Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?

Submitted by: KKrista 83

Yes. The studies in this list for which we have identified answers are unanimous on this conclusion. Note that some studies in this list give us reason to question their conclusions. This may be because they were published in sources that are not peer-reviewed, are low ranked or not ranked at all, which may indicate limited editorial oversight. Alternatively, it may be because they were criticized in a published article or produced by a financially interested or ideologically motivated source. Carefully review the individual study summaries below for more information.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 6 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 6 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

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Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER

SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 6
Sorted by publication year
1
Can atmospheric pollution be considered a co-factor in extremely high level of SARS-CoV-2 lethality in Northern Italy?
"This paper investigates the correlation between the high level of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lethality and the atmospheric pollution in Northern Italy. Indeed, Lombardy and Emilia Romagna are Italian regions with both the highest level of virus lethality in the world and one of Europe's most polluted area. Based on this correlation, this paper analyzes the possible link between pollution and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and eventually death. We provide evidence that people living in an area with high levels of pollutant are more prone to develop chronic respiratory conditions and suitable to any infective agent. Moreover, a prolonged exposure to air pollution leads to a chronic inflammatory stimulus, even in young and healthy subjects. We conclude that the high level of pollution in Northern Italy should be considered an additional co-factor of the high level of lethality recorded in that area."
AUTHORS
Dario Caro
Bruno Frediani
Edoardo Conticini
PUBLISHED
2020 in Environmental Pollution
High quality source
Yes
Yes
2
Exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 mortality in the United States
"Background: United States government scientists estimate that COVID-19 may kill between 100,000 and 240,000 Americans. The majority of the pre-existing conditions that increase the risk of death for COVID-19 are the same diseases that are affected by long-term exposure to air pollution. We investigate whether long-term average exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of COVID-19 deaths in the United States.Methods: Data was collected for approximately 3,000 counties in the United States (98% of the population) up to April 04, 2020. We fit zero-inflated negative binomial mixed models using county-level COVID-19 deaths as the outcome and county level long-term average of PM2.5 as the exposure. We adjust by population size, hospital beds, number of individuals tested, weather, and socioeconomic and behavioral variables including, but not limited to obesity and smoking. We include a random intercept by state to account for potential correlation in counties within the same state. Results: We found that an increase of only 1 μg/m3 in PM2.5 is associated with a 15% increase in the COVID-19 death rate, 95% confidence interval (CI) (5%, 25%). Results are statistically significant and robust to secondary and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: A small increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 leads to a large increase in COVID-19 death rate, with the magnitude of increase 20 times that observed for PM2.5 and all-cause mortality. The study results underscore the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations to protect human health both during and after the COVID-19 crisis."
AUTHORS
Rachel C. Nethery
Xiao Wu
Benjamin M. Sabath
Danielle Braun
Francesca Dominici
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
3
Initial evidence of higher morbidity and mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 in regions with lower air quality
"COVID-19 has spread from China to the rest of the world in a span of just over three months, escalating into a pandemic that poses several humanitarian as well as scientific challenges. We here investigated the geographical expansion of the infection and correlate it with the annual indexes of air quality observed from the Sentinel-5 satellite orbiting around China, Italy and the U.S.A. Controlling for population size, we find more viral infections in those areas afflicted by Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2). Higher mortality was also correlated with poor air quality, namely with high PM2.5, CO and NO2 values. In Italy, the correspondence between poor air quality and SARS-CoV-2 appearance and induced mortality was the starkest. Similar to smoking, people living in polluted areas are more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infections and induced mortality. This further suggests the detrimental impact of climate change on the prevention of epidemics."
AUTHORS
Davide Fornacca
Riccardo Pansini
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
4
Links between air pollution and COVID-19 in England
"In December 2019 a novel disease [coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) emerged in the Wuhan province of the People's Republic of China. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) thought to have jumped species, from another mammal to humans. A pandemic caused by this virus is running rampant throughout the world. Thousands of cases of COVID-19 are reported in England and over 10,000 patients have died. Whilst there has been progress in managing this disease, it is not clear which factors, besides age, affect the severity and mortality of COVID-19. A recent analysis of COVID-19 in Italy identified links between air pollution and death rates. Here, we explored the correlation between three major air pollutants linked to fossil fuels and SARS-CoV-2 lethality in England. We compare up-to-date, real-time SARS-CoV-2 cases and death measurements from public databases to air pollution data monitored across over 120 sites in different regions. We found that the levels of some markers of poor air quality, nitrogen oxides and ozone, are associated with COVID-19 lethality in different English regions. We conclude that the levels of some air pollutants are linked to COVID-19 cases and morbidity. We suggest that our study provides a useful framework to guide health policy in countries affected by this pandemic."
AUTHORS
Nuno Leal
Yizhou Yu
Rebeka Popovic
Marco Travaglio
L. Miguel Martins
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
5
Relationship between ambient air pollution and daily mortality of SARS in Beijing
"OBJECTIVETo study the relationship between ambient air pollution and daily mortality of SARS in Beijing.METHODSThe approach of time-series Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between daily SARS mortality, ambient air pollution, and other factors from April 25 to May 31, 2003 in Beijing.RESULTSAn increase of each 10 microg/m3 over a 5-day moving average of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to 1.06 (1.00-1.12), 0.74 (0.48-1.13) and 1.22 (1.01-1.48) relative risks (RRs) of daily SARS mortality, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) values depended largely on the selection of lag days.CONCLUSIONThe daily mortality of SARS might be associated with certain air pollutants in Beijing"
AUTHORS
Shun-zhang Yu
Chao-wei Fu
Bing-heng Chen
Haidong Kan
Li-na Mu
PUBLISHED
2005 in Biomedical and Environmental Sciences
Q2
Yes
Yes
6
Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study
"BackgroundSevere acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level.MethodsPublicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API) derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS.ResultsEcologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API). Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40). Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65). Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association.ConclusionOur studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation."
AUTHORS
John Froines
Shun-Zhang Yu
Zuo-Feng Zhang
Roger Detels
Jinkou Zhao
Yan Cui et al
PUBLISHED
2003 in Environmental Health
High quality source
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 26
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Does Air Pollution Influence COVID-19 Outbreaks?
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [...]"
AUTHORS
Francesca Costabile
Daniele Contini
PUBLISHED
2020 in Atmosphere

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Mutated COVID-19, May Foretells Mankind in a Great Risk in the Future
"Corona virus disease 2019 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a zoonotic virus causing a variety of severe of respiratory diseases. SARS-CoV-2 is closest to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in structure. The highly prevalence of COVID-19 is due to the lack onset of symptoms. Our study aimed to present an overview of the virus in terms of structure, epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. Conduct the differences of whole genome sequence and some viral proteins to determine the gap and the change alternation of nucleotides and amino acids sequences. We evaluate 11 complete genome sequence of different coronavirus using BAST and MAFFT software. We also selected 7 types of structural proteins. We were conclude that COVID-19 might be created new mutations specifically in glycoproteins hence requires caution and complete preparation by health authorities."
AUTHOR
Ali A. Dawood
PUBLISHED
2020 in New Microbes and New Infections

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Lactoferrin as potential preventative and treatment for COVID-19
"The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly advancing across the globe despite public and personal health measures. Antivirals and nutritional supplements have been proposed as potentially useful against SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19), but few have been clinically established. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that is orally available as a nutritional supplement and has established in vitro anti-viral efficacy against a wide range of virus including SARS-CoV, a closely related corona virus to SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19). Furthermore, Lf possesses unique immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that maybe especially relevant to the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 cases. We review the underlying biological mechanisms of Lf as antiviral and immune regulator, and propose its unique potential as preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. We hope that further research and development of Lf nutritional supplementation would establish its role for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei-Zen Sun
Raymond Chang
Tzi Bun Ng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Good in The Worst: COVID-19 Restrictions and Ease in Global Air Pollution
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known to cause 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a zoonotic coronavirus and crosses species to infect human populations, where an efficient transmission of virus occurs human-to-human. Nationwide lockdown is being adopted to stop public transport, keep people at their homes and out of their work, and maintain social distancing. In turn, large geographic areas in the world (including China, Italy, Spain, and USA) has been almost halted. This temporary halt is significantly slashing down the air pollution (air pollutants and warming gases) in most cities across the world. This paper: (i) introduces both COVID-19 and air pollution; (ii) overviews the relation of air pollution with respiratory/lung diseases; (iii) compiles and highlights major data appeared in media and journals reporting lowering of air pollution in major cities those have been highly impacted by the COVID-19; and also (iv) lists the way forward in the present context. Because COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic and currently far from over, strong conclusions could not be drawn with very limited data at present. The temporary slashed down global air pollution as a result of COVID-19 restrictions are expected to stimulate the researchers, policy makers and governments for the judicious use of resources; thereby minimise the global emissions, and maintain their economies once the pandemic eases. On the other, lifting of the nationwide lockdown and eventual normalisation of the temporarily halted sectors may also reverse the currently COVID-19 pandemic-led significantly slashed down global air pollution that could make the future respiratory health crisis grimmer."
AUTHOR
Naser A. Anjum
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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A vulnerability-based approach to human-mobility reduction for countering COVID-19 transmission in London while considering local air quality
"An ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between air pollution, and COVID-19 cases and fatality rates in London. The analysis demonstrated a strong correlation (R2>0.7) between increment in air pollution and an increase in the risk of COVID-19 transmission within London boroughs. Particularly, strong correlations (R2>0.72) between the risk of COVID-19 fatality and NO2 and PM2.5 pollution concentrations were also found. Although this study assumed the same level of air pollution across a particular London borough, it demonstrates the possibility to employ air pollution as an indicator to rapidly identify the vulnerable regions within a city. Such an approach can inform the decisions to suspend or reduce the operation of different public transport modes within a city. The methodology and learnings from the study can thus aid public transport to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak by adopting different levels of human-mobility reduction strategies based on the vulnerability of a given region."
AUTHORS
Ajith Kumar Parlikad
Manu Sasidharan
Ajit Singh
Mehran Eskandari Torbaghan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Association between short-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 infection: Evidence from China
FUNDERS
National Natural Science Foundation of China
"The novel coronavirus pneumonia, namely COVID-19, has become a global public health problem. Previous studies have found that air pollution is a risk factor for respiratory infection by carrying microorganisms and affecting body's immunity. This study aimed to explore the relationship between ambient air pollutants and the infection caused by the novel coronavirus. Daily confirmed cases, air pollution concentration and meteorological variables in 120 cities were obtained from January 23, 2020 to February 29, 2020 in China. We applied a generalized additive model to investigate the associations of six air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2 and O3) with COVID-19 confirmed cases. We observed significantly positive associations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 in the last two weeks with newly COVID-19 confirmed cases. A 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0–14) in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 was associated with a 2.24% (95% CI: 1.02 to 3.46), 1.76% (95% CI: 0.89 to 2.63), 6.94% (95% CI: 2.38 to 11.51), and 4.76% (95% CI: 1.99 to 7.52) increase in the daily counts of confirmed cases, respectively. However, a 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0–14) in SO2 was associated with a 7.79% decrease (95% CI: −14.57 to −1.01) in COVID-19 confirmed cases. Our results indicate that there is a significant relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 infection, which could partially explain the effect of national lockdown and provide implications for the control and prevention of this novel disease."
AUTHORS
Yongjian Zu
Fengming Huang
Jingui Xie
Liqing Cao
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science of the Total Environment

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The Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution Concentrations and Lockdowns on Covid-19 Infections in Wuhan and Other Provincial Capitals in China
"Background: Covid-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China in Dec 2019. Since then, it has been transmitted rapidly in China and the rest of the world. While Covid-19 transmission rate has been declining in China, it is increasing exponentially in Europe and America. Although there are numerous studies examining Covid-19 infection, including an archived paper looking into the meteorological effect, the role of outdoor air pollution has yet to be explored rigorously. It has been shown that air pollution will weaken the immune system, and increase the rate of respiratory virus infection. We postulate that outdoor air pollution concentrations will have a negative effect on Covid-19 infections in China, whilst lockdowns, characterized by strong social distancing and home isolation measures, will help to moderate such negative effect. Methods: We will collect the number of daily confirmed Covid-19 cases in 31 provincial capital cities in China during the period of 1 Dec 2019 to 20 Mar 2020 (from a popular Chinese online platform which aggregates all cases reported by the Chinese national/provincial health authorities). We will also collect daily air pollution and meteorology data at the city-level (from the Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center and the US National Climatic Data Center), daily inter-city migration flows and intra-city movements (from Baidu). City-level demographics including age distribution and gender, education, and median household income can be obtained from the statistical yearbooks. City-level co-morbidity indicators including rates of chronic disease and co-infection can be obtained from related research articles. A regression model is developed to model the relationship between the infection rate of Covid-19 (number of confirmed cases/population at the city level) and outdoor air pollution at the city level, after taking into account confounding factors such as meteorology, inter- and intra-city movements, demographics, and co-morbidity and co-infection rates. In particular, we shall study how air pollution affects infection rates across different cities, including Wuhan. Our model will also study air pollution would affect infection rates in Wuhan before and after the lockdown. Expected findings: We expect there be a correlation between Covid-19 infection rate and outdoor air pollution. We also expect that reduced intra-city movement after the lockdowns in Wuhan and the rest of China will play an important role in reducing the infection rate. Interpretation: Infection rate is growing exponentially in major cities worldwide. We expect Covid-19 infection rate is related to the air pollution concentration, and is strongly dependent on inter- and intra-city movements. To reduce the infection rate, the international community may deploy effective air pollution reduction plans and social distancing policies."
AUTHORS
Victor OK Li
Jacqueline CK Lam
Zafar Gilani
Andong Wang
Yang Han
Qi Zhang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Enhanced secondary pollution offset reduction of primary emissions during COVID-19 lockdown in China
"In order to control the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), China imposed nationwide restrictions on the movement of its population (lockdown) after the Chinese New Year in January of 2020, leading to large reductions in economic activities and associated emissions. However, despite such large decreases in primary pollution, there were nonetheless several periods of heavy haze pollution in East China during the COVID-19 lockdown, raising questions about the well-established relationship between human activities and air quality. Here, using comprehensive in situ measurements and chemical transport modeling, we show the haze events during the COVID lockdown were driven by enhancements of secondary pollution. In particular, large decreases in NOx emissions from transportation increased ozone and nighttime NO3 radical formation, and these increases in atmospheric oxidizing capacity in turn facilitated the formation of secondary inorganic and organic particulate matter. Our results, afforded by the tragic natural experiment of the COVID-19 pandemic, indicate that mitigation of Chinese haze pollution may depend upon a coordinated and balanced strategy for controlling multiple pollutants."
AUTHORS
Liangduo Chen
Kebin He
Chuanhua Ren
Derong Zhou
Steven J. Davis
Wei Nie et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Effects of temperature variation and humidity on the mortality of COVID-19 in Wuhan
"Object Meteorological parameters are the important factors influencing the infectious diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This study aims to explore the association between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) death and weather parameters. Methods In this study, we collected the daily death number of COVID-19, meteorological and air pollutant data from 20 January, 2020 to 29 February, 2020 in Wuhan, China. Then, the generalized additive model was applied to explore the impact of temperature, humidity and diurnal temperature range on daily mortality of COVID-19. Results There were in total 2299 COVID-19 mortality counts in Wuhan. A positive association with COVID-19 mortality was observed for diurnal temperature range (r = 0.44), but negative association for relative humidity (r = −0.32). In addition, each 1 unit increase in diurnal temperature range was only associated with a 2.92% (95% CI: 0.61%, 5.28%) increase in COVID-19 mortality at lag 3. However, both per 1 unit increase of temperature and absolute humidity were related to the decreased COVID-19 mortality at lag 3 and lag 5, respectively. Conclusion In summary, this study suggests the temperature variation and humidity may be important factors affecting the COVID-19 mortality."
AUTHORS
Ziaotao He
Yueling Ma
Bo Wang
Shihua Fu
Yadong Zhao
Jun Yan
PUBLISHED
2020 in medRxiv

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Two mechanisms for accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 outbreaks in regions with high intensity of population and polluting industrialization: the air pollution-to-human and human-to-human transmission dynamics
"What is COVID-19?
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is viral infection that generates a severe acute respiratory syndrome with serious pneumonia that may result in progressive respiratory failure and death.

What are the goals of this investigation?
This study explains the geo-environmental determinants of the accelerated diffusion of COVID-19 in Italy that is generating a high level of deaths and suggests general lessons learned for a strategy to cope with future epidemics similar to COVID-19 to reduce viral infectivity and negative impacts in economic systems and society.

What are the results of this study?
The main results are:
o The accelerate and vast diffusion of COVID-19 in North Italy has a high association with air pollution.
o Hinterland cities have average days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter) equal to 80 days, and an average number of infected more than 2,000 individuals as of April 1st, 2020, coastal cities have days of exceeding the limits set for PM10 equal to 60 days and have about 700 infected in average.
o Cities that average number of 125 days exceeding the limits set for PM10, last year, they have an average number of infected individual higher than 3,200 units, whereas cities having less than 100 days (average number of 48 days) exceeding the limits set for PM10, they have an average number of about 900 infected individuals.
o The results reveal that accelerated transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in specific environments is due to two mechanisms given by: air pollution-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission; in particular, the mechanisms of air pollution-to-human transmission play a critical role rather than human-to-human transmission.
o The finding here suggests that to minimize future epidemic similar to COVID-19, the max number of days per year in which cities can exceed the limits set for PM10 or for ozone, considering their meteorological condition, is less than 50 days. After this critical threshold, the analytical output here suggests that environmental inconsistencies because of the combination between air pollution and meteorological conditions (with high moisture%, low wind speed and fog) trigger a take-off of viral infectivity (accelerated epidemic diffusion) with damages for health of population, economy and society.

What is a socioeconomic strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to COVID-19?
Considering the complex interaction between air pollution, meteorological conditions and biological characteristics of viral infectivity, lessons learned for COVID-19 have to be applied for a proactive socioeconomic strategy to cope with future epidemics, especially an environmental policy based on reduction of air pollution mainly in hinterland zones of countries, having low wind speed, high percentage of moisture and fog that create an environment that can damage immune system of people and foster a fast transmission of viral infectivity similar to the COVID-19.

This study must conclude that a strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to COVID 19 has also to be designed in environmental and sustainability science and not only in terms of biology."
AUTHOR
MARIO COCCIA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). To date, no prophylactic vaccines or approved therapeutic agents are available for preventing and treating this highly transmittable disease. Here we report two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cloned from memory B cells of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, and both mAbs specifically bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, block the binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and effectively neutralize S protein-pseudotyped virus infection. These human mAbs hold the promise for the prevention and treatment of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Lilin Ye
Zhirong Li
Jianfang Tang
Xiangyu Chen
Zhaohui Qian
Yang Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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In search of feasible interventions for the prevention and cure of novel Coronavirus disease 2019
"COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical, phytopharmaceutical or traditional medicine for cure or prevention of COVID-19, although it is urgently needed. Based on the current understanding of the disease molecular mechanisms from the closest relatives of SARS-CoV-2 as well as novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, I attempt to translate this knowledge into identifying some naturally occurring plant based substances and Ayurvedic medicinal herbs that could feasibly be used as preventive as well as treatment options for COVID-19."
AUTHOR
Sunil Verma
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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The comparative superiority of IgM-IgG antibody test to real-time reverse transcriptase PCR detection for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis
"Background: As the increasing number of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients caused by the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused an outbreak initiated from Wuhan, China in December, 2019, the clinical features and treatment of COVID-19 patients have been understood. However, it is urgent to need the rapid and accurate detection for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the antibodies-based and nucleic acid-based tests (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.
Method: We retrospectively and observationally studied 133 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 and admitted in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, China, from Feb 17 to Mar 1, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, clinical examination, laboratory tests, and clinical outcomes were collected. Data were compared between IgM-IgG antibody test and real-time RT-PCR detection for COVID-19 patients.
Results: Of 133 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, there were 44 moderate cases, 52 severe cases, and 37 critical cases with no significant difference of gender and age among three subgroups. Overall, the positive ratio in IgM antibody test was higher than in RT-PCR detection. In RT-PCR detection, the positive ratio was 65.91%, 71.15%, and 67.57% in moderate, severe, and critical cases, respectively. Whereas, the positive ratio of IgM/IgG antibody detection in patients was 79.55%/93.18%, 82.69%/100%, and 72.97%/97.30% in moderate, severe, and critical cases, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of antibodies were also measured in three subgroups.
Conclusion: The IgM-IgG antibodies-based test exhibited a comparative superiority to the NAT for COVID-19 diagnosis, which provides an effective complement to the false negative results from NAT for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis."
AUTHORS
Zhen Luo
Dong Li
Muhammad Adnan Shereen
Huan Han
Kailang Wu
Rui Liu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19): Molecular Evolutionary Analysis, Global Burden and Possible Threat to Bangladesh
"Abstract

Recently a new coronavirus strain, COVID-19 has emerged in Wuhan City, China which cause disease and in many cases deaths to humans. Considering its severity a number of works are working on it and full genomic sequences has already released in the last few weeks to understand the evolutionary origin and molecular characteristics of this virus. Based on currently available genomic information a phylogenetic tree was constructed from four types of representative viral proteins (Spike, Membrane, Envelope and Nucleoproetin) of COVID-19, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63, HKU1, MERS-CoV, HKU4, HKU5 and BufCoV-HKU26 clearly demonstrated that the ancestral origin and distant evolutionary relation of newly epidemic novel coronavirus (COVID-19). It had been found that COVID-19 was evolutionary related to SARS-CoV. It was also found that COVID-19 proteins were almost more than ninety (90%) similar and identical with SARS-CoV proteins. The cross-checked conservancy analysis of COVID-19 antigenic epitopes showed significant conservancy with SARS-CoV proteins. VaxiJen server reveal almost 100% immunogenic potential of four viral proteins with COVID-19. In this article, we present an effort on molecular evolutionary analysis, temperature comparison and compile and analyze epidemiological outbreak information on the 2019 novel coronavirus based on the several open datasets on COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) and possible threat to Bangladesh.Authors Md Bashir Uddin and Mahmudul Hasan contributed equally to this work
"
AUTHORS
Syed Sayeem Uddin Ahmed
Md. Abdus Shukur Imran
Md. Irtija Ahsan
Mahmudul Hasan
Ahmed Harun-Al-Rashid
Md Bashir Uddin
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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An Update on SARS-COV-2/COVID-19 with Particular Reference on Its Clinical Pathology, Pathogenesis, Immunopathology and Mitigation Strategies – A Review
"Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in early December 2019 in China and attained a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to nearly 167 countries with 287.239 confirmed cases and 11.921 human deaths with a case fatality rate (CFR) of around 4 per cent. Bats were considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. Animals have anticipated culprit of SARS-CoV-2 as of now. The disease is mainly manifested by pneumonia and related respiratory signs and symptoms, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal system and nervous system is also suggested. The severe form of the disease associated with death is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with rampant inflammation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered as the leading killer of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients were reported with higher levels of many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines like IFN-g, IL-1b, IP-10, and MCP-1. Furthermore, severe cases of COVID-19 revealed higher levels of TNF-α, G-CSF, and MIP-1A. Blood profile of the COVID-19 patients exhibits lymphopenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and RNAaemia along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortalities unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. Rapid and confirmatory diagnostics have been developed, and high efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapeutic, internationally health care authorities are recommending adoption of effective prevention and control measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19 clinical pathology, pathogenesis and immunopathology along with a few recent research developments."
AUTHORS
Mamta Pathak
Shailesh Kumar Patel
Rajendra Singh
Kuldeep Dhama
Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Characteristics of Ocular Findings of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, China
"Importance: While the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in more than 100 000 infected individuals in China and worldwide, there are few reports on the association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with ocular abnormalities. Understanding ocular manifestations of patients with COVID-19 by ophthalmologists and others may facilitate the diagnosis and prevention of transmission of the disease.

Objective: To investigate ocular manifestations and viral prevalence in the conjunctiva of patients with COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this case series, patients with COVID-19 treated from February 9 to 15, 2020, at a hospital center in Hubei province, China, were retrospectively reviewed for ocular manifestations. During the period of treatment, the ocular signs and symptoms as well as results of blood tests and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs for SARS-CoV-2 were noted and analyzed.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Ocular signs and symptoms as well as results of blood tests and RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2.

Results: Of the 38 included patients with clinically confirmed COVID-19, 25 (65.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 65.8 (16.6) years. Among them, 28 patients (73.7%) had positive findings for COVID-19 on RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and of these, 2 patients (5.2%) yielded positive findings for SARS-CoV-2 in their conjunctival as well as nasopharyngeal specimens. A total of 12 of 38 patients (31.6%; 95% CI, 17.5-48.7) had ocular manifestations consistent with conjunctivitis, including conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, epiphora, or increased secretions. By univariate analysis, patients with ocular symptoms were more likely to have higher white blood cell and neutrophil counts and higher levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase than patients without ocular symptoms. In addition, 11 of 12 patients with ocular abnormalities (91.7%; 95% CI, 61.5-99.8) had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs. Of these, 2 (16.7%) had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR from both conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, one-third of patients with COVID-19 had ocular abnormalities, which frequently occurred in patients with more severe COVID-19. Although there is a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in tears, it is possible to transmit via the eyes.

"
AUTHORS
Xingguang Qu
Qiang Liu
Liang Liang
Fang Duan
Ping Wu
Kaili Wu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in JAMA Ophthalmology

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Assessing the Awareness of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Germany: A Google Trends Analysis (Preprint)
"
UNSTRUCTURED
On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization characterized the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) a pandemic. In this situation, evaluating a country’s awareness of a disease is crucial. Using online surveillance, we aimed to assess when and how the German population became aware about COVID-19.
We conducted a search on Google Trends from December 3, 2019 to March 20, 2020 using 5 keywords: Corona, Coronavirus, Corona symptome (corona symptoms), hände waschen (hand washing), gesichtsmaske (face mask). The data were collected for searches in Germany, and compared with the German COVID-19 incidence; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and a time-lag was used for analysis.
We found a strong correlation between online search trends and the incidence of COVID-19 in Germany for the following search terms: Corona (r>0.8), Coronavirus (r>0.8), hand washing (r>0.7) and Coronavirus symptoms (r>0.8). For these searches, online searches preceded the actual outbreak of COVID-19 from 1 to 6 days.
The increasing incidence of COVID-19 in Germany correlated with people searching about that disease and related terms online. Google Trends may be a low-cost tool for monitoring the awareness of the COVID-19 outbreak and other diseases in the future.
"
AUTHORS
Shan Ali
Ahmed Ali
Mohammed Alradhi
Emad Almohisin
Zahraa Al-Hakeem
Tomasz Szmuda et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in JMIR Publications Inc.

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Kebijakan Pemberlakuan Lock Down Sebagai Antisipasi Penyebaran Corona Virus Covid-19
"Abstract2020 is a worrying year for all countries, including Indonesia. This is due to the emergence of the Corona virus outbreak, which originated in Wuhan City of China, and spread throughout the world. Initially the government did not follow the method used by several other countries related to information provided about the corona covid-19 virus, namely by conducting a quick reaction of prevention socialization. The reason is so that the Indonesian people are not worried about issues that are worrying, other than to minimize the existence of Hoax news from a handful of irresponsible people. Finally the covid-19 outbreak also became a concern for the community, because many Indonesians were affected by the transmission of this virus. Therefore, the government took the initiative to take a lockdown policy for 14 days to anticipate the transmission of this corona outbreak. The study uses qualitative research methods with a literary and empirical approach. The data obtained comes from several regulations, such as the Governor of DKI Jakarta and several other regulations and policies, as well as phenomena that occur in the field. The results of the study stated that Indonesia had experienced a condition where the community's concern about Covid-19 was quite large, so that a government policy to lockdown was needed, as an effort to break the chain of the spread of the Corona Covid-19 virus.Keywords: Corona Virus, Lock Down, Government Policy AbstrakTahun 2020 merupakan tahun yang mengkhawatirkan seluruh negara, tanpa terkecuali negara Indonesia. Hal itu disebabkan munculkan wabah virus Corona, yang bermula dari Kota Wuhan China, dan menyebar ke seluruh penjuru dunia. Awalnya pemerintah tidak mengikuti cara yang digunakan oleh beberapa negara lainnya terkait informasi yang diberikan mengenai virus corona covid-19, yaitu dengan melakukan reaksi cepat sosialisasi pencegahan. Penyebabnya, agar masyarakat Indonesia  tidak khawatir dengan isu yang mengkhawatirkan, selain untuk meminimalisir adanya berita Hoax dari segelintir orang yang tidak bertanggung jawab. Akhirnya wabah covid-19 ini juga menjadi hal yang mengkhawatirkan bagi masyarakat, karena banyak warga Indonesia yang terkena dampak penularan virus ini. Oleh karenanya, pemerintah berinisiatif untuk mengambil kebijakan lockdown selama 14 hari guna mengantisipasi penularan wabah corona ini. Penelitian menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan literatur dan empiris. Data yang didapat berasal dari beberapa Peraturan, seperti Peraturan Gubernur DKI Jakarta dan beberapa peraturan dan kebijakan lainnya, serta fenomena yang terjadi di lapangan. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa Indonesia sudah mengalami kondisi dimana kekhawatiran masyarakat terhadap covid-19 cukup besar, sehingga diperlukan kebijakan pemerintah untuk melakukan Lockdown, sebagai upaya memutus mata rantai penyebaran virus corona Covid-19Kata kunci : Virus Corona, Lock Down, Kebijakan Pemerintah"
AUTHORS
Nur Rohim Yunus
Annissa Rezki
PUBLISHED
2020 in SALAM: Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Syar-i

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Urgent Prevention of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Chinese Eating and Mask-Wearing Cultures
"Chinese people have a very good mask-wearing culture; it is normal to wear masks to protect their faces from wind and pollution. Thus, they easily accept the wearing of masks to prevent infectious diseases, as seen with the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China today. However, Chinese people have a dangerous eating culture: they share foods or soups from the same bowls and pots using their personal chopsticks/spoons and emphasize loud talking when eating at banquets or at homes. We think this eating culture has raised the infection risk of COVID-19 from person to person by contamination. Therefore, in this paper, we propose models to elucidate how people are infected with COVID-19 through droplet transmission when eating with Chinese cultural context to address the urgent need to change Chinese eating culture; we believe these study models can help not only the Chinese people, but also other national people, to raise mindfulness of public health, prevent COVID-19 and other infectious diseases, at the present pandemic and in the future."
AUTHORS
Vivien Cheng
Changhua Zou
Yang Zou
Kang Cheng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Public Health International

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Ayurveda’s Holistic Lifestyle Approach for the Management of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Possible Role of Tulsi
"Coronavirus disease COVID-19 is caused by the recently discovered corona virus that can spread between animals and humans. The outbreak of the corona virus was begun in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The most common symptoms are fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some individuals also develop aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, or diarrhea. It was reported that traditional remedies may alleviate the symptoms of COVID-19. Ayurveda is the world's oldest medical system that can manage any disease without side effects. Ayurveda is equipped with varieties of treatment modalities to handle with any type of deadly diseases. However, a major drawback is a lack of adequate scientific basis. Tulsi has multi-modal therapeutic effects, we hypothesize that tulsi may be effective in the prevention and management of COVID-19. Though the existing literature supports the management of symptoms of COVID-19 using tulsi, a lack of standard formulation limits its use. This is the need of time to start with translational research to provide scientific evidence for the efficacy and to establish the standard formulation of tulsi in the management of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy Anita Choudhary Potey G G Hirok Chakraborty Arun HS Kumar
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy Anita Choudhary Potey G G Hirok Chakraborty
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy Anita Choudhary Potey G G
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy Anita Choudhary
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy
Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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A Mathematical Model of the Covid-19 Cases in Indonesia (Under and Without Lockdown Enforcement)
"COVID-19 stands for Corona (CO), Virus (VI), Disease (D) and year 2019 (19), which is COVID-19 first appeared in 2019. Mathematical model of covid deployment in Indonesia under and without lockdown case uses the SIRV model, such as Susceptible, Infected, Recovery, and Virus. The results of this model state that under lockdown the spread of COVID-19 could be stopped. If it were not under lockdown it can multiply 1,276 times higher over two months."
AUTHORS
Muchammad Abrori
Sugiyanto Sugiyanto
PUBLISHED
2020 in Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry

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Literature review
Konsep Tafakkur Dalam Alquran Dalam Menyikapi Coronavirus Covid-19
"Abstract:Tafakkur in Arabic is interpreted as an act of thinking to bridge the perceptions and conceptions of this world life to the afterlife, and from creatures to their Creator, namely Allah. Tafakkur goes beyond this life to a wider region, the hereafter, and transcends the superficiality of materialism to a deeper horizon, that is "spirit" which can motivate all external and internal activities of Muslims. According to Ibn Khaldun in the book Mukadimmah has a fairly broad understanding. Education is not only a teaching and learning process that is limited by four walls, but education is a process in which humans consciously capture, absorb, and experience natural events throughout the ages. This study aims to treat the epidemic of the Covid 19 virus corona with an Islamic Education perspective approach. This research is a qualitative research with a literature review approach. The results found that the tafakkur corona Covid 19 virus in the perspective of the Islamic religion produced findings through, namely; first, quarantine, namely isolating the area affected by the plague is an appropriate action; Second, be patient; Third, be kind and work hard; Fourth, pray a lot.Keywords: Tafakkur, Islamic Religious Education, Corona virus Covid 19 AbstrakTafakkur dalam bahasa Arab diartikan sebagai tindakan berpikir untuk menjembatani persepsi dan konsepsi dari kehidupan dunia ini ke kehidupan akhirat, dan dari makhluk ke Penciptanya, yaitu Allah Swt. Tafakkur melampaui hidup ini ke wilayah lebih luas, akhirat, dan melampaui kedangkalan materialisme menuju horizon lebih dalam, yaitu “ruh” yang dapat memotivasi seluruh aktivitas eksternal dan internal kaum muslim. Menurut Ibn Khaldun di dalam buku Mukadimmah mempunyai pengertian yang cukup luas. Pendidikan bukan hanya merupakan proses belajar mengajar yang dibatasi oleh empat dinding, tetapi pendidikan adalah suatu proses dimana manusia secara sadar menangkap, menyerap, dan menghayati peristiwa-peristiwa alam sepanjang zaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk men-tafakkuri wabah corona virus Covid 19 dengan pendekatan perspektif Pendidikan Islam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan literature review. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa tafakkur corona virus Covid 19 dalam perspektif Agama Islam menghasilkan temuan melalui, yaitu; pertama, karantina yaitu mengisolasi daerah yang terkena wabah adalah sebuah tindakan yang tepat; Kedua, bersabar; Ketiga, berbaik sangka dan berikhtiarlah; Keempat, banyak berdoalah.Kata Kunci: Tafakkur, Pendidikan Agama Islam, Coronavirus Covid 19"
AUTHOR
Indriya Indriya
PUBLISHED
2020 in SALAM: Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Syar-i

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Literature review
Konsep Tafakkur Dalam Alquran Dalam Menyikapi Coronavirus Covid-19
"Abstract:Tafakkur in Arabic is interpreted as an act of thinking to bridge the perceptions and conceptions of this world life to the afterlife, and from creatures to their Creator, namely Allah. Tafakkur goes beyond this life to a wider region, the hereafter, and transcends the superficiality of materialism to a deeper horizon, that is "spirit" which can motivate all external and internal activities of Muslims. According to Ibn Khaldun in the book Mukadimmah has a fairly broad understanding. Education is not only a teaching and learning process that is limited by four walls, but education is a process in which humans consciously capture, absorb, and experience natural events throughout the ages. This study aims to treat the epidemic of the Covid 19 virus corona with an Islamic Education perspective approach. This research is a qualitative research with a literature review approach. The results found that the tafakkur corona Covid 19 virus in the perspective of the Islamic religion produced findings through, namely; first, quarantine, namely isolating the area affected by the plague is an appropriate action; Second, be patient; Third, be kind and work hard; Fourth, pray a lot.Keywords: Tafakkur, Islamic Religious Education, Corona virus Covid 19 AbstrakTafakkur dalam bahasa Arab diartikan sebagai tindakan berpikir untuk menjembatani persepsi dan konsepsi dari kehidupan dunia ini ke kehidupan akhirat, dan dari makhluk ke Penciptanya, yaitu Allah Swt. Tafakkur melampaui hidup ini ke wilayah lebih luas, akhirat, dan melampaui kedangkalan materialisme menuju horizon lebih dalam, yaitu “ruh” yang dapat memotivasi seluruh aktivitas eksternal dan internal kaum muslim. Menurut Ibn Khaldun di dalam buku Mukadimmah mempunyai pengertian yang cukup luas. Pendidikan bukan hanya merupakan proses belajar mengajar yang dibatasi oleh empat dinding, tetapi pendidikan adalah suatu proses dimana manusia secara sadar menangkap, menyerap, dan menghayati peristiwa-peristiwa alam sepanjang zaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk men-tafakkuri wabah corona virus Covid 19 dengan pendekatan perspektif Pendidikan Islam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan literature review. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa tafakkur corona virus Covid 19 dalam perspektif Agama Islam menghasilkan temuan melalui, yaitu; pertama, karantina yaitu mengisolasi daerah yang terkena wabah adalah sebuah tindakan yang tepat; Kedua, bersabar; Ketiga, berbaik sangka dan berikhtiarlah; Keempat, banyak berdoalah.Kata Kunci: Tafakkur, Pendidikan Agama Islam, Coronavirus Covid 19"
AUTHOR
Indriya Indriya
PUBLISHED
2020 in SALAM: Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Syar-i

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No SARS-CoV-2 in expressed prostatic secretion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a descriptive multicentre study in China
"Abstract
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess whether SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) of patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods: 18 cases of COVID-19, and 5 suspected cases, were selected from three medical centers to detect the RNA expression of SARS-CoV-2 in their EPS with RT-PCR.
Results: Results were negative in all EPS samples for SARS-CoV-2 of suspected and confirmed patients.
Conclusions: No SARS-CoV-2 was expressed in EPS of patients with COVID-19."
AUTHORS
jinfei tian
qingyou zheng
weihe quan
yong zhao
haijia xu
hao chu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Coronavirus ORF1ab Polyprotein Associated Nsp16 Protein is a RlmE Methyltransferase and May Methylate 21S Mitochondrial rRNA of Most Mells Inhibiting Protein Synthesis
"Covid-19 infections are rapidly spreading worldwide with more than 100000 death and thus understanding the molecular mechanism of tropism of human cells is an urgent need for drug design. We have described here a bioinformatics approach to predict the functional aspects of non-structural nsp16 protein of Corona virus. The covid-19 7098 AA large polyprotein was degraded into sixteen proteins and last nsp16 protein was found an RlmE type rRNA methyltransferase. Nsp16 has no similarity to bacterial RlmABCD but has 25 percent similarity to the bacterial RlmE protein which methylates the U2551 2-hydroxy group of Ribose. The nsp16 proteins of different corona viruses like covid-19, bat-coronavirus, SARS and MERS have strong homology. Mrm2 and Dim1 like yeast and mammalian rRNA methyltransferases have 26-33 percent homologies but not with 2-O-capping MTase as reported previously. Rrp8 MTases also has no similarity to nsp16. We postulated that mitochondrial rRNA methylation of bronchial cells were mediated by the nsp16 protein causing inhibition of protein synthesis due to poor assembly of aminoacyl-tRNA or mRNA and peptidyl transferase at the PTC. This is one of the new molecular mechanism of corona virus cellular tropism and different than ACE-2 mediated blockage of cellular signalling to inhibit aldesterone biosynthesis with abnormal Na+ ions in cells. We also designed primers based on nsp16 cDNA sequence (nt 20659-21552, accession no MT121215) specific for Covid-19 diagnosis by RT-PCR."
AUTHOR
ASIT KUMAR CHAKRABORTY
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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SARS-CoV-2 / 2019-Novel Corona Virus: An Epidemic to Pandemic
"An unexpected outbreak of pneumonia of unfamiliar aetiology in Wuhan,Hubei, China was reported in December 2019. World Health Organization identified the pathogen and named it COVID-19. COVID-19 madethe world go through a cisis. The impact of this viral disease is now an issue of major concern. Respiratory infections, dry cough with fever are the major symptoms which are due to beta coronavirus, namely Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Within a short spell, COVID-19 spread all over China. Since January to today 24 March 2020 this epidemic turned into pandemic with continuous rise of cases and deaths. Italy, Germany, Spain, USA, Iran, France are the countries where the disease is spreading in a community level and rest of the countries over the globe the positive cases are also comingin.  As the disease is communicable, it is highly necessary to take measures before it starts spreading in countries like India where the population is very high. The treatment of this severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 is not clear so far. Prevention is the only way to stop spreading this fatal disease. In view of this, the total state of knowledge regarding COVID-19 and the suggestive prevention are discussed by considering countries (considering India) where the population is high and this pandemic has just started spreading. "
AUTHORS
Argha Sarkar Mayuri Kundu Padarthi Venkataramana Pinaki Chakraborty
Argha Sarkar Mayuri Kundu Padarthi Venkataramana
Argha Sarkar Mayuri Kundu
Argha Sarkar
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER