How long can COVID-19 survive on surfaces?

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Chart summary of 2 studies examining this question

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 2
Sorted by publication year
1
Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents
"Currently, the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described with incubation times between 2-10 days, facilitating its spread via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces. We therefore reviewed the literature on all available information about the persistence of human and veterinary coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces as well as inactivation strategies with biocidal agents used for chemical disinfection, e.g. in healthcare facilities. The analysis of 22 studies reveals that human coronaviruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days, but can be efficiently inactivated by surface disinfection procedures with 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Other biocidal agents such as 0.05-0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate are less effective. As no specific therapies are available for SARS-CoV-2, early containment and prevention of further spread will be crucial to stop the ongoing outbreak and to control this novel infectious thread."
AUTHORS
Steinmann E
Pfaender S
Todt D
Kampf G
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Hospital Infection
High quality source
2
Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1
"A novel human coronavirus that is now named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (formerly called HCoV-19) emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and is now causing a pandemic. We analyzed the aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 and compared it with SARS-CoV-1, the most closely related human coronavirus."
AUTHORS
Williamson BN
Gamble A
Holbrook MG
Morris DH
Bushmaker T
van Doremalen N et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in New England Journal of Medicine
High quality source







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 59
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COVID-19: HOW CAN A DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL SURGERY SURVIVE TO A PANDEMIC?
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.03.012
AUTHORS
Piergiorgio Danelli
Francesco Lazzarin
Luca Ferrario
Andrea A. Bondurri
Anna Maffioli
Claudio Guerci
PUBLISHED
2020 in Surgery

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Potential Mechanisms of Age Related Severity of COVID-19 Infection: Implications for Development of Vaccines, Convalescent Serum, and Antibody Therapies
"There is an urgent need for vaccines to induce immunity to the 2019 coronavirus strain (COVID-19; CoV-SARS-2). Vaccine development may not be straightforward, in part due to the the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The immune response to coronavirus infection or vaccination generates a mixture of IgG antibodies against viral surface proteins. Many of these antibodies block viral infection. However, in some cases IgG:virus complexes can facilitate viral entry and infection of cells by ADE, increasing the the risk and severity of infection. This phenomenon occurs in SARS, MERS, HIV, Zika and dengue virus infection and vaccination; it has been a serious barrier to vaccine development for these infections. Lack of high-affinity anti-COVID-19 IgG antibodies in children and younger adults may explain, in part, the decreased severity of infection in these groups. Here, we discuss the evidence for ADE in the context of COVID-19 infection, and how it may affect development of a vaccine and convalescent serum therapies. Here we discuss ADE in the context of COVID-19 infection, and how this may affect vaccine development, convalescent serum, and targeted monoclonal antibody therapies. We caution that this work is a hypothesis, and should be taken as such."
AUTHORS
Jiong Wang
Martin Zand
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Finding COVID-19 from Chest X-rays using Deep Learning on a Small Dataset
"<p>Testing for COVID-19 has been unable to keep up with the demand. Further, the false negative rate is projected to be as high as 30% and test results can take some time to obtain. X-ray machines are widely available and provide images for diagnosis quickly. This paper explores how useful chest X-ray images can be in diagnosing COVID-19 disease. We have obtained 122 chest X-rays of COVID-19 and over 4,000 chest X-rays of viral and bacterial pneumonia. A pre-trained deep convolutional neural network has been tuned on 102 COVID-19 cases and 102 other pneumonia cases in a 10-fold cross validation. The results were all 102 COVID-19 cases were correctly classified and there were 8 false positives resulting in an AUC of 0.997. On a test set of 20 unseen COVID-19 cases all were correctly classified and more than 95% of 4,171 other pneumonia examples were correctly classified. This study has flaws, most critically a lack of information about where in the disease process the COVID-19 cases were and the small data set size. More COVID-19 case images will enable a better answer to the question of how useful chest X-rays can be for diagnosing COVID-19 (so please send them). </p>"
AUTHORS
Gregory M. Goldgof
Dmitry Goldgof
Lawrence Hall
Rahul Paul
PUBLISHED
2020 in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

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How you can help with COVID-19 modelling
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42254-020-0175-7
AUTHOR
Julia R. Gog
PUBLISHED
2020 in Nature Reviews Physics

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The Powerful Immune System Against Powerful COVID-19: A Hypothesis
"On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic. Since December 2019, the world has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but the factors affecting the immune system against COVID-19 have not been well described. In this article, we provide a novel hypothesis to describe how an increase in cellular adenosine triphosphate (c-ATP) can potentially improve the efficiency of innate and adaptive immune systems to either prevent and fight off COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Farzad Taghizadeh-Hesary
Hassan Akbari
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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SOMEBODY TO BLAME: ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OTHER IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID-19 OUTBREAK
"Besides the impact that COVID-19 has had in the sanitary, political and economic domains, it has also triggered multiple discursive processes, what opens up the field for an analysis from sociosemiotics, the social science interested in the study of ‘meaning in action’. The aim of this article is to discuss from such a perspective how the current crisis linked to the COVID-19 virus has given place to the emergence of processes of narrative construction of an ‘Other’ to be blamed for the threat. While in some contexts the dominant narrative has been that COVID-19 is ‘the Chinese’ –and their unhealthy culinary habits– fault, in others the focus has been set on ‘the irresponsible’ that do not stay home when indicated to do so, as well as on ‘the posh’, given that they can afford travelling and hence can import the virus on their return. Departing from the premise which poses that cognition is articulated in narrative terms, the article argues how, in cases such as the current COVID-19 crisis, a discursive construction of collective actors by means of mechanisms of actorialization, generalization and axiologization is necessary for the dynamics of blame-attribution."
AUTHOR
SEBASTIÁN MORENO BARRENECHE
PUBLISHED
2020 in Society Register

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The Devil in its Details: Unravelling the Epitopes in COVID-19 Surface Glycoprotein with the potential for Vaccination and Antibody Synthesis
"Abstract

With over 75762 patients infected and 2130 deaths been reported, the mortality and morbidity caused by the recent outbreak COVID-19 infections are proving colossal when compared to similar epidemics caused by SARS and MERS variant of coronavirus in the past. It was aimed to identify a receptor-binding domain (RBD) in surface glycoprotein (sGP) of COVID-19 and predict epitopes that are capable of interacting with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles to evoke antibody production in vivo. Bioinformatic computational tools were used to analyze the well-studied sGP and the RBD in SARS-CoV and compare it with their homologs in COVID-19. In silico methods that predict epitopes capable of binding MHC allele were used to identify sequences in RDB of sGP in COVID-19 with the intention of discovering sequences that can be used for vaccination and production of monoclonal antibody (mAbs) against COVID-19. The results indicate that COVID-19 has a conserved RBD in the sGP with differences in its sequences that can be exploited for vaccination and manufacturing of specific antibodies against this variant of coronavirus. Reported are 10 sequences of epitopes that are predicted to bind the MHC class I and class II alleles and that do not cross-react with human proteins. Testing in vitro and in animal models can accelerate the translational utility of vaccinating and efficacy of mAbs against the COVID-19 virus.
"
AUTHOR
Abdul Mannan Baig
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Emetine, Ipecac, Ipecac Alkaloids and Analogues as Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses
"The COVID-19 coronavirus is currently spreading around the globe with limited treatment options available. This article presents the rationale for potentially using old drugs (emetine, other ipecac alkaloids or analogues) that have been used to treat amoebiasis in the treatment of COVID-19. Emetine had amongst the lowest reported half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) from over 290 agents screened for the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses. While EC50 concentrations of emetine are achievable in the blood, studies show that concentrations of emetine can be almost 300 times higher in the lungs. Furthermore, based on the relative EC50s of emetine towards the coronaviruses compared with Entamoeba histolytica, emetine could be much more effective as an anti-coronavirus agent than it is against amoebiasis. This paper also discusses the known side effects of emetine and related compounds, how those side effects can be managed, and the optimal method of administration for the potential treatment of COVID-19. Given the serious and immediate threat that the COVID-19 coronavirus poses, our long history with emetine and the likely ability of emetine to reach therapeutic concentrations within the lungs, ipecac, emetine, and other analogues should be considered as potential treatment options, especially if in vitro studies confirm viral sensitivity."
AUTHORS
Martin D. Bleasel
Gregory M. Peterson
PUBLISHED
2020 in Pharmaceuticals

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Lactoferrin as potential preventative and treatment for COVID-19
"The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly advancing across the globe despite public and personal health measures. Antivirals and nutritional supplements have been proposed as potentially useful against SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19), but few have been clinically established. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that is orally available as a nutritional supplement and has established in vitro anti-viral efficacy against a wide range of virus including SARS-CoV, a closely related corona virus to SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19). Furthermore, Lf possesses unique immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that maybe especially relevant to the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 cases. We review the underlying biological mechanisms of Lf as antiviral and immune regulator, and propose its unique potential as preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. We hope that further research and development of Lf nutritional supplementation would establish its role for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei-Zen Sun
Raymond Chang
Tzi Bun Ng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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No SARS-CoV-2 in expressed prostatic secretion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a descriptive multicentre study in China
"Abstract
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess whether SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) of patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods: 18 cases of COVID-19, and 5 suspected cases, were selected from three medical centers to detect the RNA expression of SARS-CoV-2 in their EPS with RT-PCR.
Results: Results were negative in all EPS samples for SARS-CoV-2 of suspected and confirmed patients.
Conclusions: No SARS-CoV-2 was expressed in EPS of patients with COVID-19."
AUTHORS
jinfei tian
qingyou zheng
weihe quan
yong zhao
haijia xu
hao chu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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In search of feasible interventions for the prevention and cure of novel Coronavirus disease 2019
"COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical, phytopharmaceutical or traditional medicine for cure or prevention of COVID-19, although it is urgently needed. Based on the current understanding of the disease molecular mechanisms from the closest relatives of SARS-CoV-2 as well as novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, I attempt to translate this knowledge into identifying some naturally occurring plant based substances and Ayurvedic medicinal herbs that could feasibly be used as preventive as well as treatment options for COVID-19."
AUTHOR
Sunil Verma
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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When Darkness Becomes a Ray of Light in the Dark Times: Understanding the COVID-19 via the Comparative Analysis of the Dark Proteomes of SARS-CoV-2, Human SARS and Bat SARS-Like Coronaviruses
"AbstractRecently emerged coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2 (also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or Wuhan coronavirus) is a causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is rapidly spreading throughout the world now. More than 9,00,000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and more than 47,000 COVID-19-associated mortalities have been reported worldwide till the writing of this article, and these numbers are increasing every passing hour. World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the SARS-CoV-2 spread as a global public health emergency and admitted that the COVID-19 is a pandemic now. The multiple sequence alignment data correlated with the already published reports on the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and indicated that this virus is closely related to the bat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-like coronavirus (bat SARS-like CoV) and the well-studied Human SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV). The disordered regions in viral proteins are associated with the viral infectivity and pathogenicity. Therefore, in this study, we have exploited a set of complementary computational approaches to examine the dark proteomes of SARS-CoV-2, bat SARS-like, and human SARS CoVs by analysing the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in their proteins. According to our findings, SARS-CoV-2 proteome contains very significant levels of structural order. In fact, except for Nucleocapsid, Nsp8, and ORF6, the vast majority of SARS-CoV-2 proteins are mostly ordered proteins containing less intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs). However, IDPRs found in SARS-CoV-2 proteins are functionally important. For example, cleavage sites in its replicase 1ab polyprotein are found to be highly disordered, and almost all SARS-CoV-2 proteins were shown to contain molecular recognition features (MoRFs), which are intrinsic disorder-based protein-protein interaction sites that are commonly utilized by proteins for interaction with specific partners. The results of our extensive investigation of the dark side of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome will have important implications for the structural and non-structural biology of SARS or SARS-like coronaviruses.SignificanceThe infection caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes severe respiratory disease with pneumonia-like symptoms in humans is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic. No in-depth information on structures and functions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins is currently available in the public domain, and no effective anti-viral drugs and/or vaccines are designed for the treatment of this infection. Our study provides the first comparative analysis of the order- and disorder-based features of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome relative to human SARS and bat CoV that may be useful for structure-based drug discovery."
AUTHORS
Rajanish Giri
Christopher J. Oldfield
Kundlik Gadhave
Bhuvaneshwari R. Gehi
Meenakshi Shegane
Taniya Bhardwaj et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19): Molecular Evolutionary Analysis, Global Burden and Possible Threat to Bangladesh
"Abstract

Recently a new coronavirus strain, COVID-19 has emerged in Wuhan City, China which cause disease and in many cases deaths to humans. Considering its severity a number of works are working on it and full genomic sequences has already released in the last few weeks to understand the evolutionary origin and molecular characteristics of this virus. Based on currently available genomic information a phylogenetic tree was constructed from four types of representative viral proteins (Spike, Membrane, Envelope and Nucleoproetin) of COVID-19, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63, HKU1, MERS-CoV, HKU4, HKU5 and BufCoV-HKU26 clearly demonstrated that the ancestral origin and distant evolutionary relation of newly epidemic novel coronavirus (COVID-19). It had been found that COVID-19 was evolutionary related to SARS-CoV. It was also found that COVID-19 proteins were almost more than ninety (90%) similar and identical with SARS-CoV proteins. The cross-checked conservancy analysis of COVID-19 antigenic epitopes showed significant conservancy with SARS-CoV proteins. VaxiJen server reveal almost 100% immunogenic potential of four viral proteins with COVID-19. In this article, we present an effort on molecular evolutionary analysis, temperature comparison and compile and analyze epidemiological outbreak information on the 2019 novel coronavirus based on the several open datasets on COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) and possible threat to Bangladesh.Authors Md Bashir Uddin and Mahmudul Hasan contributed equally to this work
"
AUTHORS
Syed Sayeem Uddin Ahmed
Md. Abdus Shukur Imran
Md. Irtija Ahsan
Mahmudul Hasan
Ahmed Harun-Al-Rashid
Md Bashir Uddin
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Viral Architecture of SARS-CoV-2 with Post-Fusion Spike Revealed by Cryo-EM
"AbstractSince December 2019, the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread from Wuhan, China to the world, it has caused more than 87,000 diagnosed cases and more than 3,000 deaths globally. To fight against COVID-19, we carried out research for the near native SARS-CoV-2 and report here our preliminary results obtained. The pathogen of the COVID-19, the native SARS-CoV-2, was isolated, amplified and purified in a BSL-3 laboratory. The whole viral architecture of SARS-CoV-2 was examined by transmission electron microscopy (both negative staining and cryo-EM). We observed that the virion particles are roughly spherical or moderately pleiomorphic. Spikes have nail-like shape towards outside with a long body embedded in the envelope. The morphology of virion observed in our result indicates that the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 is in post-fusion state, with S1 disassociated. This state revealed by cryo-EM first time could provide an important information for the identification and relevant clinical research of this new coronavirus."
AUTHORS
Xiaomin Ma
Weilong Liu
Jing Wu
Jing Yuan
Yuanzhu Gao
Shuman Xu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Stability of the COVID-19 virus under wet, dry and acidic conditions
"COVID-19 has become a pandemic and is spreading fast worldwide. The COVID-19 virus is transmitted mainly through respiratory droplets and close contact. However, the fecal-oral transmission of the virus has not been ruled out and it is important to ascertain how acidic condition in the stomach affects the infectivity of the virus. Besides, it is unclear how stable the COVID-19 virus is under dry and wet conditions. In the present study, we have shown that the COVID-19 virus is extremely infectious as manifested by the infection of Vero-E6 cells by one PFU (Plaque Forming Unit) of the virus. We then investigated the stability of the COVID-19 virus in wet, dry and acidic (pH2.2) environments at room temperature. Results showed that the COVID-19 virus could survive for three days in wet and dry environments, but the dry condition is less favorable for the survival of the virus. Our study also demonstrated that the COVID-19 virus at a relative high titer (1.2 x 103 PFU) exhibits a certain degree of tolerance to acidic environment at least for 60 minutes. When the virus titer was ≤1.0 x 103 PFU, acid treatment (pH2.2) for 30 or 60 minute resulted in virus inactivation. It suggests that the virus at a high concentration may survive in the acidic environment of the stomach. The finding of the present study will contribute to the control of the spread of the COVID-19 virus."
AUTHORS
Chen-jian Gu
Zhi-ping Sun
Rong Zhang
Yun Qian
Di Qu
Wei Xu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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How to Help Small Businesses Survive COVID-19
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3571460
AUTHORS
Kathryn Judge
Todd Baker
PUBLISHED
2020 in SSRN Electronic Journal

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How long can HIV survive on environmental surfaces?
You can view the abstract at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1760552
AUTHOR
V LaBombardi
PUBLISHED
1991 in The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care : JANAC

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia in a Hemodialysis Patient
FUNDERS
National Natural Science Foundation of China , Guangzhou City Science and Technology , Guangdong Province High-level Hospital Construction
"Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infective disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies of the COVID-19 pneumonia outbreak were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. This report describes the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in an in-center hemodialysis patient, as well as our experience in implementing steps to prevent the spread of COVID-19 pneumonia among in-center hemodialysis patients. The diagnosis, infection control, and treatment of COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients are discussed in this report, and we conclude with recommendations for how a dialysis facility can respond to COVID-19 based on our experiences."
AUTHORS
Sijia Li
Jianchao Ma
Jianbin Yu
Zhuo Li
Yuwan Xiong
Xinling Liang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Kidney Medicine

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Finding COVID-19 from Chest X-rays using Deep Learning on a Small Dataset
"<p>Testing for COVID-19 has been unable to keep up with the demand. Further, the false negative rate is projected to be as high as 30% and test results can take some time to obtain. X-ray machines are widely available and provide images for diagnosis quickly. This paper explores how useful chest X-ray images can be in diagnosing COVID-19 disease. We have obtained 122 chest X-rays of COVID-19 and over 4,000 chest X-rays of viral and bacterial pneumonia. A pre-trained deep convolutional neural network has been tuned on 102 COVID-19 cases and 102 other pneumonia cases in a 10-fold cross validation. The results were all 102 COVID-19 cases were correctly classified and there were 8 false positives resulting in an AUC of 0.997. On a test set of 20 unseen COVID-19 cases all were correctly classified and more than 95% of 4,171 other pneumonia examples were correctly classified. This study has flaws, most critically a lack of information about where in the disease process the COVID-19 cases were and the small data set size. More COVID-19 case images will enable a better answer to the question of how useful chest X-rays can be for diagnosing COVID-19 (so please send them). </p>"
AUTHORS
Gregory M. Goldgof
Dmitry Goldgof
Lawrence Hall
Rahul Paul
PUBLISHED
2020 in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

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Prevent the resurgence of infectious disease with asymptomatic carriers
"As many countries reached the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak, there is debate on how to reopen the economy without causing a significant resurgence. Here we show, using a microsimulation model, that how to reopen safely depends on what percentage of COVID-19 cases can be detected by testing. The higher the detection rate, the less restrictive the reopen plan needs to be. If 70% of cases can be detected, schools and businesses can reopen if 2-layer quarantine is imposed on each confirmed case. Our results suggest that increasing the detection rate is essential to prevent the resurgence of COVID-19."
AUTHOR
Zhechun Zhang
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). To date, no prophylactic vaccines or approved therapeutic agents are available for preventing and treating this highly transmittable disease. Here we report two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cloned from memory B cells of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, and both mAbs specifically bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, block the binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and effectively neutralize S protein-pseudotyped virus infection. These human mAbs hold the promise for the prevention and treatment of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Lilin Ye
Zhirong Li
Jianfang Tang
Xiangyu Chen
Zhaohui Qian
Yang Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Mutated COVID-19, May Foretells Mankind in a Great Risk in the Future
"Corona virus disease 2019 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a zoonotic virus causing a variety of severe of respiratory diseases. SARS-CoV-2 is closest to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in structure. The highly prevalence of COVID-19 is due to the lack onset of symptoms. Our study aimed to present an overview of the virus in terms of structure, epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. Conduct the differences of whole genome sequence and some viral proteins to determine the gap and the change alternation of nucleotides and amino acids sequences. We evaluate 11 complete genome sequence of different coronavirus using BAST and MAFFT software. We also selected 7 types of structural proteins. We were conclude that COVID-19 might be created new mutations specifically in glycoproteins hence requires caution and complete preparation by health authorities."
AUTHOR
Ali A. Dawood
PUBLISHED
2020 in New Microbes and New Infections

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
" The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threating respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true. "
AUTHOR
David A. Schwartz
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19
FUNDERS
National Natural Science Foundation of China , Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities
"Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a kind of viral pneumonia with an unusual outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has been marked as the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the twenty-first century. In this minireview, we provide a brief introduction of the general features of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss current knowledge of molecular immune pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 on the base of the present understanding of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections, which may be helpful in offering novel insights and potential therapeutic targets for combating the SARS-CoV-2 infection."
AUTHORS
Liesu Meng
Xiaowei Li
Manman Geng
Shemin Lu
Yizhao Peng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
"The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threatening respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true."
AUTHOR
Schwartz DA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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A Charter for Sustainable Tourism after COVID-19
"The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease is highly infectious and contagious. The long-term consequences for individuals are as yet unknown, while the long-term effects on the international community will be dramatic. COVID-19 has changed the world forever in every imaginable respect and has impacted heavily on the international travel, tourism demand, and hospitality industry, which is one of the world’s largest employers and is highly sensitive to significant shocks like the COVID-19 pandemic. It is essential to investigate how the industry will recover after COVID-19 and how the industry can be made sustainable in a dramatically changed world. This paper presents a charter for tourism, travel, and hospitality after COVID-19 as a contribution to the industry."
AUTHORS
Vicente Ramos
Michael McAleer
Chia-Lin Chang
PUBLISHED
2020 in Sustainability

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Covid-19: Surviving the long road ahead
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1840
AUTHOR
Fiona Godlee
PUBLISHED
2020 in BMJ

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The intensity of COVID-19 outbreaks is modulated by SARS-CoV-2 free-living survival and environmental transmission
"COVID-19 has circled the globe, rapidly expanding from an outbreak in China to a pandemic in a matter of weeks. Lacking an effective vaccine or proven, pharmaceutical therapy, countries have enacted an unprecedented series of non-pharmaceutical interventions to combat this disease. However, the potential for variation in free-living virus survival to modulate the efficacy of these interventions remains unclear. Using an empirically determined understanding of SARS-CoV-2 natural history and detailed, country-level case data, we elucidate how variation in free-living virus survival influences key features of COVID-19 epidemics. Our findings suggest that the COVID-19 basic reproductive number (R0) and other key signatures of outbreak intensity are modulated by transmission between infected individuals and the environment. In addition, country-level outbreaks vary in the degree to which environmental transmission appears to modulate COVID-19 dynamics. Summarizing, we propose that informed models of sit and wait, environmental transmission are essential in emerging outbreaks, as they highlight how variation in environmental transmission may explain observed differences in disease dynamics from setting to setting, and can inform public health interventions."
AUTHORS
Samuel V. Scarpino
Anarina L. Murillo
Lourdes M. Gomez
Miles D. Miller-Dickson
Victor A. Meszaros
Brandon Ogbunugafor
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Survival After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest In Critically Ill Patients: Implications For Covid-19 Outbreak?
"The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is placing a considerable strain on U.S. healthcare systems by requiring both significant acute resources and endangering healthcare team members through airborne infection. Many U.S. healthcare systems are now considering how to treat COVID-19 patients who suffer cardiac arrest based on a presumption of poor survival after resuscitation in COVID-19 patients. However, empiric data on cardiac arrest survival in COVID-19 from the United States are not available at the moment. To inform this debate, we report survival data following cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a cohort of critically ill patients with pneumonia or sepsis who were receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU) at the time of arrest."
AUTHORS
Brahmajee K. Nallamothu
Paul S. Chan
Yuanyuan Tang
Saket Girotra
PUBLISHED
2020 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes

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A Simple Method for Estimating the Number of Unconfirmed COVID-19 Cases in a Local Area that Includes a Confidence Interval: A Case Study of Whatcom County, Washington
"Along with many other data problems affecting the unfolding of the COVID-10 pandemic in the United States, virtually nothing is known about the number of positive, unconfirmed cases, especially in local areas. We show that it is possible to estimate the number of positive, unconfirmed COVID-19 cases using a simple, long-established method employed by demographers to estimate a population in the absence of a census count. We go on to show how a confidence interval can be constructed around an estimate of positive, unconfirmed COVID-19 cases constructed from this method, using Whatcom County, Washington as a case study."
AUTHORS
Ronald E. Cossman
David A Swanson
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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The connection of growth and medication of COVID-19 affected people after 30 days of lock down in India
"The COVID-19 pandemic has already consumed few months of indolence all over the world. Almost every part of the world from which the victim of COVID 19 are, have not yet been able to find out a strong way to combat corona virus. Therefore, the main aim is to minimize the spreading of the COVID-19 by detecting most of the affected people during lockdown. Hence, it is necessary to understand what the nature of growth is of spreading of this corona virus with time after almost one month (30 days) of lockdown. In this paper we have developed a very simple mathematical model to describe the growth of spreading of corona virus in human being. This model is based on realistic fact and the statistics we have so far. For controlling the spread of the COVID-19, minimization of the growth with minimum number of days of lockdown is necessary. We have established a relation between the long-term recovery coefficient and the long-term infected coefficient. The growth can be minimized if such condition satisfies. We have also discussed how the different age of the people can be cured by applying different types of medicine. We have presented the data of new cases, recovery and deaths per day to visualize the different coefficient for India and establish our theory. We have also explained how the medicine could be effective to sustain and improve such condition for country having large population like India."
AUTHORS
Joy Mukherjee
Debosmita Bhattacharyya
Achintya Bhattacharyya
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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THE FACTS ABOUT CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): THE CURRENT SCENARIO AND IMPORTANT LESSONS
"This paper discusses the important review about the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and main facts about it. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristic of Patients With COVID-19:The Wuhan city in China, faced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, with extreme acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being the causative agent. The clinical characteristics and the epidemiological criteria for COVID-19 patients were described. Still, the risk factors for mortality and a clear course of the disease clinically, including viral shedding, have not been identified. Corona Virus and its Types: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family which infect animals as well as humans. The name "coronavirus" was developed in 1968, which stemmed from the morphology similar to "corona" or crown-like. The Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV), Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV). Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub-genera or lineages. COVID-19 Strategic Prevention on different levels: In dealing with COVID-19 challenge, most countries are practicing a mix of inclusion and stopping crowds hoping to delay an increased number of affected individuals and minimizing the need for hospital facilities, as well as securing those at higher risk from being infected, especially old age population and people with long-standing illness"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Global Journal of Public Health Medicine

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Corona kills corona: convalescent sera option for global war against corona virus disease 2019
"On December 31st, 2019 China reported first case of atypical pneumonia in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province. The causative virus was found to be a beta coronavirus, closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) from 2003 and similar to Sarbeco viruses isolated from bats. It was therefore termed SARS-CoV-2 and the disease was named corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The outbreak in Wuhan expanded quickly and led to the lockdown of Wuhan and other parts of China. While the lockdown, at least temporarily, brought the situation under control in China, but SARS-CoV-2 spread globally causing a pandemic with more than 4 lakh infections and about 19000 fatalities (as of March 25, 2020). Nucleic acid tests that detect the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome were quickly developed and are now widely employed to diagnose COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Babita .
Mahavir Jangra
S. K. Jha
Anita Punia
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health

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The novel coronavirus and its possible treatment by vaccines, therapeutics and drug delivery systems: Current status and future perspectives
"In the mid-end of December 2019, several cases of pneumonia outbreak of unknown cause and etiology were identified in Wuhan City of Hubei province in China, a city with a population of over 11 million.Till date(April 2020) around 1,051,635 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and 56,985 confirmed deaths have been reported according to COVID-19 Situation Report – 75 by WHO. On 7th January 2020, the causative agent was identified and named consequently as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) from throat swab samples. Later, on 12th January 2020, this coronavirus was named as 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by World Health Organization (WHO) and in 11th February 2020,it has been declared the epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) as it is spreading rapidly from its origin in Wuhan City to the rest of the world. In this context, the current review provides a landscape of the novel Corona Virus including its origin, transmission, epidemiology, drugs and vaccines in clinical trials for better understanding to the reads and peoples the status and future perspectives of this pandemic disease"
AUTHORS
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy Somanathan Balasubramanian
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Madhurya Kadavakollu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Favipiravir strikes the SARS-CoV-2 at its Achilles heel, the RNA polymerase
"The ongoing Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emphasized the urgent need for antiviral therapeutics. The viral RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (RdRp) is a promising target with polymerase inhibitors successfully used for the treatment of several viral diseases. Here we show that Favipiravir exerts an antiviral effect as a nucleotide analogue through a combination of chain termination, slowed RNA synthesis and lethal mutagenesis. The SARS-CoV RdRp complex is at least 10-fold more active than any other viral RdRp known. It possesses both unusually high nucleotide incorporation rates and high-error rates allowing facile insertion of Favipiravir into viral RNA, provoking C-to-U and G-to-A transitions in the already low cytosine content SARS-CoV-2 genome. The coronavirus RdRp complex represents an Achilles heel for SARS-CoV, supporting nucleoside analogues as promising candidates for the treatment of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Veronique Fattorini
Genevieve Piorkowski
Franck Touret
Johanna Huchting
Thi-Tuyet-Nhung Le
Barbara Selisko et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Literature review
Covid-2019:“A Microbiological Monster”
"Pneumonia triggered by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China in December 2019 is a extremely contagious disease. The WHO has stated the outbreak of Covid 19(Corona virus) as a pandemic issue. Currently, the research on this virus is in its primary stage. Based on the existing and available data, this is to enlighten on the epidemiology, its clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19. This review is for the public to effectively recognize and fight with the 2019 novel coronavirus and providing a spark for future studies."
AUTHOR
Ravichandra Ravi
PUBLISHED
2020 in Asian Journal of Medicine and Health

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Mathematical Model for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Containing Isolation Class
FUNDERS
Deanship of Scientific Research at King Abdulaziz University
"The deadly coronavirus continues to spread across the globe, and mathematical models can be used to show suspected, recovered, and deceased coronavirus patients, as well as how many people have been tested. Researchers still do not know definitively whether surviving a COVID-19 infection means you gain long-lasting immunity and, if so, for how long? In order to understand, we think that this study may lead to better guessing the spread of this pandemic in future. We develop a mathematical model to present the dynamical behavior of COVID-19 infection by incorporating isolation class. First, the formulation of model is proposed; then, positivity of the model is discussed. The local stability and global stability of proposed model are presented, which depended on the basic reproductive. For the numerical solution of the proposed model, the nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) scheme and Runge-Kutta fourth order method are used. Finally, some graphical results are presented. Our findings show that human to human contact is the potential cause of outbreaks of COVID-19. Therefore, isolation of the infected human overall can reduce the risk of future COVID-19 spread."
AUTHORS
Gul Zaman
Vedat Suat Erturk
Ebraheem Alzahrani
Anwar Zeb
PUBLISHED
2020 in BioMed Research International

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A Shock to the System: How Family Businesses Can Survive Covid-19
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.32617/532-5ef363ecefe0c
AUTHORS
Alfredo De Massis
Tulsi Jayakumar
PUBLISHED
2020 in Entrepreneur and Innovation Exchange

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Vulnerabilities to COVID-19 in Bangladesh and a Reconsideration of Sustainable Development Goals
"Bangladesh is one of the high-risk countries of the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequent losses due to social and economic conditions. There is a significant possibility that economic stagnation would push a large population back into poverty. In the present study, we have reviewed the chronology and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Bangladesh and investigated the country’s vulnerabilities concerning COVID-19 impacts. We focused primarily on four areas of vulnerabilities in Bangladesh: The garment industry, urban slums, social exclusion, and pre-existing health conditions. The result implicated that the country would take time to recover its economy due to the vulnerabilities mentioned above, and many people in Bangladesh would not be able to tolerate the current situation because they do not have enough reserves to do so. We concluded that if at least some Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) had been at least partly attained, the situation would not be as dire as it is now. Based on this conclusion, we suggested a tolerance capacity to indicate how long people can survive without outside support. It is a holistic assessment rather than the indicators presently defined in each SDG, but it should be attained through a harmonized approach to SDGs."
AUTHORS
Tofayel Ahmed
Salma Begum
Maiko Sakamoto
PUBLISHED
2020 in Sustainability

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THE FACTS ABOUT CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): THE CURRENT SCENARIO AND IMPORTANT LESSONS Authors
"This paper discusses the important review about the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and main facts about it. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristic of Patients With COVID-19:The Wuhan city in China, faced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, with extreme acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being the causative agent. The clinical characteristics and the epidemiological criteria for COVID-19 patients were described. Still, the risk factors for mortality and a clear course of the disease clinically, including viral shedding, have not been identified. Corona Virus and its Types: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family which infect animals as well as humans. The name "coronavirus" was developed in 1968, which stemmed from the morphology similar to "corona" or crown-like. The Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV), Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV). Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub-genera or lineages. COVID-19 Strategic Prevention on different levels: In dealing with COVID-19 challenge, most countries are practicing a mix of inclusion and stopping crowds hoping to delay an increased number of affected individuals and minimizing the need for hospital facilities, as well as securing those at higher risk from being infected, especially old age population and people with long-standing illness"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Global Journal of Public Health Medicine

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Literature review
Blood Safety in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
": SARS-CoV-2 is a novel infectious agent that rapidly spread from a single city in China to all parts of the world. Right now, the world is facing a major pandemic crisis and every infected patient can infect the other two to three persons. The non-specific symptoms at the early stages of coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) and also the presence of infected asymptomatic patients result in the absence of accurate estimation of infected patients. Although coronaviruses often affect the upper or lower respiratory tract, viral shedding in plasma or serum can occur and therefore, there is a theoretical risk regarding the transmission of these viruses by transfusion. Experience with other viruses from the corona family group (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) tells us that Covid-19 might have a significant impact on blood supply. Until now, SARS-CoV-2 has not been identified as a transfusion transmissible virus and viremia has only been diagnosed in serious patients who would not be allowed for blood donation. In this review article, the safety of blood products during the Covid-19 outbreak is discussed."
AUTHOR
Mozhgan Hashemieh
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases

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Literature review
Global Pandemic Conditions and List of Possible Medications and Vaccines for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Review
"At the end of December 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified which caused severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with a disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The virus first originated in the city of Wuhan in China, causing symptoms such as pneumonic plague, which began in the Wuhan and then spread throughout the world with high transmission efficiency. Special precautions and care are needed such as leaving the public area, covering your mouth with a mask, not shaking hands, washing hands, and sanitation from time to time. Infection due to SARS-CoV-2 shows several symptoms, one of which is very often the patient shows difficulty breathing. Currently, COVID-19 has been declared a global pandemic and has almost attacked all countries in the world, including in India which has one of the largest human populations in the entire world. One of the challenges in handling COVID-19 is the unavailability of drugs or special vaccines to treat the disease, so clinical practitioners and academics are currently testing various drugs to see how they affect the COVID-19 patients. Some of the drugs tested provide effective mechanisms against SARS-CoV-2, such as chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, and vaccines under development. These drugs are still being tested and are now at the forefront to combat the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review article will discuss all kinds of ins and outs of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, including the transmission method, how to prevent it, as well as various drugs and vaccines currently used in handling COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Rakesh Patel
Mohit Chaturvedi
Atul Kabra
Mohammad Mukim
Siwani Devi
PUBLISHED
2020 in Borneo Journal of Pharmacy

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Copper-Alloy Surfaces and Cleaning Regimens against the Spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Dentistry and Orthopedics. From Fomites to Anti-Infective Nanocoatings
"The latest diffusion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has involved the whole world population. Even if huge efforts to control the pandemic have been done, the viral spread is still continuing. COVID-19 is reported as a zoonosis jumped from bats and pangolins to humans. After infection in humans, SARS-CoV-2 is found in the nasopharyngeal and salivary secretions. The virus has also been detected in the blood plasma of infected patients. The viral spread occurs through droplets exhaled from the nose and mouth of the infected people when they breath or talk, or through droplets propelled as a dense cloud by chough or sneeze. The virus can also be delivered as an aerosol from blood plasma, through surgical procedures. Following these ways, the virus can disperse in the air, then reaching and settling on the exposed surfaces. How long the virus will survive on a surface depends on the material the surface is made from. Infection via high-touch surfaces should be prevented. Copper alloy coatings, combined with efficient hygienic/disinfectant procedures and careful surgical practice, could be helpful to health protection in dental practice and can also be adopted in orthopedic traumatology."
AUTHORS
Alberto Dagna
Andrea Scribante
Tiziana Greggi
Carla Renata Arciola
Marco Colombo
Claudio Poggio
PUBLISHED
2020 in Materials

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How Rural Hospitals in the US Can Survive in COVID-19 Pandemic
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.46998/ijcmcr.2020.01.000004
AUTHOR
Miku Sodhi
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Clinical Studies and Medical Case Reports

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“No disease for the others”: How COVID-19 data can enact new and old alterities
FUNDERS
H2020 European Research Council
" The COVID-19 pandemic invites a question about how long-standing narratives of alterity and current narratives of disease are entwined and re-enacted in the diagnosis of COVID-19. In this commentary, we discuss two related phenomena that, we argue, should be taken into account in answering this question. First, we address the diffusion of pseudoscientific accounts of minorities’ immunity to COVID-19. While apparently praising minorities’ biological resistance, such accounts rhetorically introduce a distinction between “Us” and “Them,” and in so doing produce new and re-enact old narratives of alterity. Second, these unsubstantiated narratives thrive on fake news and scarcity of data. The second part of this commentary thus surveys the methods through which the COVID-19 test is administered in various countries. We argue that techniques used for data collection have a major role in producing COVID-19 data that render contagion rates among migrants and other minorities invisible. In the conclusion, we provide two recommendations about how COVID-19 data can instead potentially work towards inclusion. "
AUTHOR
Annalisa Pelizza
PUBLISHED
2020 in Big Data & Society

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Potential neurological manifestations of COVID-19
"AbstractPurposeof review: Neurological complications are increasingly recognized in the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This coronavirus is related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and other human coronavirus-related illnesses that are associated with neurological symptoms. These symptoms raise the question of a neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2.Recent findings:Potential neurological symptoms and syndromes of SARS-CoV-2 include headache, fatigue, dizziness, anosmia, ageusia, anorexia, myalgias, meningoencephalitis, hemorrhage, altered consciousness, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, syncope, seizure, and stroke. Additionally, we discuss neurological effects of other coronaviruses, special considerations for management of neurological patients, and possible long-term neurological and public health sequelae.Summary:As SARS-CoV-2 is projected to infect a large part of the world’s population, understanding the potential neurological implications of COVID-19 will help neurologists and others recognize and intervene in neurological morbidity during and after the pandemic of 2020."
AUTHORS
Wendy S. Vargas
Amelia K. Boehme
Kiran T. Thakur
Joshua Z. Willey
Kathryn T. Rimmer
Anna S. Nordvig et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Neurology: Clinical Practice

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How COVID-19 can damage the brain
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-02599-5
AUTHOR
Michael Marshall
PUBLISHED
2020 in Nature

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Natural attenuation as a decontamination approach for SARS-CoV-2 on paper-based library and archives materials
"This document synthesizes various studies and data; however, the scientific understanding regarding COVID-19 is continuously evolving.In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) and OCLC are working in partnership with Battelle to create and distribute science-based information designed to reduce the risk of transmission of COVID-19 to staff and visitors who are engaging in the delivery or use of museum, library, and archival services. This REopening Archives, Libraries, and Museums (REALM) project is studying how long the SARS CoV-2 virus (the virus that causes COVID-19) survives on common materials and methods to mitigate exposure.This material is being provided for informational purposes only, and readers are encouraged to review federal, state, tribal, territorial, and local guidance. The authors, sponsors, and researchers are not liable for any damages resulting from use, misuse, or reliance upon this information, or any errors or omissions herein."
AUTHOR
Maria V. Fedotova
PUBLISHED
2020 in Bibliotekovedenie [Russian Journal of Library Science]

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