures of atmospheric particulate matter as well as COVID-19 data from alternative dates. The findings call for further investigation into the association between air pollution and SARS-CoV-2 infection risk. If particulate matter plays a significant role in COVID-19 incidence, it has strong implications for the mitigation strategies required to prevent spreading."
AUTHOR
Bo Pieter Johannes Andree
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Environmental Impact of Corona Virus (COVID-19) and Nationwide Lockdown in India: An Alarm to Future Lockdown Strategies
"Global emerge of zoonotic novel corona virus (COVID-19) became a pandemic and its effect to mankind is talk of the town now a days. This tiny, invisible enemy has affected every country in the world and almost every living directly or indirectly and nationwide complete lockdown has triggered a short-term environmental impact. Since 2003, corona virus came into existence in the form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and more evolved Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. This time, at the end of December 2019, outbreak of novel corona virus COVID-19 (also known as SARS-CoV2, nCoV-2019) draw attention as global health emergency. World Health Organization (WHO) report says that the outbreak of this virus is so immense, it has already affected 35,57,235 people and caused death to 2,45,150 people worldwide and 46,433 Indians got affected with 1568 death as on 5th May 2020 (2:00 am) and these numbers are increasing exponentially day by day. Virologist, micro-biologist and science community are hammering their head very hard to find out cure and vaccine against this powerful virus and to prevent mass demise of mankind. In order to curb the spread of COVID-19, Janta curfew on 22.03.2020 and nationwide complete lockdown was implemented in India for 21 days (phase-I, from 25.03.2020 to 14.04.2020) to stop community transmission of third stage, for 19 days (phase-II, 15.04.2020 to 03.05.2020) and 14 days (phase-III, 04.05.2020 to 17.05.2020) complete lockdown to minimize the community transmission effect. During complete lockdown and quarantine period a drastic change in Earth’s atmosphere, including reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, air pollution (~50% fall in air quality index), noise pollution, water pollution and solid waste pollution, have been recorded by government agencies as well as private agencies. In this paper we considered data of Janta curfew, phase-I and phase-II lockdown to link between geological and environmental aspect related to environmental impact due to emerge of COVID-19 and massive reduction in pollution level during complete lockdown in India. We propose future lockdown strategies to minimize the emission of greenhouse gas by ~100 Mt to ~200Mt (3.33% to 6.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month nationwide lockdown or ~70 Mt to ~140 Mt (2.33% to 4.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month complete lockdown of energy sectors only."
AUTHORS
Uzzwal K. Sharma
Puneet Singh
Hemant K. Singh
Akash Singh
Shishir Bhardwaj
Suresh Kumar
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Can the Oxidative Stress Index Predict the Severity of COVID-19?
"Severity of the COVID-19 disease ranges from imperceptible to death with the aged and those with pre-existing conditions being particularly vulnerable to severe symptoms. Other factors have also been shown to influence COVID-19 severity. These include smoking, vaping and exposure to air pollution. These factors have a one thing in common, all raise oxidative stress. The Oxidative Stress Index, derived from a questionnaire and reflective of oxidative stress level, is proposed as a non-invasive way to predict the severity of COVID-19 in those impacted by the Coronavirus."
AUTHORS
Harvey Kahaner
Harold I Zeliger
PUBLISHED
2020 in European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences

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Ambient air pollutants, meteorological factors and their interactions affect confirmed cases of COVID-19 in 120 Chinese cities
"Emerging evidences have confirmed effects of meteorological factors on novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few studies verify the impact of air pollutants on this pandemic. This study aims to explore the association of ambient air pollutants, meteorological factors and their interactions effect confirmed case counts of COVID-19 in 120 Chinese cities. Here, we collected total confirmed cases of COVID-19 by combining with meteorological factors and air pollutants data from 15th January 2020 to 18th March 2020 in 120 Chinese cities. Spearman correlation analysis was employed to estimate the association between two variables; univariate and multivariate negative binomial regression analysis were applied to explore the effect of air pollutants and meteorological parameters on the COVID-19 confirmed cases. Positive associations were found between the confirmed cases of COVID-19 and carbon monoxide (CO), aerodynamic particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 um (PM2.5), relative humidity (RH) and air pressure (AP). And negative association was found for sulfur dioxide (SO2). In addition, multivariate negative binomial regression analysis suggested that confirmed cases of COVID-19 was positively correlated with ozone (O3) in lag 0 day while it was negatively associated with wind velocity (WV) in lag 14 days, and the pollutants-meteorological factors interactions also associate with COVID-19. In conclusions, air pollutants and meteorological factors and their interactions all associate with COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Linyuan Qin
Jianli Zhou
Nan Liu
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Urban Air Pollution May Enhance COVID-19 Case-Fatality and Mortality Rates in the United States
"Background: The novel human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has claimed more than 240,000 lives worldwide, causing tremendous public health, social, and economic damages. While the risk factors of COVID-19 are still under investigation, environmental factors, such as urban air pollution, may play an important role in increasing population susceptibility to COVID-19 pathogenesis.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional nationwide study using zero-inflated negative binomial models to estimate the association between long-term (2010-2016) county-level exposures to NO2, PM2.5 and O3 and county-level COVID-19 case-fatality and mortality rates in the US. We used both single and multipollutant models and controlled for spatial trends and a comprehensive set of potential confounders, including state-level test positive rate, county-level healthcare capacity, phase-of-epidemic, population mobility, sociodemographic, socioeconomic status, behavior risk factors, and meteorological factors.
Results: 1,027,799 COVID-19 cases and 58,489 deaths were reported in 3,122 US counties from January 22, 2020 to April 29, 2020, with an overall observed case-fatality rate of 5.8%. Spatial variations were observed for both COVID-19 death outcomes and long-term ambient air pollutant levels. County-level average NO2 concentrations were positively associated with both COVID-19 case-fatality rate and mortality rate in single-, bi-, and tri-pollutant models (p-values<0.05). Per inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in NO2 (4.6 ppb), COVID-19 case-fatality rate and mortality rate were associated with an increase of 7.1% (95% CI 1.2% to 13.4%) and 11.2% (95% CI 3.4% to 19.5%), respectively. We did not observe significant associations between long-term exposures to PM2.5 or O3 and COVID-19 death outcomes (p-values>0.05), although per IQR increase in PM2.5 (3.4 ug/m3) was marginally associated with 10.8% (95% CI: -1.1% to 24.1%) increase in COVID-19 mortality rate.
Discussions and Conclusions: Long-term exposure to NO2, which largely arises from urban combustion sources such as traffic, may enhance susceptibility to severe COVID-19 outcomes, independent of long-term PM2.5 and O3 exposure. The results support targeted public health actions to protect residents from COVID-19 in heavily polluted regions with historically high NO2 levels. Moreover, continuation of current efforts to lower traffic emissions and ambient air pollution levels may be an important component of reducing population-level risk of COVID-19 deaths."
AUTHORS
Noah C Scovronick
Stefanie T Ebelt
Jeremy A Sarnat
Jingxuan Zhao
Liuhua Shi
Donghai Liang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Literature review
Know the unknown fact of novel COVID -19 corona virus
"Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a contagious disease triggered by the novel coronavirus. A novel coronavirus was observed as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). In December 2019, a disruption of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread across China and beyond. In India, the first case of CORONA virus was reported in Kerala state on 30 January 2020. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases infection can give rise to pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and even death. The period within which the symptoms would appear is 1-14 days i.e. the incubation period of COVID-19. The present review highlights the types, etiology, transmission stages, manifestations, prevention, therapeutic options, learning points from outbreak, and initiative taken by Government of India (GOI) to control the spread of literary deathly disease."
PUBLISHED
2020 in Letters in Applied NanoBioScience

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Predictive value of sudden olfactory loss in the diagnosis of COVID-19
"Introduction: Recent reports suggest that sudden smell loss might be a symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of olfactory loss in an out-patient population who presented to a coronavirus testing center during a 2-week period and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the symptom sudden smell loss for screening procedures.
Methods: In this cross-sectional controlled cohort study, 500 patients who presented with symptoms of a common cold to a corona testing center and fulfilled corona testing criteria, completed a standardized diagnostic questionnaire which included the patients main symptoms, time course and an additional self-assessment of the patients current smell, taste function and nasal breathing compared to the level before onset of symptoms.
Results: Out of the 500 patients, 69 presented with olfactory loss. Twenty-two of them subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Only twelve out of the patients without olfactory loss tested positive, resulting in a frequency of 64.7% for the symptom sudden smell loss in COVID-19 patients. Compared to COVID-19 patients without smell loss, they were significantly younger and less severely affected. Changes in nasal airflow were significantly more pronounced in SARS-CoV-2 negative patients with olfactory complaints compared to the patients with smell loss who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. By excluding patients with a blocked nose, the symptom sudden smell loss can be attested a high specificity (97%) and a sensitivity of 65% with a PPV of 63% and NPV of 97% for COVID-19.
Conclusion: Considering the high frequency of smell loss in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, acute olfactory impairment should be included in the WHO symptoms list and should be recognized as an early symptom of the disease. In contrast to other acute viral smell impairment, COVID-19 associated smell loss seems to be only rarely accompanied by a severely blocked nose."
AUTHORS
Thomas Hummel
Katja de With
Sarah Draeger
Julia Draf
Antje Haehner
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Makalah Penyakit Menular Dan Covid-19 (Vania X MIA 3)
"BAB IPENDAHULUANA. Latar Belakang Kasus infeksi pneumonia misterius ini memang banyak ditemukan di pasar hewan tersebut. Virus Corona atau COVID-19 diduga dibawa kelelawar dan hewan lain yang dimakan manusia hingga terjadi penularan. Coronavirus sebetulnya tidak asing dalam dunia kesehatan hewan, tapi hanya beberapa jenis yang mampu menginfeksi manusia hingga menjadi penyakit radang paru.Sebelum COVID-19 mewabah, dunia sempat heboh dengan SARS dan MERS, yang juga berkaitan dengan virus Corona. Dengan latar belakang tersebut, virus Corona bukan kali ini saja membuat warga dunia panik. Memiliki gejala yang sama-sama mirip flu, virus Corona berkembang cepat hingga mengakibatkan infeksi lebih parah dan gagal organ.Kelelawar, ular, dan berbagai hewan eksotis lain hingga kini masih dianggap sebagai vektor virus Corona atau COVID-19. Terlepas dari benar-tidaknya informasi tersebut, COVID-19 membuktikan diri mampu menular antarmanusia. Penularan sangat cepat hingga Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia WHO menetapkan pandemi virus Corona atau COVID-19 pada (11/3/2020).Pandemi atau epidemi global mengindikasikan infeksi COVID-19 yang sangat cepat hingga hampir tak ada negara atau wilayah di dunia yang absen dari virus Corona. Peningkatan jumlah kasus terjadi dalam waktu singkat hingga butuh penanganan secepatnya. Sayangnya, hingga kini belum ada obat spesifik untuk menangani kasus infeksi virus Corona atau COVID-19.WHO menyatakan saat ini Eropa telah menjadi pusat pandemi virus Corona secara global. Eropa memiliki lebih banyak kasus dan kematian akibat COVID-19 dibanding China. Jumlah total kasus virus Corona, menurut WHO, kini lebih dari 136 ribu di sedikitnya 123 negara dan wilayah. Dari jumlah tersebut, nyaris 81 ribu kasus ada di wilayah China daratan. Italia, yang merupakan negara Eropa yang terdampak virus Corona terparah, kini tercatat memiliki lebih dari 15 ribu kasus.B. Identifikasi masalahDari latar belakang yang ada, dapat diidentifikasi masalah yang terjadi sebagai berikut :1.Penyakit menular yang ada di dunia2.Pandemi virus corona atau COVID-19C. Pembatasan masalah Makalah ini hanya membahas tentang jenis jenis penyakit yang dapat mmenular ke masyarakat serta proses muncul dan terjadinya COVID-19 di belahan dunia serta Indonesia.D. Rumusan masalahBerdasarkan latar belakang masalah, maka dapat dirumuskan masalah sebagai berikut:1.Apa saja jenis jenis penyakit menular yang menyerang manusia?2.Bagaimana proses dan penyebaran virus corona atau COVID—19 di seluruh dunia dan di Indonesia?E. Tujuan masalah1.Menjelaskan apa saja jenis jenis penyakit menular yang menyerang manusia.2.Menjelaskan proses dan menyebaran virus corona atau COVID-19."
AUTHOR
Vania Amanda Putri Alwi
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Penyakit Menular (Andriany Putri X MIA 3)
"BAB IPENDAHULUANA. Latar Belakang Kasus infeksi pneumonia misterius ini memang banyak ditemukan di pasar hewan tersebut. Virus Corona atau COVID-19 diduga dibawa kelelawar dan hewan lain yang dimakan manusia hingga terjadi penularan. Coronavirus sebetulnya tidak asing dalam dunia kesehatan hewan, tapi hanya beberapa jenis yang mampu menginfeksi manusia hingga menjadi penyakit radang paru.Sebelum COVID-19 mewabah, dunia sempat heboh dengan SARS dan MERS, yang juga berkaitan dengan virus Corona. Dengan latar belakang tersebut, virus Corona bukan kali ini saja membuat warga dunia panik. Memiliki gejala yang sama-sama mirip flu, virus Corona berkembang cepat hingga mengakibatkan infeksi lebih parah dan gagal organ.Kelelawar, ular, dan berbagai hewan eksotis lain hingga kini masih dianggap sebagai vektor virus Corona atau COVID-19. Terlepas dari benar-tidaknya informasi tersebut, COVID-19 membuktikan diri mampu menular antarmanusia. Penularan sangat cepat hingga Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia WHO menetapkan pandemi virus Corona atau COVID-19 pada (11/3/2020).Pandemi atau epidemi global mengindikasikan infeksi COVID-19 yang sangat cepat hingga hampir tak ada negara atau wilayah di dunia yang absen dari virus Corona. Peningkatan jumlah kasus terjadi dalam waktu singkat hingga butuh penanganan secepatnya. Sayangnya, hingga kini belum ada obat spesifik untuk menangani kasus infeksi virus Corona atau COVID-19.WHO menyatakan saat ini Eropa telah menjadi pusat pandemi virus Corona secara global. Eropa memiliki lebih banyak kasus dan kematian akibat COVID-19 dibanding China. Jumlah total kasus virus Corona, menurut WHO, kini lebih dari 136 ribu di sedikitnya 123 negara dan wilayah. Dari jumlah tersebut, nyaris 81 ribu kasus ada di wilayah China daratan. Italia, yang merupakan negara Eropa yang terdampak virus Corona terparah, kini tercatat memiliki lebih dari 15 ribu kasus.B. Identifikasi masalahDari latar belakang yang ada, dapat diidentifikasi masalah yang terjadi sebagai berikut :1.Penyakit menular yang ada di dunia2.Pandemi virus corona atau COVID-19C. Pembatasan masalah Makalah ini hanya membahas tentang jenis jenis penyakit yang dapat mmenular ke masyarakat serta proses muncul dan terjadinya COVID-19 di belahan dunia serta Indonesia.D. Rumusan masalahBerdasarkan latar belakang masalah, maka dapat dirumuskan masalah sebagai berikut:1.Apa saja jenis jenis penyakit menular yang menyerang manusia?2.Bagaimana proses dan penyebaran virus corona atau COVID—19 di seluruh dunia dan di Indonesia?E. Tujuan masalah1.Menjelaskan apa saja jenis jenis penyakit menular yang menyerang manusia.2.Menjelaskan proses dan menyebaran virus corona atau COVID-19."
AUTHOR
Andriany Putri
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Makalah mengenai COVID-19 Disusun oleh Cristian Totti Roniasi Pangaribuan X MIA-3
"Latar belakang virus Corona atau COVID-19, kasusnya dimulai dengan pneumonia atau radang paru-paru misterius pada Desember 2019. Kasus ini diduga berkaitan dengan pasar hewan Huanan di Wuhan yang menjual berbagai jenis daging binatang, termasuk yang tidak biasa dikonsumsi, misal ular, kelelawar, dan berbagai jenis tikus.Kasus infeksi pneumonia misterius ini memang banyak ditemukan di pasar hewan tersebut. Virus Corona atau COVID-19 diduga dibawa kelelawar dan hewan lain yang dimakan manusia hingga terjadi penularan. Coronavirus sebetulnya tidak asing dalam dunia kesehatan hewan, tapi hanya beberapa jenis yang mampu menginfeksi manusia hingga menjadi penyakit radang paru.Sebelum COVID-19 mewabah, dunia sempat heboh dengan SARS dan MERS, yang juga berkaitan dengan virus Corona. Dengan latar belakang tersebut, virus Corona bukan kali ini saja membuat warga dunia panik. Memiliki gejala yang sama-sama mirip flu, virus Corona berkembang cepat hingga mengakibatkan infeksi lebih parah dan gagal organ.Kelelawar, ular, dan berbagai hewan eksotis lain hingga kini masih dianggap sebagai vektor virus Corona atau COVID-19. Terlepas dari benar-tidaknya informasi tersebut, COVID-19 membuktikan diri mampu menular antarmanusia. Penularan sangat cepat hingga Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia WHO menetapkan pandemi virus Corona atau COVID-19 pada (11/3/2020).Pandemi atau epidemi global mengindikasikan infeksi COVID-19 yang sangat cepat hingga hampir tak ada negara atau wilayah di dunia yang absen dari virus Corona. Peningkatan jumlah kasus terjadi dalam waktu singkat hingga butuh penanganan secepatnya. Sayangnya, hingga kini belum ada obat spesifik untuk menangani kasus infeksi virus Corona atau COVID-19."
AUTHORS
CRistian Totti R. P Suyono
CRistian Totti R. P
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Ai-corona: Radiologist-Assistant Deep Learning Framework for COVID-19 Diagnosis in Chest CT Scans
"Background: With the global outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic since early 2020, there has been considerable attention on CT-based diagnosis as an effective and reliable method. Recently, the advent of deep learning in medical diagnosis has been well proven. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) can be used to detect the COVID-19 infection imaging features in a chest CT scan. We introduce ai-corona, a radiologist-assistant deep learning framework for COVID-19 infection diagnosis using the chest CT scans.
Method: Our dataset comprises 2121 cases of axial spiral chest CT scans in three classes; COVID-19 abnormal, non COVID-19 abnormal, and normal, from which 1764 cases were used for training and 357 cases for validation. The training set was annotated using the reports of two experienced radiologists. The COVID-19 abnormal class validation set was annotated using the general consensus of a collective of criteria that indicate COVID-19 infection. Moreover, the validation sets for the non COVID-19 abnormal and the normal classes were annotated by a different experienced radiologist. ai-corona constitutes a CNN-based feature extractor conjoined with an average pooling and a fully-connected layer to classify a given chest CT scan into the three aforementioned classes.
Results: We compare the diagnosis performance of ai-corona, radiologists, and model-assisted radiologists for six combinations of distinguishing between the three mentioned classes, including COVID-19 abnormal vs. others, COVID-19 abnormal vs. normal, COVID-19 abnormal vs. non COVID-19 abnormal, non COVID-19 abnormal vs. others, normal vs. others, and normal vs. abnormal. ai-corona achieves an AUC score of 0.989 (95% CI: 0.984, 0.994), 0.997 (95% CI: 0.995, 0.999), 0.986 (95% CI: 0.981, 0.991), 0.959 (95% CI: 0.944, 0.974), 0.978 (95% CI: 0.968, 0.988), and 0.961 (95% CI: 0.951, 0.971) in each combination, respectively. By employing Bayesian statistics to calculate the accuracies at a 95% confidence interval, ai-corona surpasses the radiologists in distinguishing between the COVID-19 abnormal class and the other two classes (especially the non COVID-19 abnormal class). Our results show that radiologists diagnostic performance improves when incorporating ai-coronas prediction. In addition, we also show that RT-PCRs diagnosis has a much lower sensitivity compared to all the other methods.
Conclusion: ai-corona is a radiologist-assistant deep learning framework for fast and accurate COVID19 diagnosis in chest CT scans. Our results ascertain that our framework, as a reliable detection tool, also improves experts diagnosis performance and helps especially in diagnosing non-typical COVID-19 cases or non COVID-19 abnormal cases that manifest COVID-19 imaging features in chest CT scan.
Our framework is available at: ai-corona.com"
AUTHORS
Reza Lashgari
Saeid Gorgin
Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Movahed
Parsa Esfahanian
Mehdi Yousefzadeh
Sara Haseli et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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A Computer Simulation Study on novel Corona Virus Transmission among the People in a Queue
"The World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, has declared the novel Corona virus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic. It is essential to understand how coronavirus transmits from one person to another and this knowledge will help protect the vulnerable and limit the spread of the Corona virus. The mode of respiratory transmission of Corona virus is not completely understood as of date. Using a computer simulation, this paper analyses the probability of spreading of Corona virus through air among the people who are standing in a queue. The parameters such as the diameter of the virus particle, room temperature, relative humidity, height of the person, distance between the people and the waiting time in the queue are considered in the computer model to determine the distribution of Corona virus and hence identify the risk factor of spreading the Covid-19. This paper describes the possibilities of getting infectious when a Covid-19 infected person present in a queue and the impact on the waiting time and the position in the queue on the transmission of Corona virus."
AUTHOR
Santhosh Samuel Mathews
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19) Pandemic Implications in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease
"Abstract
The corona virus disease ‐2019 (COVID‐19) is a recently described infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 with significant cardiovascular implications. Given the increased risk for severe COVID‐19 observed in adults with underlying cardiac involvement, there is concern that patients with pediatric and congenital heart disease (CHD) may likewise be at increased risk for severe infection. The cardiac manifestations of COVID‐19 include myocarditis, arrhythmia and myocardial infarction. Importantly, the pandemic has stretched health care systems and many care team members are at risk for contracting and possibly transmitting the disease which may further impact the care of patients with cardiovascular disease. In this review, we describe the effects of COVID‐19 in the pediatric and young adult population and review the cardiovascular involvement in COVID‐19 focusing on implications for patients with congenital heart disease in particular."
AUTHORS
Timothy F. Feltes
Susan P. Etheridge
Curt J. Daniels
Timothy B. Cotts
Jamil A. Aboulhosn
Tarek Alsaied et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of the American Heart Association

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Air Pollution and Covid-19: The Role of Particulate Matter in the Spread and Increase of Covid-19's Morbidity and Mortality
"Sars-cov-2 virus (Covid-19) is a member of the coronavirus family and is responsible for the pandemic recently declared by the World Health Organization. A positive correlation has been observed between the spread of the virus and air pollution, one of the greatest challenges of our millennium. Covid-19 could have an air transmission and atmospheric particulate matter (PM) could create a suitable environment for transporting the virus at greater distances than those considered for close contact. Moreover, PM induces inflammation in lung cells and exposure to PM could increase the susceptibility and severity of the Covid-19 patient symptoms. The new coronavirus has been shown to trigger an inflammatory storm that would be sustained in the case of pre-exposure to polluting agents. In this review, we highlight the potential role of PM in the spread of Covid-19, focusing on Italian cities whose PM daily concentrations were found to be higher than the annual average allowed during the months preceding the epidemic. Furthermore, we analyze the positive correlation between the virus spread, PM, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor involved in the entry of the virus into pulmonary cells and inflammation."
AUTHORS
Silvia Comunian
Paola Palestini
Chiara Milani
Dario Dongo
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

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Literature review
Associations of ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors with COVID-19 transmission in 31 Chinese provinces: A time-series study
"Background: Evidence regarding the effects of ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors on COVID-19 transmission is limited.
Objectives: To explore the associations of air pollutants and meteorological factors with COVID-19 confirmed cases across 31 Chinese provinces during the outbreak period.
Methods: The number of COVID-19 confirmed cases, air pollutant concentrations and meteorological factors in 31 Chinese provinces from January 25 to February 29, 2020 were extracted from authoritative electronic databases. The associations were estimated for a single-day lag (lag0-lag6) as well as moving averages lag (lag01-lag05) using generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs), adjusted for time trends, day of the week, holidays and meteorological variables. Region-specific analyses and meta-analysis were conducted in five selected regions with diverse air pollution levels and weather conditions. Nonlinear exposure-response analyses were performed.
Results: We examined 77,578 COVID-19 confirmed cases across 31 Chinese provinces during the study period. An increase of each interquartile range in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO at lag4 corresponded to 1.40 (1.37-1.43), 1.35 (1.32-1.37), 1.01 (1.00-1.02), 1.08 (1.07-1.10), 1.28 (1.27-1.29) and 1.26 (1.24-1.28) odds ratios (ORs) of daily COVID-19 confirmed new cases, respectively. For 1 oc, 1% and 1 m/s increase in temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, the ORs were 0.97 (0.97-0.98), 0.96 (0.96-0.97), and 0.94 (0.92-0.95), respectively. The estimates of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and all meteorological factors remained statistically significant after meta-analysis for the five selected regions. The exposure-response relationships showed that higher concentrations of air pollutants and lower meteorological factors were associated with daily COVID-19 confirmed new cases increasing.
Conclusions: Higher air pollutant concentrations and lower temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity may favor COVID-19 transmission. As summer months are arriving in the Northern Hemisphere, the environmental factors and implementation of public health control measures may play an optimistic role in controlling COVID-19 epidemic."
AUTHORS
Bingxiao Li
Han Cao
Ling ZHANG
Kai Meng
Xiaohui Liu
Tianlun Gu
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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In-depth virological assessment of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread widely, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and significant mortality. However, data on viral loads and antibody kinetics in immunocompromised populations are lacking. We aimed to determine nasopharyngeal and plasma viral loads via RT-PCR and SARS-CoV-2 serology via ELISA and study their association with severe forms of COVID-19 and death in kidney transplant recipients. In this study we examined hospitalized kidney transplant recipients with non-severe (n = 21) and severe (n =19) COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal and plasma viral load and serological response were evaluated based on outcomes and disease severity. Ten recipients (25%) displayed persistent viral shedding 30 days after symptom onset. The SARS-CoV-2 viral load of the upper respiratory tract was not associated with severe COVID-19, whereas the plasma viral load was associated with COVID-19 severity (p=0.0087) and mortality (p=0.024). All patients harbored antibodies the second week after symptom onset that persisted for two months. We conclude that plasma viral load is associated with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, whereas nasopharyngeal viral load is not. SARS-CoV-2 shedding is prolonged in kidney transplant recipients and the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 does not show significant impairment in this series of transplant recipients."
AUTHORS
Peggy Perrin
Maris-Josee Wendling
Gabriela Gautier-Vargas
Samira Fafi-Kremer
Ilies Benotmane
Floriane Gallais et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 Myocarditis: Insights into Pathophysiology and Management
"The world is dealing with a global pandemic of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is the illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, is overwhelming healthcare systems around the world. Although the main clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are respiratory symptoms, several reports have noted myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias and cardiac arrests as COVID-19 complications. Here, the authors highlight the current understanding of the pathophysiology of myocarditis related to COVID-19 and its management."
AUTHORS
Abdallah Almaghraby
Yehia Saleh
Nouran Eshak
Mahmoud Abdelnabi
PUBLISHED
2020 in European Cardiology Review

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SARS-CoV-2 infection of primary human lung epithelium for COVID-19 modeling and drug discovery
"Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest respiratory pandemic resulting from zoonotic transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severe symptoms include viral pneumonia secondary to infection and inflammation of the lower respiratory tract, in some cases causing death. We developed primary human lung epithelial infection models to understand responses of proximal and distal lung epithelium to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of proximal airway epithelium and 3D organoid cultures of alveolar epithelium were readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 leading to an epithelial cell-autonomous proinflammatory response. We validated the efficacy of selected candidate COVID-19 drugs confirming that Remdesivir strongly suppressed viral infection/replication. We provide a relevant platform for studying COVID-19 pathobiology and for rapid drug screening against SARS-CoV-2 and future emergent respiratory pathogens."
AUTHORS
Carolina Garcia-de-Alba
Patrizia Pessina
Derek Pociask
Jay Kolls
Arunima Purkayastha
Chandani Sen et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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COVID-19: A Global Pandemic of 21st Century
"In last of 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention started monitoring the outbreak of a new corona virus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes the respiratory illness now known as COVID-19. Authorities first identified the virus in Wuhan, China. More than 82542 case of Corona virus in China at 31 March 2020. Health authorities have identified many other people with COVID-19 around the world. On 31 March 2020, the virus spread more than 750890 People in the World. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared a public health emergency relating to COVID-19. Since then, this strain has been diagnosed in several residents of world. The CDC have advised that it is likely to spread to more people. COVID-19 has affected at least 213 countries or territories or areas. The first people with COVID-19 had links to an animal and seafood market. This fact suggested that animals initially transmitted the virus to humans. However, people with a more recent diagnosis had no connections with or exposure to the market, confirming that humans can pass the virus to each other. Corona viruses will infect most people at some time during their lifetime. Corona viruses can mutate effectively, which makes them so contagious. Information on the virus is scarce at present. In the past, respiratory conditions that develop from corona viruses, such as SARS and MERS, have spread through close contacts. On 17 February 2020, the Director-General of the WHO presented at a media briefing the following updates on how often the symptoms of COVID-19.However, while some viruses are highly contagious, it is less clear how rapidly corona viruses will spread. Symptoms vary from person-to-person with COVID-19. It may produce few or no symptoms. However, it can also lead to severe illness and may be fatal. On 11 March 2020, WHO declared Novel Corona virus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak as a Pandemic.
Keywords: WHO, ICMR, SARS-CoV-2, Bats, Wuhan City, Pneumonia, Respiratory Infection, Pandemic"
AUTHORS
Hemant Sharma
C.K. Tyagi
Sana Sahil
Deepshikha Gunwan
Abdul Wajid Ali
Prabhakar Budholiya
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics

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Novel corona virus-2019 (SARS CoV-2)
"Among disparate infectious diseases viral infection in particular challenges survival of mankind across the globe. By superseding those events, 2019 novel (CoVID-19) or SARS-CoV-2 has become a new human health crisis threatening the world. Corona viruses (CoV) are large family of viruses that affects birds and mammals. In humans, Corona virus can cause respiratory tract infection ranging from the common cold to more serious infection such as SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) and CoVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) which can also become lethal. The Novel corona virus (CoVID-19) originated in 2019, is a novel virus which has not been identified in humans since past. At present, the source of CoVID-19 is not known. Although the infection is presumed to be in origin, person to person transmission is evident. Many supportive and symptomatic therapies where being carried out by the Medical practitioners as per the instructions of World Health Organization (WHO) with a hypothesis and there is no evidence that it works against CoVID-19. best to lower the current crises of infection is prevention and many measures that boosts the immunity are following by the people as directed by the Ministry of AYUSH."
AUTHORS
Dwarakesh B Ananda Deepak V Asifa Nikhat M Bhaskar Reddy K
Dwarakesh B Ananda Deepak V Asifa Nikhat M
Dwarakesh B Ananda Deepak V
Dwarakesh B
Dwarakesh B Ananda Deepak V Asifa Nikhat M Bhaskar Reddy K Brito Raj S
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

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Highly regarded source
Is there an association between the level of ambient air pollution and COVID-19?
FUNDERS
China Scholarship Council , National Health & Medical Research Council Australia
" Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors (eg. air pollution) can influence the spread and infectivity of COVID-19, however, very few papers have investigated or discussed the mechanism behind the phenomenon. Given the fact that pollution will increase as social distancing rules are relaxed, we summarised the current understanding of how air pollution may affect COVID-19 transmission and discussed several possible mechanisms. Air pollution exposure can dysregulate the human immune response and make people more susceptible to infections, and effect infectivity. For example, in response to exposure to air pollution, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 will increase, which is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. This may increase the efficiency of viral infection. It is also possible that air pollution can facilitate SARS-CoV-2 spread by increasing the transmission, and potentially SARS-CoV-2 can also survive longer when attached to a pollutant. "
AUTHORS
Hui Chen
Brian G. Oliver
Yik Lung Chan
Baoming Wang
PUBLISHED
2020 in American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Are cloth masks as effective as surgical masks at reducing the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
6 studies
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Can you contract COVID-19 twice?
5 studies
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Do adults get sick from COVID-19 more often than children?
10 studies
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Do cloth masks reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
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Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?
7 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Does an N95 mask reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease better than a surgical mask?
17 studies
Submitted by: ELee 65

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