Does wearing a surgical mask reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19 from you to other people?

Submitted by: NAfflec 142

Yes. While the bulk of the studies in this list for which we identified answers agrees with this conclusion, some studies came to different conclusions. We encourage you to consider each of the studies for yourself to understand why they differ. Note that some studies in this list give us reason to question their conclusions. This may be because they were published in sources that are not peer-reviewed, are low ranked or not ranked at all, which may indicate limited editorial oversight. Carefully review the individual study summaries below for more information.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 11 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 11 studies examining this question
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All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

All labels of Literature Reviews and source quality are assigned by State of K. For academic journals, the label "Q[NUMBER]" is an indication of the quality of the publication. The "NUMBER" refer to the best quartile in which the journal appeared among all the subjects in which the journal was ranked by Scimago Institutions Rankings. For example, if a journal was ranked in the third quartile (Q3) in infectious diseases, but in the second quartile in Ebola studies (Q2), you would see "Q2". The best quartile is "Q1". Publications other than academic journals may be labeled as "Highly Regarded Sources". Government sources receive this label as do NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labeled "highly regarded" or "Q1" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label, but these are rough guides to source quality.

Literature Reviews
Although we recommend you consider all of the studies below, we believe the following studies are literature reviews, which survey and evaluate many studies on this question:
Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Are cloth masks as effective as surgical masks at reducing the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
6 studies
Submitted by: MChoi 148

Can you contract COVID-19 twice?
5 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 117

Do adults get sick from COVID-19 more often than children?
10 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Do cloth masks reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
10 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 117

Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?
7 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?
6 studies
Submitted by: KKrista 83

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 11
Sorted by publication year
1
Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
"BackgroundSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 and is spread person-to-person through close contact. We aimed to investigate the effects of physical distance, face masks, and eye protection on virus transmission in health-care and non-health-care (eg, community) settings.MethodsWe did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the optimum distance for avoiding person-to-person virus transmission and to assess the use of face masks and eye protection to prevent transmission of viruses. We obtained data for SARS-CoV-2 and the betacoronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Middle East respiratory syndrome from 21 standard WHO-specific and COVID-19-specific sources. We searched these data sources from database inception to May 3, 2020, with no restriction by language, for comparative studies and for contextual factors of acceptability, feasibility, resource use, and equity. We screened records, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in duplicate. We did frequentist and Bayesian meta-analyses and random-effects meta-regressions. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane methods and the GRADE approach. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020177047.FindingsOur search identified 172 observational studies across 16 countries and six continents, with no randomised controlled trials and 44 relevant comparative studies in health-care and non-health-care settings (n=25 697 patients). Transmission of viruses was lower with physical distancing of 1 m or more, compared with a distance of less than 1 m (n=10 736, pooled adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·18, 95% CI 0·09 to 0·38; risk difference [RD] −10·2%, 95% CI −11·5 to −7·5; moderate certainty); protection was increased as distance was lengthened (change in relative risk [RR] 2·02 per m; pinteraction=0·041; moderate certainty). Face mask use could result in a large reduction in risk of infection (n=2647; aOR 0·15, 95% CI 0·07 to 0·34, RD −14·3%, −15·9 to −10·7; low certainty), with stronger associations with N95 or similar respirators compared with disposable surgical masks or similar (eg, reusable 12–16-layer cotton masks; pinteraction=0·090; posterior probability >95%, low certainty). Eye protection also was associated with less infection (n=3713; aOR 0·22, 95% CI 0·12 to 0·39, RD −10·6%, 95% CI −12·5 to −7·7; low certainty). Unadjusted studies and subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed similar findings.InterpretationThe findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis support physical distancing of 1 m or more and provide quantitative estimates for models and contact tracing to inform policy. Optimum use of face masks, respirators, and eye protection in public and health-care settings should be informed by these findings and contextual factors. Robust randomised trials are needed to better inform the evidence for these interventions, but this systematic appraisal of currently best available evidence migh"
AUTHORS
Sally Yaacoub
Karla Solo
Stephanie Duda
Elie A Akl
Derek K Chu
Chen Chen et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in The Lancet
High quality source
Literature Review
Yes
Yes
2
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of medical masks and N95 respirators for protection against respiratory infectious diseases, including COVID-19 in medical staff
"Abstract To evaluate the efficacy of N95 respirators and medical masks for protection against respiratory infectious diseases, including COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies evaluating the use of N95 respirators and medical masks for protection against respiratory infectious diseases. We retrieved relevant articles published from January 1994 to January 2020 by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases. The study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool with RevMan 5.3 software. Eleven RCTs adjusted for clustering were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, N95 respirators or medical masks conferred significant protection against respiratory infectious diseases (odds ratio (OR) = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.29–0.84). Compared to medical masks, N95 respirators conferred significant protection against respiratory infectious diseases (OR = 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57–0.99). Meta-analysis of 10 observational studies adjusting for clustering also suggested that N95 respirators and medical masks are effective for protection against respiratory infectious diseases (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42–0.82). However, only one case report showed the effectiveness of medical masks for preventing COVID-19. Although medical masks and N95 respirators may confer significant protection against respiratory infectious diseases, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these types of personal protective equipment offer similar protection against COVID-19. Therefore, in the absence of sufficient resources during an epidemic, medical masks and N95 respirators should be reserved for high-risk, aerosol-generating producing procedures."
AUTHORS
MB Huan Yuan Shi Zhu
MB Huan Yuan Shi
MB Huan Yuan
MB Ping Jiang
MM Gao-hong Wu
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square
UNRANKED SOURCE
Literature Review
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
3
Association of country-wide coronavirus mortality with demographics, testing, lockdowns, and public wearing of masks.
"Background. Wide variation between countries has been noted in per-capita mortality from the disease (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Determinants of this variation are not fully understood.Methods. Potential predictors of country-wide per-capita coronavirus-related mortality were studied, including age, sex ratio, temperature, urbanization, viral testing, smoking, duration of infection, lockdowns, and public mask-wearing norms and policies. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed. Results. In univariate (but not multivariable) analyses, prevalence of smoking, per-capita gross domestic product, and colder average country temperature were positively associated with coronavirus-related mortality. In a multivariable analysis of 183 countries, urbanization, the duration of the infection in the country, and percent of the population at least 60 years of age were all positively associated with per-capita mortality, while duration of mask-wearing by the public was negatively associated with mortality (all p<0.001). In countries with cultural norms or government policies supporting public mask-wearing, per-capita coronavirus mortality increased on average by just 5.4% each week, as compared with 48% each week in remaining countries. In the multivariable analysis, lockdowns tended to be associated with less mortality (p=0.31), and per-capita testing with higher reported mortality (p=0.26), though neither association was statistically significant. Conclusions. Societal norms and government policies supporting the wearing of masks by the public are independently associated with less mortality from COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Andrzej Grzybowski
Craig A. McKeown
Matthew C. Hogan
Joseph D. Lykins V
Edsel B Ing
Christopher T Leffler
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
4
Community Use Of Face Masks And COVID-19: Evidence From A Natural Experiment Of State Mandates In The US
"State policies mandating public or community use of face masks or covers in mitigating novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread are hotly contested. This study provides evidence from a natural experiment on effects of state government mandates in the US for face mask use in public issued by 15 states plus DC between April 8 and May 15. The research design is an event study examining changes in the daily county-level COVID-19 growth rates between March 31, 2020 and May 22, 2020. Mandating face mask use in public is associated with a decline in the daily COVID-19 growth rate by 0.9, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0 percentage-points in 1–5, 6–10, 11–15, 16–20, and 21+ days after signing, respectively. Estimates suggest as many as 230,000–450,000 COVID-19 cases possibly averted By May 22, 2020 by these mandates. The findings suggest that requiring face mask use in public might help in mitigating COVID-19 spread. [Editor’s Note: This Fast Track Ahead Of Print article is the accepted version of the peer-reviewed manuscript. The final edited version will appear in an upcoming issue of Health Affairs.]"
AUTHORS
George L. Wehby
Wei Lyu
PUBLISHED
2020 in Health Affairs
High quality source
Yes
Yes
5
To mask or not to mask: Modeling the potential for face mask use by the general public to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic
"Face mask use by the general public for limiting the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is controversial, though increasingly recommended, and the potential of this intervention is not well understood. We develop a compartmental model for assessing the community-wide impact of mask use by the general, asymptomatic public, a portion of which may be asymptomatically infectious. Model simulations, using data relevant to COVID-19 dynamics in the US states of New York and Washington, suggest that broad adoption of even relatively ineffective face masks may meaningfully reduce community transmission of COVID-19 and decrease peak hospitalizations and deaths. Moreover, mask use decreases the effective transmission rate in nearly linear proportion to the product of mask effectiveness (as a fraction of potentially infectious contacts blocked) and coverage rate (as a fraction of the general population), while the impact on epidemiologic outcomes (death, hospitalizations) is highly nonlinear, indicating masks could synergize with other non-pharmaceutical measures. Notably, masks are found to be useful with respect to both preventing illness in healthy persons and preventing asymptomatic transmission. Hypothetical mask adoption scenarios, for Washington and New York state, suggest that immediate near universal (80%) adoption of moderately (50%) effective masks could prevent on the order of 17--45% of projected deaths over two months in New York, while decreasing the peak daily death rate by 34--58%, absent other changes in epidemic dynamics. Even very weak masks (20% effective) can still be useful if the underlying transmission rate is relatively low or decreasing: In Washington, where baseline transmission is much less intense, 80% adoption of such masks could reduce mortality by 24--65% (and peak deaths 15--69%), compared to 2--9% mortality reduction in New York (peak death reduction 9--18%). Our results suggest use of face masks by the general public is potentially of high value in curtailing community transmission and the burden of the pandemic. The community-wide benefits are likely to be greatest when face masks are used in conjunction with other non-pharmaceutical practices (such as social-distancing), and when adoption is nearly universal (nation-wide) and compliance is high."
AUTHORS
Abba B. Gumel
Eric Kostelich
Keenan Eikenberry
Enahoro Iboi
Marina Mancuso
Steffen E. Eikenberry et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
6
Data-driven estimation of change points reveal correlation between face mask use and accelerated curtailing of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy
"Italy was the first Western country to be seriously affected by COVID-19, and the first to implement drastic measures, which have successfully curtailed the epidemic. To understand which contain measures effected disease dynamics, we estimate change points in COVID-19 dynamics by fitting a compartmental model to official Italian data. Our results indicate that lockdowns managed to cause the epidemic to peak in late March 2020. Surprisingly, we found a change point during the decay from the peak, which does not correspond to obvious drastic legal interventions, but may be explained by widespread promotion and mandatory use of face masks. We confirm these interpretations at regional levels, and find that the gradual reopening of society since early May has caused no change in disease dynamics. We speculate that widespread use of face masks and other protective means has contributed substantially to keeping the number of new Italian COVID-19 cases under control in spite of society turning towards a new normality."
AUTHORS
Matteo Meneghini
Morten Gram Pedersen
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
7
Quantitative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Public Health Measures on COVID-19 Transmission
"Although COVID-19 has spread almost all over the world, social isolation is still a controversial public health policy and governments of many countries still doubt its level of effectiveness. This situation can create deadlocks in places where there is a discrepancy among municipal, state and federal policies. The exponential increase of the number of infectious people and deaths in the last days shows that the COVID-19 epidemics is still at its early stage in Brazil and such political disarray can lead to very serious results. In this work, we study the COVID-19 epidemics in Brazilian cities using early-time approximations of the SIR model in networks. Different from other works, the underlying network is constructed by feeding real-world data on local COVID-19 cases reported by Brazilian cities to a regularized vector autoregressive model, which estimates directional COVID-19 transmission channels (links) of every pair of cities (vertices) using spectral network analysis. Our results reveal that social isolation and, especially, the use of masks can effectively reduce the transmission rate of COVID-19 in Brazil. We also build counterfactual scenarios to measure the human impact of these public health measures in terms of reducing the number of COVID-19 cases at the epidemics peak. We find that the efficiency of social isolation and of using of masks differs significantly across cities. For instance, we find that they would potentially decrease the COVID-19 epidemics peak in Sao Paulo (SP) and Brasilia(DF) by 15% and 25%, respectively. We hope our study can support the design of further public health measures."
AUTHORS
Leandro Anghinoni
Thiago Christiano Silva
Liang Zhao
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
8
Face Masks Considerably Reduce Covid-19 Cases in Germany
"We use the synthetic control method to analyze the effect of face masks on the spread of Covid-19 in Germany. Our identification approach exploits regional variation in the point in time when face masks became compulsory. Depending on the region we analyse, we find that face masks reduced the cumulative number of registered Covid-19 cases between 2.3% and 13% over a period of 10 days after they became compulsory. Assessing the credibility of the various estimates, we conclude that face masks reduce the daily growth rate of reported infections by around 40%."
AUTHORS
Timo Mitze
Klaus Wälde
Johannes Rode
Reinhold Kosfeld
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
9
Concerns around public health recommendations on face mask use among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 supported by a systematic review search for evidence.
"Abstract BackgroundContradicting and inconsistent public health recommendations regarding face mask use have been provided to individuals who are not yet medically diagnosed with COVID-19, which is significantly a large population. Face masks are being used by individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 as a means to limit the spread of COVID-19 in several countries around the world. While some countries recommend the use of face masks, other countries strictly do not recommend their use to limit the transmission of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19. This paper critically analyses public health recommendations provided to this population regarding face mask use by public health and health professionals of different countries supported by a systematic review that searched for evidence on face mask use among this specific population in limiting the spread of COVID-19.MethodsTo carry out the systematic review portion of this paper, databases Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. Two groups of keywords were combined: those relating to face masks and COVID-19.ResultsThe systematic review search did not find any studies that investigated the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 to support current public health recommendations.ConclusionsThe finding of the systematic review search, which is a lack of scientific evidence, questions the basis of inconsistent public health recommendations that have been provided to the public at a very early yet a crucial stage of an outbreak. A closer attention need to be given to the procedures and practices behind providing public health guidelines and recommendations during an outbreak by public health and health professionals around the world. This paper calls for 1) evidence-based public health recommendations; 2) considerations when providing public health recommendations in the absence of evidence; 3) evidence and knowledge transparency on current public health recommendations; 4) global alignment on public health recommendations; and 5) further research to strengthen public health recommendations."
AUTHOR
Keshini Madara Marasinghe
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square
UNRANKED SOURCE
Literature Review
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
10
Face mask wearing rate predicts country's COVID-19 death rates
"Identification of biomedical and socioeconomic predictors for the number of deaths by COVID-19 among countries will lead to the development of effective intervention. While previous multiple regression studies have identified several predictors, little is known for the effect of mask non-wearing rate on the number of COVID-19-related deaths possibly because the data is available for limited number of countries, which constricts the application of traditional multiple regression approach to screen a large number of potential predictors. In this study, we used the hypothesis-driven regression to test the effect of limited number of predictors based on the hypothesis that the mask non-wearing rate can predict the number of deaths to a large extent together with age and BMI, other relatively independent risk factors for hospitalized patients of COVID-19. The mask non-wearing rate, percentage of age ≥ 80 (male), and male BMI showed Spearman's correlations up to about 0.8, 0.7, and 0.6 with the number of deaths per million from 22 countries from mid-March to mid-June, respectively. The observed number of deaths per million were significantly correlated with the numbers predicted by the lasso regression model including four predictors, age ≥ 80 (male), male BMI, and mask non-wearing rates from mid-March and late April to early May (Pearson's coefficient = 0.918). The multiple linear regression models including the mask non-wearing rates, age, and obesity-related predictors explained up to 79% variation of the number of deaths per million. Furthermore, 56.8% of the variation of mask non-wearing rate in mid-March, the strongest predictor of the number of deaths per million, was predicted by age ≥ 80 (male) and male BMI, suggesting the confounding role of these predictors. Although further verification is needed to identify causes of the national differences in COVID-19 mortality rates, these results highlight the importance of the mask, age, and BMI in predicting the COVID-19-related deaths, providing a useful strategy for future regression analyses that attempt to contribute to the mechanistic understanding of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Gen Kaneko
Daisuke Miyazawa
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes
11
Associations between wearing masks, washing hands, and social distancing practices, and risk of COVID-19 infection in public: a cohort-based case-control study in Thailand
"Objective. To investigate whether wearing masks, washing hands and social distancing practices are associated with lower risk of COVID-19 infection.Design. A retrospective cohort-based case-control study. All participants were retrospectively interviewed by phone about their preventive measures against COVID-19 infection.Setting. Thailand, using the data from contact tracing of COVID-19 patients associated with nightclub, boxing stadium and state enterprise office clusters from the Surveillance Rapid Response Team, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health. Contacts were tested for COVID-19 using PCR assays per national contact tracing guidelines. Participants. A cohort of 1,050 asymptomatic contacts of COVID-19 patients between 1 and 31 March 2020. Main outcome measures. Diagnosis of COVID-19 by 21 April 2020. Odds ratios for COVID-19 infection and population attributable fraction were calculated.Exposure. The study team retrospectively asked about wearing masks, washing hands, and social distancing practices during the contact period through telephone interviews. Results. Overall, 211 (20%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 by 21 Apr 2020 (case group) while 839 (80%) were not (control group). Fourteen percent of cases (29/210) and 24% of controls (198/823) reported wearing either non-medical or medical masks all the time during the contact period. Wearing masks all the time (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.23; 95%CI 0.09-0.60) was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 infections compared to not wearing masks, while wearing masks sometimes (aOR 0.87; 95%CI 0.41-1.84) was not. Shortest distance of contact >1 meter (aOR 0.15; 95%CI 0.04-0.63), duration of close contact ≤15 minutes (aOR 0.24; 95%CI 0.07-0.90) and washing hands often (aOR 0.33; 95%CI 0.13-0.87) were significantly associated with lower risk of infection. Sharing a cigarette (aOR 3.47; 95%CI 1.09-11.02) was associated with higher risk of infection. Type of mask was not independently associated with risk of infection. Those who wore masks all the time were more likely to wash hands and practice social distancing. We estimated that if everyone wore a mask all the time, washed hands often, did not share a dish, cup or cigarette, had shortest distance of contact >1 meter and had duration of close contact ≤15 minutes, cases would have been reduced by 84%. Conclusions. Our findings support consistently wearing non-medical masks, washing hands, and social distancing in public to prevent COVID-19 infections."
AUTHORS
Panita Kumphon
Pitiphon Promduangsi
Patchanee Plernprom
Oiythip Yasopa
Nuengruethai Srisong
Nichakul Pisitpayat et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 28
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Does wearing a surgical mask reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19 from you to other people?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Risk compensation during COVID-19: The impact of face mask usage on social distancing.
"To reduce the spread of Covid-19, governments around the world recommended or required minimum physical distancing between individuals, as well as either mandating or recommending the use of face coverings (masks) in certain circumstances. When multiple risk reduction activities can be adopted, people may engage in risk compensation. They may respond to reduced risk due to one activity by increasing risk due to another. We tested for risk compensation related to mask usage during the Covid-19 pandemic in two online experiments that investigated whether either wearing a mask or seeing others wearing masks reduced physical distancing. We presented participants with stylized images of everyday scenarios involving themselves with or without a mask and a stranger with or without a mask. For each scenario, participants indicated the minimum distance they would keep from the stranger. Consistent with risk compensation, we found that participants indicated they would stand, sit or walk closer to the stranger when either of them was wearing a mask. This form of risk compensation was stronger for those who believed masks were effective at preventing catching or spreading Covid-19, and for younger (18-40 years) compared to older (over 65 years) participants."
AUTHORS
Daniel Read
Nattavudh Powdthavee
Ivo Vlaev
Graham Loomes
Andrea Isoni
Hossam Zeitoun et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

Add to List
Face Masks Against COVID-19: An Evidence Review
"The science around the use of masks by the general public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. Policymakers need guidance on how masks should be used by the general population to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. In this narrative review, we develop an analytical framework to examine mask usage, considering and synthesizing the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: population impact; transmission characteristics; source control; PPE; sociological considerations; and implementation considerations. A primary route of transmission of COVID-19 is via respiratory droplets, and is known to be transmissible from presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Reducing disease spread requires two things: first, limit contacts of infected individuals via physical distancing and other measures, and second, reduce the transmission probability per contact. The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces the transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected droplets in both laboratory and clinical contexts. Public mask wearing is most effective at reducing spread of the virus when compliance is high. The decreased transmissibility could substantially reduce the death toll and economic impact while the cost of the intervention is low. Given the current shortages of medical masks we recommend the adoption of public cloth mask wearing, as an effective form of source control, in conjunction with existing hygiene, distancing, and contact tracing strategies. Because many respiratory droplets become smaller due to evaporation, we recommend increasing focus on a previously overlooked aspect of mask usage: mask-wearing by infectious people ("source control") with benefits at the population-level, rather than mask-wearing by susceptible people, such as health-care workers, with focus on individual outcomes. We recommend that public officials and governments strongly encourage the use of widespread face masks in public, including the use of appropriate regulation."
AUTHORS
Christina E. Bax
Gregory L. Watson
Viola Tang
Lei-Han Tang
Lex Fridman
Amy Price et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Urgent Prevention of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Chinese Eating and Mask-Wearing Cultures
"Chinese people have a very good mask-wearing culture; it is normal to wear masks to protect their faces from wind and pollution. Thus, they easily accept the wearing of masks to prevent infectious diseases, as seen with the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China today. However, Chinese people have a dangerous eating culture: they share foods or soups from the same bowls and pots using their personal chopsticks/spoons and emphasize loud talking when eating at banquets or at homes. We think this eating culture has raised the infection risk of COVID-19 from person to person by contamination. Therefore, in this paper, we propose models to elucidate how people are infected with COVID-19 through droplet transmission when eating with Chinese cultural context to address the urgent need to change Chinese eating culture; we believe these study models can help not only the Chinese people, but also other national people, to raise mindfulness of public health, prevent COVID-19 and other infectious diseases, at the present pandemic and in the future."
AUTHORS
Vivien Cheng
Changhua Zou
Yang Zou
Kang Cheng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Public Health International

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Face Masks Against COVID-19: An Evidence Review
"The science around the use of masks by the general public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. Policymakers need guidance on how masks should be used by the general population to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we synthesize the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: 1) transmission characteristics of COVID-19, 2) filtering characteristics and efficacy of masks, 3) estimated population impacts of widespread community mask use, and 4) sociological considerations for policies concerning mask-wearing. A primary route of transmission of COVID-19 is likely via small respiratory droplets, and is known to be transmissible from presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Reducing disease spread requires two things: first, limit contacts of infected individuals via physical distancing and contact tracing with appropriate quarantine, and second, reduce the transmission probability per contact by wearing masks in public, among other measures. The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces the transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected droplets in both laboratory and clinical contexts. Public mask wearing is most effective at stopping spread of the virus when compliance is high. The decreased transmissibility could substantially reduce the death toll and economic impact while the cost of the intervention is low. Thus we recommend the adoption of public cloth mask wearing, as an effective form of source control, in conjunction with existing hygiene, distancing, and contact tracing strategies. We recommend that public officials and governments strongly encourage the use of widespread face masks in public, including the use of appropriate regulation."
AUTHORS
Viola Tang
Li-Han Tang
Arne von Delft
Helene-Mari van der Westhuizen
Zeynep Tufekci
Anne W. Rimoin et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Use of mask in COVID-19 era: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence
"World Health Organization (WHO) in its interim guidance of 6 April 2020 advises policy makers on the use of masks for healthy people in community settings. The rationale for mask use by healthy person is prevention from COVID-19, when there is risk of exposure, like working in close contact with public, people with comorbidities, where physical distancing cannot be maintained such as travelling in buses, staying in slum areas. Furthermore, WHO says the purpose and reason for mask use should be clear– whether it is to be used for source control (used by infected persons) or prevention of COVID-19 (used by healthy persons).1
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) United States of America (USA) updated its advisory on 4 Apr 2020, and recommended everyone (except some) should wear at least a cloth face covering when they have to go out in public. It will protect other people in case you are infected.2,3 This advisory of no strict demand on use of face masks could be possibly due to unavailability of disposable masks."
AUTHORS
Rano Mal Piryani
Jay Narayan Shah
Suneel Piryani
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences

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Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Healthcare Providers about Using Face Mask to Limit the Spread of the Novel Coronavirus Disease
"Aim: There is evidence that health care providers have insufficient knowledge and poor practices regarding the use of surgical mask. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the knowledge, practices and attitude of healthcare providers about using face mask in order to limit the spreading of the novel coronavirus disease.
Methodology: This was a cross sectional pilot study included a questionnaire about the knowledge of health care workers regarding the use of surgical face mask to prevent the new COVID-19 spreading and about their practices and the attitude of them regarding the use of surgical face mask to limit the new COVID-19 exposure.
Results: About 86.21% of health care workers said that the correct way of using surgical face mask is White side facing in and about 65.52% of them said that N-95 mask is the mask type that actually protect against COVID-19. All of the respondents reported that they wear a mask in public places to protect themselves against COVID-19 and that they wear a mask in hospital premises to protect themselves against COVID-19 (100.00%).
Conclusion: The Knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care providers regarding the use of surgical face masks were found to be good but still more knowledge is required about several aspects such as the types of masks, the duration of using masks and the disposal of the masks."
AUTHORS
Nehad J. Ahmed
Rana E. Alonazi
Abeer A. Alzahrani
Omar S. Alanazi
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International

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Teach, and teach and teach: does the average citizen use masks correctly during daily activities? Results from an observational study with more than 12,000 participants
"COVID-19 is a new disease with no treatment and no vaccine so far. The pandemic is still growing in many areas. Among the core measures to prevent disease spread is the use of face masks. We observed 12,588 people in five Brazilian cities within the Baixada Santista metropolitan area. Even though this is densely populated region and heavily impacted by COVID-19 with a high risk population, only 45.1% of the observed population wore in face masks in a correct way, and another 15.5% simply did not use masks at all. The remainder used masks incorrectly, which is evidence of the worst scenario of people believing that they are protected when they are not. This is among the first studies, to the best of our knowledge, that measures real life compliance with face masks during this COVID-19 pandemic. It is our conclusion that it is paramount to first control the virus before allowing people back in the streets. We should not assume that people will wear masks properly. Equally important is to instruct and sensitize people on how to use face masks and why it is important."
AUTHORS
Ana Paola Ceraldi Cameira
Dongmin Park
Fatima Maria Bernardes Henriques Amaral
Evaldo Stanislau Affonso de Araújo
Sheila J Henderson
Evelyn Gutierrez Karl et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Face Masks Against COVID-19: An Evidence Review
"The science around the use of masks by the general public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. Policymakers need guidance on how masks should be used by the general population to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Here,we develop an analytical framework to examine an overlooked aspect of mask usage: masks as source-control targeting egress from the wearer with benefits at the population-level, rather than as PPE used for ingress control for health-care workers with focus on individual outcomes. We consider and synthesize the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: 1) transmission characteristics of COVID-19, 2) filtering characteristics and efficacy of masks, 3) estimated population impacts of widespread community mask use, and 4) sociological considerations for policies concerning mask-wearing. A primary route of transmission of COVID-19 is likely via respiratory droplets, and is known to be transmissible from presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Reducing disease spread requires two things: first, limit contacts of infected individuals via physical distancing and other measures, and second, reduce the transmission probability per contact. The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces the transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected droplets in both laboratory and clinical contexts. Public mask wearing is most effective at reducing spread of the virus when compliance is high. The decreased transmissibility could substantially reduce the death toll and economic impact while the cost of the intervention is low. Given the current shortages of medical masks we recommend the adoption of public cloth mask wearing, as an effective form of source control for now, in conjunction with existing hygiene, distancing, and contact tracing strategies. We recommend that public officials and governments strongly encourage the use of widespread face masks in public, including the use of appropriate regulation."
AUTHORS
Larry F. Chu
Danny Hernandez
Frederik Questier
Reshama Shaikh
Christina E. Bax
Gregory L. Watson et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Voluntary adoption of social welfare-enhancing behavior: Mask-wearing in Spain during the COVID-19 outbreak
"As the COVID-19 spreads worldwide, countries increasingly recommend wearing facemasks in public. However, its uptake remains far from universal in countries where this practice lacks cultural roots. In this paper, we identify the barriers to mask-wearing in Spain, a country with no mask-wearing culture. We conduct one of the first nationally representative surveys (n = 4,000) about the COVID-19, and uncover the associations of mask-wearing behavior with: a) demographics; b) disease-related anxiety and risk perceptions; c) personality traits; d) social acceptability of mask-wearing. Our results can serve policymakers to design programs for improving compliance. Governments should target efforts to the introverted and the highly educated, as well as advertising mask-wearing as an injunctive norm to encourage their citizens, particularly the elderly, to wear facemasks."
AUTHORS
Greg Sheen
Joan Barceló
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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The wearing of face masks in African countries under the COVID-19 crisis: luxury or necessity?
FUNDERS
African Academy of Sciences
"The unforeseeable global crisis of the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused almost all affected countries to adopt a range of protective measures as recommended by the World Health Organization. However, the speed, type and level of adoption of these protective measures have been remarkably different. Social distancing and quarantine were the main measures adopted in addition to observing basic hygiene. Based on the available evidences, WHO continues to recommend wearing of face masks for healthcare workers and for those people caring for COVID-19 patients. However, some countries and organisations have recommended, and some have even made it mandatory, for their citizens to wear face masks. Particularly in low- and middle-income countries, protecting by wearing face masks is viewed as an affordable yet proactive preventive measure to avoid and slow down viral spread based on the experience of other affected countries. However, the wearing of face masks is controversial due to shortages in their stocks and uncertainty around the quality of masks, as well as their efficiency as a protective mechanism. Masks should be used based on appropriate use and management guidelines. This paper discusses the wearing of face masks from the perspective of low- and middle-income countries, particularly in Africa; and then makes some recommendations that will greatly inform policy makers on epidemic mitigation strategies throughout the African continent."
AUTHORS
Caroline Ngugi
Damaris Matoke-Muhia
Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe
Kingsley Badu
Lahcen El Youssfi
Zohra Aloui-Zarrouk et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in AAS Open Research

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Literature review
COVID-19 around the world and the Chinese strategy to cope with SARS-CoV-2
"SARS-CoV-2, a zoonotic virus, emerged in China causes Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Senior citizens and people with co-infections, genetic diseases, immune-compromised states, and cardiovascular diseases are at higher risk. There is no approved vaccine or drug available to treat COVID-19, although a few antivirals, interferon, and other drugs have reduced viral load in infected patients. However, these drugs have not been significantly effective in European countries. More than 40 different strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been detected in various parts of the world; they might have adapted themselves to the environmental conditions and have become resistant to therapeutic strategies. Many developed and developing countries are facing shortages of surgical masks and other protection tools. So far, the strategies developed by Chinese authorities have efficiently mitigated the SARS-CoV-2 transmission and limited mortality rate to less than 4%, with more than 78,000 people recovered from COVID-19. This review article highlights the pandemic conditions in different parts of the world, as well as possible reasons behind minimal COVID-19 infections and the high mortality rates. It will discuss information about China’s strategies to cope with SARS-CoV-2 which can help other countries to mitigate viral spread and infection."
AUTHORS
Kainat Saif
Abeer Kazmi
Nadia Bashir
Suliman Khan
Hafiz Ullah
Muhammad Adnan Shereen et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Biomedical Research and Therapy

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Physiological and clinical aspects in COVID-19
"There is a new public health crises threatening globally with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel corona virus (COVID-19) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In very recent decade we have seen endemic outbreaks in the form of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Now we again see the emergence of another serious outbreak due to a new strain called the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This SARS-CoV-2 initially presented as pneumonia of unknown etiology with group of symptoms including fever, dry cough and shortness of breath in a cluster of patients in December 2019 Wuhan, China. COVID-19 now has quickly became a health emergency now across worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging human infectious corona virus that causes COVID-19, now this has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March, 2020. Because of the pathogenesis and proliferation pathways of COVID-19 are still unknown the development of vaccine was not developed yet and definitive treatment was not implemented. Therefore, in this article, new potential COVID-19 therapies are briefly reviewed. The world is in emergent need for searching of possible medications for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
S. Jayachandra
J. Sorout
R. Kodidala Satyanath
S. Kacker
A. Gandhi
PUBLISHED
2020 in RUDN Journal of Medicine

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A short review on the development of novel face masks during COVID-19 pandemic
"COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a challenging situation for the entire world. This paper has covered outbreak of SARS and MERS coronavirus in the past, their effect on communities and preventive guideline by WHO, CDC and governments agencies. This paper also includes comparison of SARS CoV-2 which is driving current pandemic with SARS CoV and MERS CoV. The effect of COVID-19 pandemics across the globe are also highlighted in this paper. A review on various preventive measures and their impact on controlling a pandemics has been discussed. During a pandemic, face masks plays a key role in controlling the spread of virus from one person to another. The effect of wearing mask on the decrease in number of cases during the pandemic has been quantified. A comparative study of effectiveness of different masks has also been covered in this paper. Various novel face masks that have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic has also been discussed in the current manuscript."
AUTHORS
Ashish Karn
Gaurav Mittal
Kumar Gaurav
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Front-line Healthcare Workers in COVID-19: The Way from Elbow-Bump Greeting to Closing Body Bags
"COVID-19 is a serious coronavirus disease that is spreading all over the world. As of the date of this publication, 2.834.134 people have been infected with COVID-19 and 197.924 deaths have been recorded in 185 countries (John Hopkins Corona Resource Center, 25th April 2020) [1]. This overwhelming mortality rate requires intensive research activities around the world. To date, the number of deaths per day in the United States is still killing, indicating an uncontrollable state of infection spread. SARS-CoV-2 binds to the angiotensin II receptor in various tissues of the human body, particularly in the oral cavity and tongue. SARS-CoV-2 requires the cheerful TMPRSS2 to activate this inertia. SARS-CoV-2 uses the ACE2 receptor as a gateway to the lungs. The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds with the spike protein to the ACE2 receptor. COVID-19 is more common among African Americans in the USA (Science 10th April 2020). The comfort and the emotional loading capacity of the employees in the health service are key components for the maintenance of the essential health services during the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus (Coronavirus) [2,3]. Hence, it will be important to anticipate the charges linked with this work and to release support for employees in the health service. The supervision and assessment of the psychic health and the well-being of the employees in the health service will be important, just as the efforts to guarantee a successful reunion with colleagues if they are infected."
AUTHOR
Stefan Bittmann
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Regenerative Biology and Medicine

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COVID-19: A promising cure for the global panic
FUNDERS
Science and Engineering Research Board , Research England , The Advanced Level State Biotech Hub , Expanding Excellence in England
"The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. The outbreak of COVID-19 is wreaking havoc worldwide due to inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation. The COVID-19 pandemic has entered a dangerous new phase. When compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due to increased globalization and adaptation of the virus in every environment. Slowing the spread of the COVID-19 cases will significantly reduce the strain on the healthcare system of the country by limiting the number of people who are severely sick by COVID-19 and need hospital care. Hence, the recent outburst of COVID-19 highlights an urgent need for therapeutics targeting SARS-CoV-2. Here, we have discussed the structure of virus; varying symptoms among COVID-19, SARS, MERS and common flu; the probable mechanism behind the infection and its immune response. Further, the current treatment options, drugs available, ongoing trials and recent diagnostics for COVID-19 have been discussed. We suggest traditional Indian medicinal plants as possible novel therapeutic approaches, exclusively targeting SARS-CoV-2 and its pathways."
AUTHORS
Mohana Devi Subramaniam
Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman
Kamarajan Rajagopalan
Harsha Ganesan
Ssang-Goo Cho
Dhivya Venkatesan et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Science of the Total Environment

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COVID-19: A Global Pandemic of 21st Century
"In last of 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention started monitoring the outbreak of a new corona virus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes the respiratory illness now known as COVID-19. Authorities first identified the virus in Wuhan, China. More than 82542 case of Corona virus in China at 31 March 2020. Health authorities have identified many other people with COVID-19 around the world. On 31 March 2020, the virus spread more than 750890 People in the World. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared a public health emergency relating to COVID-19. Since then, this strain has been diagnosed in several residents of world. The CDC have advised that it is likely to spread to more people. COVID-19 has affected at least 213 countries or territories or areas. The first people with COVID-19 had links to an animal and seafood market. This fact suggested that animals initially transmitted the virus to humans. However, people with a more recent diagnosis had no connections with or exposure to the market, confirming that humans can pass the virus to each other. Corona viruses will infect most people at some time during their lifetime. Corona viruses can mutate effectively, which makes them so contagious. Information on the virus is scarce at present. In the past, respiratory conditions that develop from corona viruses, such as SARS and MERS, have spread through close contacts. On 17 February 2020, the Director-General of the WHO presented at a media briefing the following updates on how often the symptoms of COVID-19.However, while some viruses are highly contagious, it is less clear how rapidly corona viruses will spread. Symptoms vary from person-to-person with COVID-19. It may produce few or no symptoms. However, it can also lead to severe illness and may be fatal. On 11 March 2020, WHO declared Novel Corona virus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak as a Pandemic.
Keywords: WHO, ICMR, SARS-CoV-2, Bats, Wuhan City, Pneumonia, Respiratory Infection, Pandemic"
AUTHORS
Hemant Sharma
C.K. Tyagi
Sana Sahil
Deepshikha Gunwan
Abdul Wajid Ali
Prabhakar Budholiya
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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How Efficient Can Non-Professional Masks Suppress COVID-19 Pandemic?
"The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which can be transmitted via respiratory secretions. Since there are currently no specific therapeutics or vaccines available against the SARS-CoV-2, the commen nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are still the main measures to curb the COVID-19 epidemic. Face mask wearing is one important measure to suppress the pandemic. In order to know how efficient is face mask wearing in reducing the pandemic even with low efficiency non-professional face masks, we exploit physical abstraction to model the non-professional face masks made from cotton woven fabrics and characterize them by a parameter virus penetration rate (VPR)γ. Monte Carlo simulations exhibit that the effective reproduction number R of COVID-19 or similar pandemics can be approximately reduced by factor γ4 with respect to the basic reproduction number R0,if the face masks with 70% <γ< 90% are universally applied for the entire network. Furthermore, thought experiments and practical exploitation examples in country-level and city-level are enumerated and discussed to support our discovery in this study and indicate that the outbreak of a COVID-19 like pandemic can be even suppressed by the low efficiency non-professional face masks."
AUTHORS
Meng Dong
Yejian Chen
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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THE FACTS ABOUT CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): THE CURRENT SCENARIO AND IMPORTANT LESSONS
"This paper discusses the important review about the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and main facts about it. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristic of Patients With COVID-19:The Wuhan city in China, faced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, with extreme acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being the causative agent. The clinical characteristics and the epidemiological criteria for COVID-19 patients were described. Still, the risk factors for mortality and a clear course of the disease clinically, including viral shedding, have not been identified. Corona Virus and its Types: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family which infect animals as well as humans. The name "coronavirus" was developed in 1968, which stemmed from the morphology similar to "corona" or crown-like. The Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV), Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV). Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub-genera or lineages. COVID-19 Strategic Prevention on different levels: In dealing with COVID-19 challenge, most countries are practicing a mix of inclusion and stopping crowds hoping to delay an increased number of affected individuals and minimizing the need for hospital facilities, as well as securing those at higher risk from being infected, especially old age population and people with long-standing illness"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Global Journal of Public Health Medicine

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Application of Optimal Control to Long Term Dynamics of COVID-19 Disease in South Africa
"SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) belongs to the beta-coronavirus family, these include; the severe acute respiratory
syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since
its resurgence in South Africa in March 2020, it has lead to high mortality and thousands of people contracting
the virus. In this study, we use a set of five differential equations to analyse the effects on long term dynamics of COVID-19 pandemic with optimal control measures. Mathematical analyses of the model without control were done and the basic reproduction number (R0) of the COVID-19 for the South African epidemic determined. The model steady states were also determined, and their analyses presented based on R0: We introduced permissible control measures and formulated an optimal control problem using the Pontraygain Maximum Principle. Our numerical findings suggest that joint implementation of effective mask usage, physical distancing and active
screening and testing are effective measures to curtail the spread of the disease on undiagnosed humans. The
results obtained in this paper are of public health importance in the control and management of the spread for the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in South Africa."
AUTHORS
Princess Gatyeni
fatmawati fatmawati
Faraimunashe Chirove
Williams Chukwu
Farai Nyabadza
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Literature review
A systematic review investigating the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among medically not diagnosed individuals: shedding light on current recommendations provided to individuals not medically diagnosed with COVID-19
"Abstract

BackgroundFace masks are being used by individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 as a means to limit the spread of COVID-19 in several countries around the world. While some countries recommend the use of face masks, other countries do not recommend their use to limit the transmission of COVID-19 among this specific population. Because of contradicting recommendations provided by health authorities of different countries, this paper aims to investigate the availability of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 through a systematic review search. This paper will further discuss concerns around current recommendations provided to those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 regarding face mask use in the context of available evidence.MethodsTo carry out the systematic review on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, databases Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. Two groups of keywords were combined: those relating to face masks and COVID-19.ResultsThe systematic review search did not find any studies that investigated the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of this specific virus, COVID-19 among this specific population, those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19.ConclusionsIn light of the finding of this systematic review search, which is a lack of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face masks in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, the significance of this finding is highlighted and extensively discussed in this paper. This paper calls for, but does not limit to; 1) evidence-based recommendations; 2) considerations when providing recommendations in the absence of evidence; 3) evidence and knowledge transparency on current recommendations with the public; 4) global alignment on recommendations; and 5) further research.
"
AUTHOR
Keshini Madara Marasinghe
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Literature review
A systematic review investigating the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among medically not diagnosed individuals: shedding light on current recommendations provided to individuals not medically diagnosed with COVID-19
"Abstract

BackgroundFace masks are being used by individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 as a means to limit the spread of COVID-19 in several countries around the world. While some countries recommend the use of face masks, other countries do not recommend their use to limit the transmission of COVID-19 among this specific population. Because of contradicting recommendations provided by health authorities of different countries, this paper aims to investigate the availability of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 through a systematic review search. This paper will further discuss concerns around current recommendations provided to those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 regarding face mask use in the context of available evidence.MethodsTo carry out the systematic review on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, databases Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. Two groups of keywords were combined: those relating to face masks and COVID-19.ResultsThe systematic review search did not find any studies that investigated the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of this specific virus, COVID-19 among this specific population, those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19.ConclusionsIn light of the finding of this systematic review search, which is a lack of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face masks in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, the significance of this finding is highlighted and extensively discussed in this paper. This paper calls for, but does not limit to; 1) evidence-based recommendations; 2) considerations when providing recommendations in the absence of evidence; 3) evidence and knowledge transparency on current recommendations with the public; 4) global alignment on recommendations; and 5) further research.
"
AUTHOR
Keshini Madara Marasinghe
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Masks and COVID-19
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.banm.2020.05.002
PUBLISHED
2020 in Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine

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Literature review
Face mask use among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19: A lack of evidence for and against and implications around public health recommendations.
"Abstract
IntroductionSince the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, public health professionals have been constantly making decisions on face mask use among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 or “healthy individuals” to limit the spread of COVID-19. While some countries have strongly recommended face masks for “healthy individuals”, other countries have recommended against it. Public health recommendations that have been provided to this population since the beginning of the outbreak have been controversial, contradicting, and inconsistent around the world. The purpose of this paper is to understand available evidence around the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who have not yet been diagnosed with COVID-19 and most importantly, to understand the state of knowledge that the public health recommendations that have been provided since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak are based on.MethodsA systematic review was conducted to identify studies that investigated the use of face masks to limit the spread of COVID-19 among “healthy individuals”.ResultsNo studies were found, demonstrating a lack of evidence for and against face mask use suggesting implications around public health recommendations provided to “healthy individuals” since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak.ConclusionsThree and a half months into the COVID-19 outbreak (December 2019 – 2nd week of April 2020), there are no peer-reviewed scientific studies that have investigated the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of face mask use among “healthy individuals”. Yet, very strong public health recommendations have been provided on whether they should or should not wear face masks to limit the spread of COVID-19. A lack of scientific evidence heavily questions the basis of these public health recommendations provided at a very early, yet a crucial stage of an outbreak. This finding and a further look at public health recommendations conclude that there is a clear need for more concentrated research around face mask use among healthy individuals as well as public health recommendations that are evidence-based; precautionary in the absence of evidence; based on benefit-risk assessment; transparent; and globally aligned in order to provide the most successful guidelines during an infectious disease outbreak."
AUTHOR
Keshini Madara Marasinghe
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Gerakan 1000 Masker Melawan Corona: Pembagian di Kecamatan Denpasar Utara
" 
The Coronavirus epidemic (Covid-19) which has infected the entire world has also arrived in Indonesia. Bali Province was not spared from this virus attack. Covid-19 Positive Cases in Denpasar City accounted for 31% of all positive cases in Bali Province. One of the recovered patients came from North Denpasar District, Peguyangan Kangin Village. The Central Government through the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia has issued a Circular Letter of the Minister of Health Republic of Indonesia concerning the Protocol to Prevent the Transmission of the Covid-19 virus, one of which is by using masks for people who leave their homes. This has caused STD Bali as a Design School to participate in preventing the transmission of the Covid-19 virus. STD Bali in Community Service activities carried out the "Movement of 1000 masks" to prevent the transmission of the Covid-19 virus. The method used is to form a Production Team, Design Team, Distribution Team and Documentation Team. The Production Team is responsible for the supply, distribution and manufacture of masks. The Design Team is in charge as infographic planning, design, packaging and printing. The Distribution Team did the mapping, data collection and distribution of masks and the Documentation Team was tasked with documenting each activity. Implementation of the 1000 Masks Movement Activity, one of which was distributed in Banjar Ambengan Peguyangan Kangin, North Denpasar. Banjar Ambengan consists of 400 residents, of which the heterogeneous population background is due to migrants from outside Banjar who have become residents of the Banjar Dinas Ambengan. The submission of masks in Banjar Ambengan was carried out by the Distribution and Documentation Team and was received by Kelian Adat and the Head of the Banjar Ambengan Hamlet, where in this activity the health protocol was implemented by maintaining a minimum distance of 1 m and using masks. Submission of the mask as well as an explanation of the packaging that contains info about the Covid-19 virus, how to prevent and how to use the mask correctly. It is hoped that this activity can help the community in preventing the transmission of the Covid-19 virus and correct information about how to prevent the transmission of the Covid-19 virus."
AUTHORS
Kadek Risna Puspita Giri
Ni Wayan Ardiarani Utami
PUBLISHED
2020 in Jurnal Lentera Widya

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Application of a Modified Endoscopy Face Mask for Flexible Laryngoscopy During the COVID-19 Pandemic
" Diagnostic flexible laryngoscopy (DFL) is a critical tool in the armamentarium of an otolaryngologist. However, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, DFL represents a high-risk procedure for patients and otolaryngologists due to the risk of aerosolization. In cases where DFL is required, in patients with COVID-19 positivity or unknown COVID-19 status, we describe the use of a modified endoscopy face mask as an adjunct to personal protection equipment to reduce occupational transmission of COVID-19 while performing DFL. Our modified endoscopy mask provides an additional barrier against the transmission of airborne pathogens. The modified endoscopy face mask may also serve as a useful tool for otolaryngologists as they return to performing more aerosol-generating procedures in the outpatient setting. "
AUTHORS
Michael Z. Lerner
Nikita Kohli
Vishal Narwani
PUBLISHED
2020 in Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery

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The more I fear about COVID-19, the more I wear medical masks: A survey on risk perception and medical masks uses
"The legal behaviors in using medical masks in public have been finally promulgated by the Vietnamese Government after 47 days since the WHO declared the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. From a sample of 345 Vietnamese respondents aged from 15 to 47 years, this brief note found that the risk perception of COVID-19 danger significantly increases the likelihood of wearing the medical masks. In addition, there is a weak evidence about the differences in age under the COVID-19 outbreaks. More noticeably, those who use masks before COVID-19 pandemic tend to maintain their behaviors. Our results offer the insightful into Vietnamese citizens responses in terms of using medical masks; even the uses of this method are still controversial. Our results are robust by performing Exploratory Factor Analysis for five features and further regressions."
AUTHOR
Toan D Huynh
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Mathematical assessment of the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on curtailing the 2019 novel Coronavirus
"A pandemic of a novel Coronavirus emerged in December of 2019 (COVID-19), causing devastating public health impact across the world. In the absence of a safe and effective vaccine or antivirals, strategies for con- trolling and mitigating the burden of the pandemic are focused on non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as social-distancing, contact-tracing, quarantine, isolation and the use of face-masks in public. We develop a new mathematical model for assessing the population-level impact of the aforementioned control and mitigation strategies. Rigorous analysis of the model shows that the disease-free equilibrium is locally-asymptotically stable if a certain epidemiological threshold, known as the reproduction number (denoted by Rc), is less than unity. This equilibrium is globally-asymptotically stable, for a special case of the model where quarantined-susceptible individuals do not acquire COVID-19 infection during quarantine, when Rc is less than unity. The epidemiological consequence of this theoretical result is that, the community-wide implementation of control interventions that can bring (and maintain) Rc to a value less than unity will lead to the effective control (or elimination) of COVID-19 in the community. Simulations of the model, using data relevant to COVID-19 transmission dynamics in the US state of New York and the entire US, show that the pandemic burden will peak in mid and late April, respectively. The worst-case scenario projections for cumulative mortality (based on baseline levels of interventions) are 105, 100 for New York state and 164, 000 for the entire US by the end of the pandemic. These numbers dramatically decreased by 80% and 64%, respectively, if adherence to strict social-distancing measures is improved and maintained until the end of May or June. The duration and timing of the relaxation or termination of the strict social-distancing measures are crucially important in determining the future trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study shows that early termination of the strict social-distancing measures could trigger a devastating second wave with burden similar to those projected before the onset of the strict social-distance measures were implemented. The use of efficacious face-masks (such as surgical masks, with estimated efficacy ≥ 70%) in public could lead to the elimination of the pandemic if at least 70% of the residents of New York state use such masks in public consistently (nationwide, a compliance of at least 80% will be required using such masks). The use of low efficacy masks, such as cloth masks (of estimated efficacy less than 30%), could also lead to significant reduction of COVID-19 burden (albeit, they are not able to lead to elimination). Combining low efficacy masks with improved levels of the other anti-COVID-19 intervention strategies can lead to the elimination of the pandemic. This study emphasizes the important role social-distancing plays in curtailing the burden of COVID-19. Increases in the adherence level of social-distancing protocols result in dramatic reduction of the burden of the pandemic, and the timely implementation of social-distancing measures in numerous states of the US may have averted a catastrophic outcome with respect to the burden of COVID-19. Using face-masks in public (including the low efficacy cloth masks) is very useful in minimizing community transmission and burden of COVID-19, provided their coverage level is high. The masks coverage needed to eliminate COVID-19 decreases if the masks-based intervention is combined with the strict social-distancing strategy."
AUTHORS
Matthew Scotch
Steffen Eikenberry
Calistus N Ngonghala
Enahoro Iboi
Chandini Raina MacIntyre
Abba B Gumel et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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