Does deporting undocumented immigrants reduce crime?

Submitted by: GFarahani 0

No.
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Chart summary of 3 studies examining this question

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do undocumented immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?
10 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

Does granting legal status to undocumented immigrants reduce their likelihood of committing crime?
5 studies
Submitted by: PSingh 0

Do legal immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?
44 studies
Submitted by: LWong 0

Do undocumented immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?
10 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

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What additional question do you want someone who searches for "does deporting undocumented immigrants reduce crime" to consider?

SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 3
Sorted by publication year
1
Immigration Enforcement, Policing, and Crime
"In 2008, the federal government introduced “Secure Communities,” a program that requires local law enforcement agencies to share arrestee information with federal immigration officials. We employed the staggered activation of Secure Communities to examine whether this program has an effect on crime or the behavior of local police. Supporters of the program argue that it enhances public safety by facilitating the removal of criminal aliens. Critics worry that it will encourage discriminatory policing. We found little evidence for the most ambitious promises of the program or for its critics’ greatest fears.\n \nAlthough a large body of evidence reports that municipal police can have an appreciable effect on crime, involving local police in federal immigration enforcement does not seem to offer measurable public safety benefits. Noncitizens removed through Secure Communities either would have been incapacitated even in the absence of the program or do not pose an identifiable risk to community safety."
AUTHORS
Charles Loeffler
Aaron Chalfin
Elina Treyger
PUBLISHED
2014 in Criminology & Public Policy
High quality source
No
No
2
Does Immigration Enforcement Reduce Crime? Evidence from “Secure Communities"
"Does immigration enforcement actually reduce crime? Surprisingly,little evidence exists either way—despite the fact that deporting noncitizens who commitcrimes has been a central feature of American immigration law since the early twentiethcentury. We capitalize on a natural policy experiment to address the question and, in theprocess, provide the first empirical analysis of the most important deportation initiative tobe rolled out in decades. \n\nThe policy initiative we study is “Secure Communities,” aprogram designed to enable the federal government to check the immigration status ofevery person arrested for a crime by local police. Before this program, the governmentchecked the immigration status of only a small fraction of arrestees. Since its launch, theprogram has led to over a quarter of a million detentions. We exploit the slow rollout ofthe program across more than 3,000 U.S. counties to obtain differences-in-differencesestimates of the impact of Secure Communities on local crime rates. We also use richdata on the number of immigrants detained under the program in each county andmonth—data obtained from the federal government through extensive FOIA requests—toestimate the elasticity of crime with respect to incapacitated immigrants. \n\nOur results show that Secure Communities led to no meaningful reductions in the FBI index crimerate. Nor has it reduced rates of violent crime—homicide, rape, robbery, or aggravatedassault. This evidence shows that the program has not served its central objective ofmaking communities safer."
AUTHORS
Adam B. Cox
Thomas J. Miles
PUBLISHED
2014 in Journal of Law & Economics
UNRANKED SOURCE
No
No
3
Addition by Subtraction? A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Deportation Efforts on Violent Crime
"Contemporary criminological research on immigration has focused largely on one aspect of the immigration process, namely, the impact of in-migration (i.e., presence or arrival) of foreign-born individuals on crime. A related but understudied aspect of the immigration process is the impact that the removal of certain segments of the foreign-born population, and specifically undocumented or deportable aliens, has on aggregate levels of criminal violence. \n\nIn an effort to cast new light on the association between forced out-flows of immigrants and crime, we begin with descriptive analyses of patterns of deportation activity across the continental United States over an eleven-year period (1994–2004). We then examine the relationship between deportation activity and violent crime rates in a multilevel framework wherein Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) are situated within border patrol sectors. \n\nThe results of dynamic regression modeling indicate that changing levels of deportation activity are unrelated to changing levels of criminal violence for the sample of MSAs for the national at large. However, we also detect significant interactions by geographic location for selected violent offenses. For MSAs within sectors along the Mexican border, the deportation measure exhibits a significant negative effect on one indicator of criminal violence—the aggravated assault rate. For MSAs within non-border sectors, the effect of the deportation measures is significantly positive for the violence crime index and the aggravated assault rate. \n\nOverall, our analyses indicate that the relationship between deportation and criminal violence is complex and dependent on local context."
AUTHORS
Lawrence E. Raffalovich
Michael S. Barton
Stephen F. Messner
Jacob I. Stowell
PUBLISHED
2013 in Law and Society Review
High quality source
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 12
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Does deporting undocumented immigrants reduce crime?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

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Highly regarded source
The Immigration-Crime Nexus and Post-Deportation Experiences: En/Countering Stereotypes in Southern California and El Salvador
"This article reviews research findings on immigration and crime in Southern California, and deportation and crime in El Salvador. We focus on the experiences of young adult children of immigrants, mainly Mexicans, Salvadorans and Guatemalans who together account for two-thirds or more of the undocumented immigrant population in the U.S.; and on men, including former gang members, who have been deported to El Salvador on criminal and non-criminal charges.

\n\nThe evidence rebuts popular myths that immigrants and deportees are more prone to criminal behavior than natives and citizens. Nationally, rates of incarceration among immigrant men are much lower than among their U.S.-born counterparts. Like crime generally, the problem of gangs in the U.S. is primarily one that involves the U.S. born, who as citizens are not deportable; and despite the aim of public policies to remove problematic “criminal” and “illegal” beings, deportation is not the end of the cycle of migration."
AUTHORS
Rubén G. Rumbaut
Katie Dingeman
PUBLISHED
2010 in University of La Verne Law Review

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Governing Immigration Through Crime
"In the United States, immigration is generally seen as a law and order issue. Amidst increasing anti-immigrant sentiment, unauthorized migrants have been cast as lawbreakers. Governing Immigration Through Crime offers a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the use of crime and punishment to manage undocumented immigrants. Presenting key readings and cutting-edge scholarship, this volume examines a range of contemporary criminalizing practices: restrictive immigration laws, enhanced border policing, workplace audits, detention and deportation, and increased policing of immigration at the state and local level. Of equal importance, the readings highlight how migrants have managed to actively resist these punitive practices. In bringing together critical theorists of immigration to understand how the current political landscape propagates the view of the "illegal alien" as a threat to social order, this text encourages students and general readers alike to think seriously about the place of undocumented immigrants in American society."
AUTHORS
Jonathan Inda
Julie Dowling
PUBLISHED
2013 in Stanford Social Sciences

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Governing Immigration Through Crime
"In the United States, immigration is generally seen as a law and order issue. Amidst increasing anti-immigrant sentiment, unauthorized migrants have been cast as lawbreakers. Governing Immigration Through Crime offers a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the use of crime and punishment to manage undocumented immigrants. Presenting key readings and cutting-edge scholarship, this volume examines a range of contemporary criminalizing practices: restrictive immigration laws, enhanced border policing, workplace audits, detention and deportation, and increased policing of immigration at the state and local level. Of equal importance, the readings highlight how migrants have managed to actively resist these punitive practices. In bringing together critical theorists of immigration to understand how the current political landscape propagates the view of the "illegal alien" as a threat to social order, this text encourages students and general readers alike to think seriously about the place of undocumented immigrants in American society."
AUTHORS
Jonathan Xavier Inda
Julie A. Dowling
PUBLISHED
2013 in Stanford University Press

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Highly regarded source
Do Apprehensions of Undocumented Immigrants Reduce Crime and Create Jobs: Evidence from U.S. Districts, 2000-2015
"We analyze whether the intensity of immigration enforcement,
measured as apprehensions of undocumented immigrants1 per thousand
people, affects local crime rates and the local labor market opportunities
of native workers.2 Using data across seventeen U.S. Immigration and
Customs Enforcement (“ICE”) districts over the period 2000-2015, we
take advantage of a sudden surge in the apprehension rate from 2007-
2011, followed by a decline in 2012-2015. The magnitude of the increase
in apprehensions varied significantly across districts, depending on the
intensity of local enforcement, and on the size of the local undocumented
population. We use the variation created by this surge in difference-indifferences analysis. We do not find any evidence that more apprehensions
in a district reduced crime rates, nor do we find evidence that
apprehensions improved employment and wages for less educated natives.
These findings do not support the rhetoric that deportations remove
criminals and/or make more jobs available to natives."
AUTHORS
Annie Laurie Hines
Giovanni Peri
PUBLISHED
2018 in University of California Davis Law Review

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Does Undocumented Immigration Increase Violent Crime?
"Despite substantial public, political, and scholarly attention to the issue of immigration and crime, we know little about the criminological consequences of undocumented immigration. As a result, fundamental questions about whether undocumented immigration increases violent crime remain unanswered. In an attempt to address this gap, we combine newly developed estimates of the unauthorized population with multiple data sources to capture the criminal, socioeconomic, and demographic context of all 50 states and Washington, DC, from 1990 to 2014 to provide the first longitudinal analysis of the macro‐level relationship between undocumented immigration and violence. The results from fixed‐effects regression models reveal that undocumented immigration does not increase violence. Rather, the relationship between undocumented immigration and violent crime is generally negative, although not significant in all specifications. Using supplemental models of victimization data and instrumental variable methods, we find little evidence that these results are due to decreased reporting or selective migration to avoid crime. We consider the theoretical and policy implications of these findings against the backdrop of the dramatic increase in immigration enforcement in recent decades."
AUTHORS
TY MILLER
MICHAEL T. LIGHT
PUBLISHED
2018 in Criminology

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Acculturative Stress Among Documented and Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States.
"The purpose of the study was to examine differences between documented and undocumented Latino immigrants in the prevalence of three immigration-related challenges (separation from family, traditionality, and language difficulties), which were made more severe after the passage of restrictive immigration legislation in 1996. Specifically, the study sought to determine the combined and unique associations of legal status, the three immigration-related challenges listed above, and fear of deportation to acculturative stress related to family and other social contexts. Participants in the study consisted of 416 documented and undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants living in two major cities in Texas. The Hispanic Stress Inventory-Immigrant form was used to assess acculturative stress in the sample. Results indicated that although undocumented immigrants reported higher levels of the immigration challenges of separation from family, traditionality, and language difficulties than documented immigrants, both groups reported similar levels of fear of deportation. Results also indicated that the immigration challenges and undocumented status were uniquely associated with extrafamilial acculturative stress but not with intrafamilial acculturative stress. Only fear of deportation emerged as a unique predictor of both extrafamililal and intrafamilial acculturative stress."
AUTHORS
Nestor Rodriguez
Margit Wiesner
Jacqueline Hagan
Adriana Linares
Norma Olvera
Consuelo Arbona
PUBLISHED
2010 in Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences

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The land of the free: Undocumented families in the juvenile justice system.
"Approximately 8 million Latinos in the United States are undocumented immigrants, nearly half of whom are parents to a minor. Concerns over deportation may affect the way families with undocumented members perceive legal authorities relative to documented immigrant families. Yet, there have been few studies on how Latinos (documented or undocumented) interact with, and form attitudes about, police and no studies on adjudicated youth from families with an undocumented member. To address this gap, 155 pairs (N = 310) of Latina immigrant mothers and their first-time offending sons were interviewed. More than half of the mothers, and 12.3% of youth, were undocumented residents. Controlling for key contextual factors, youth whose mothers were undocumented held more negative attitudes toward the police than youth whose mothers were documented. Youth, however, did not perceive judges differently based on mother's documentation status, suggesting that documentation status relates to police specifically rather than justice system attitudes broadly. The same pattern was noted when considering youth's own documentation status. Because negative attitudes toward police have been associated with decreased reports of victimization and other crimes, policy related to undocumented immigration should consider the unintended effects of such laws. (PsycINFO Database Record "
AUTHORS
Elizabeth Cauffman
Caitlin Cavanagh
PUBLISHED
2015 in Law and Human Behavior

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DOES UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRATION INCREASE VIOLENT CRIME?
"Despite substantial public, political, and scholarly attention to the issue of immigration and crime, we know little about the criminological consequences of undocumented immigration. As a result, fundamental questions about whether undocumented immigration increases violent crime remain unanswered. In an attempt to address this gap, we combine newly developed estimates of the unauthorized population with multiple data sources to capture the criminal, socioeconomic, and demographic context of all 50 states and Washington, DC, from 1990 to 2014 to provide the first longitudinal analysis of the macro-level relationship between undocumented immigration and violence. The results from fixed-effects regression models reveal that undocumented immigration does not increase violence. Rather, the relationship between undocumented immigration and violent crime is generally negative, although not significant in all specifications. Using supplemental models of victimization data and instrumental variable methods, we find little evidence that these results are due to decreased reporting or selective migration to avoid crime. We consider the theoretical and policy implications of these findings against the backdrop of the dramatic increase in immigration enforcement in recent decades."
AUTHORS
T Y Miller
Michael T Light
PUBLISHED
2017 in Criminology : an interdisciplinary journal

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The Distress of Citizen-Children with Detained and Deported Parents.
"In immigration enforcement, many undocumented immigrants with children are often detained and deported. But it is their US-born citizen-children that have been overlooked in immigration debates and enforcement policies and practices. Citizen-children are at risk for negative psychological outcomes when families are fractured and destabilized by arrest, detention, and deportation. The children risk being torn from their parents and, often, their undocumented siblings. To add to the small but growing empirical base on the effects of living under the threat of deportation and actual deportation of parents, we compared the psychological status of three groups of citizen-children: (1) a group living in Mexico with their deported parents; (2) a group in the US with parents affected by detention or deportation; and (3) a comparison group of citizen-children whose undocumented parents were not affected by detention or deportation. We compared children on self-report and parent-report measures of behavioral adjustment, depression, anxiety, and self-concept. Across the three groups we found elevated levels of distress, and differences between children who had experienced a parent's detention or deportation and those who had not. We discuss findings in the context of children's clinical needs, future research, and implications for immigration enforcement policy and practices."
AUTHORS
Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola
Luis H Zayas
Hyunwoo Yoon
Guillermina Natera Rey
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Child and Family Studies

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Undocumented Immigrants, U.S. Citizens, and Convicted Criminals in Arizona
"Using newly released detailed data on all prisoners who entered the Arizona state prison from January 1985 through June 2017, we are able to separate non-U.S. citizens by whether they are illegal or legal residents. Unlike other studies, these data do not rely on self-reporting of criminal backgrounds. Undocumented immigrants are at least 142% more likely to be convicted of a crime than other Arizonans. They also tend to commit more serious crimes and serve 10.5% longer sentences, more likely to be classified as dangerous, and 45% more likely to be gang members than U.S. citizens. Yet, there are several reasons that these numbers are likely to underestimate the share of crime committed by undocumented immigrants. There are dramatic differences between in the criminal histories of convicts who are U.S. citizens and undocumented immigrants.

Young convicts are especially likely to be undocumented immigrants. While undocumented immigrants from 15 to 35 years of age make up slightly over two percent of the Arizona population, they make up about eight percent of the prison population. Even after adjusting for the fact that young people commit crime at higher rates, young undocumented immigrants commit crime at twice the rate of young U.S. citizens. These undocumented immigrants also tend to commit more serious crimes.

If undocumented immigrants committed crime nationally as they do in Arizona, in 2016 they would have been responsible for over 1,000 more murders, 5,200 rapes, 8,900 robberies, 25,300 aggravated assaults, and 26,900 burglaries."
PUBLISHED

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The Criminalization of Immigration in the United States
"This report tackles the criminalization of immigration from two angles. First, it documents
the fact that immigration is not associated with “crime” as it is commonly understood.
For more than two decades, rates of violent crime and property crime have fallen in the
United States as the immigrant population (including the unauthorized population) has
grown. Moreover, immigrants are less likely than the native-born to be behind bars or to
engage in typically “criminal behaviors.”

\n\nSecond, the report describes the ways in which
U.S. immigration laws and policies are re-defining the notion of “criminal” as it applies
to immigrants, while also ramping up the enforcement programs designed to find anyone
who might be deportable. More and more, a zero-tolerance policy has been applied by
the federal government to immigrants who commit even the slightest offense or infraction.
“Crimes” which might result in a fine or a suspended sentence for natives end up getting
immigrants detained and deported. This represents a double standard of justice for immigrants
in which the scale of the punishment (detention and deportation) far outweighs
the severity of the crime (traffic offenses, for example)."
AUTHORS
R.G. Ewing, W.A., Martínez, D.E., Rumbaut
Rubén G. Rumbaut
Daniel E. Martínez
Walter A. Ewing
PUBLISHED
2015 in American Immigration Council

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Undocumented Immigrants, U.S. Citizens, and Convicted Criminals in Arizona
NGO FUNDING
This organization does not disclose its donors
"Using newly released detailed data on all prisoners who entered the Arizona state prison from January 1985 through June 2017, we are able to separate non-U.S. citizens by whether they are illegal or legal residents. Unlike other studies, these data do not rely on self-reporting of criminal backgrounds. Undocumented immigrants are at least 142% more likely to be convicted of a crime than other Arizonans. They also tend to commit more serious crimes and serve 10.5% longer sentences, more likely to be classified as dangerous, and 45% more likely to be gang members than U.S. citizens. Yet, there are several reasons that these numbers are likely to underestimate the share of crime committed by undocumented immigrants. There are dramatic differences between in the criminal histories of convicts who are U.S. citizens and undocumented immigrants.

Young convicts are especially likely to be undocumented immigrants. While undocumented immigrants from 15 to 35 years of age make up slightly over two percent of the Arizona population, they make up about eight percent of the prison population. Even after adjusting for the fact that young people commit crime at higher rates, young undocumented immigrants commit crime at twice the rate of young U.S. citizens. These undocumented immigrants also tend to commit more serious crimes.

If undocumented immigrants committed crime nationally as they do in Arizona, in 2016 they would have been responsible for over 1,000 more murders, 5,200 rapes, 8,900 robberies, 25,300 aggravated assaults, and 26,900 burglaries."
AUTHOR
John R. Lott
PUBLISHED
2018 by Crime Prevention Research Center (NGO)

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do undocumented immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?
10 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

Does granting legal status to undocumented immigrants reduce their likelihood of committing crime?
5 studies
Submitted by: PSingh 0

Do legal immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?
44 studies
Submitted by: LWong 0

Do undocumented immigrants commit more crime than native-born Americans?
10 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "does deporting undocumented immigrants reduce crime" to consider?