Is it likely that a baby will contract COVID-19 simply by being born to a woman who has COVID-19?

Submitted by: KArora 98

No.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 7 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 7 studies examining this question

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Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Are cloth masks as effective as surgical masks at reducing the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
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5 studies
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Do adults get sick from COVID-19 more often than children?
10 studies
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Do cloth masks reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
10 studies
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Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?
7 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?
6 studies
Submitted by: KKrista 83

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 7
Sorted by publication year
1
Potential Maternal and Infant Outcomes from (Wuhan) Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Infecting Pregnant Women: Lessons from SARS, MERS, and Other Human Coronavirus Infections
"In early December 2019 a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause was identified in Wuhan, a city of 11 million persons in the People's Republic of China. Further investigation revealed these cases to result from infection with a newly identified coronavirus, termed the 2019-nCoV. The infection moved rapidly through China, spread to Thailand and Japan, extended into adjacent countries through infected persons travelling by air, eventually reaching multiple countries and continents. Similar to such other coronaviruses as those causing the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the new coronavirus was reported to spread via natural aerosols from human-to-human. In the early stages of this epidemic the case fatality rate is estimated to be approximately 2%, with the majority of deaths occurring in special populations. Unfortunately, there is limited experience with coronavirus infections during pregnancy, and it now appears certain that pregnant women have become infected during the present 2019-nCoV epidemic. In order to assess the potential of the Wuhan 2019-nCoV to cause maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and other poor obstetrical outcomes, this communication reviews the published data addressing the epidemiological and clinical effects of SARS, MERS, and other coronavirus infections on pregnant women and their infants. Recommendations are also made for the consideration of pregnant women in the design, clinical trials, and implementation of future 2019-nCoV vaccines."
AUTHORS
Schwartz DA
Graham AL
PUBLISHED
2020 in Viruses
High quality source
No
No
2
Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records
"BACKGROUND:Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection.METHODS:Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation.FINDINGS:All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0 × 10⁹ cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8-9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9-10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus.INTERPRETATION:The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy.FUNDING:Hubei Science and Technology Plan, Wuhan University Medical Development Plan."
AUTHORS
Luo F
Yu X
Wang C
Guo J
Chen H
Zhang W
PUBLISHED
2020 in The Lancet
High quality source
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
3
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
"The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threatening respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true."
AUTHOR
Schwartz DA
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
High quality source
No
No
4
Perinatal Transmission of COVID-19 Associated SARS-CoV-2: Should We Worry?
"We presented two cases of COVID-19 associated SARS-CoV-2 infection during third trimester of pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns had excellent outcomes. We failed to identify SARS-CoV-2 in all the products of conception and the newborns. This report provided evidence of low risk of intrauterine infection by vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2."
AUTHORS
Liu Y
Li C
Wang M
Fang C
Lei D
Fan C
PUBLISHED
2020 in Clinical Infectious Diseases
High quality source
No
No
5
Infection with SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. Information and proposed care. CNGOF
"A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) highlighted at the end of 2019 in China is spreading across all continents. Most often at the origin of a mild infectious syndrome, associating mild symptoms (fever, cough, myalgia, headache and possible digestive disorders) to different degrees, SARS-Covid-2 can cause serious pulmonary pathologies and sometimes death.Data on the consequences during pregnancy are limited. The first Chinese data published seem to show that the symptoms in pregnant women are the same as those of the general population. There are no cases of intrauterine maternal-fetal transmission, but cases of newborns infected early suggest that there could be vertical perpartum or neonatal transmission. Induced prematurity and cases of respiratory distress in newborns of infected mothers have been described.Pregnancy is known as a period at higher risk for the consequences of respiratory infections, as for influenza, so it seems important to screen for Covid-19 in the presence of symptoms and to monitor closely pregnant women.In this context of the SARS-Covid-2 epidemic, the societies of gynecology-obstetrics, infectious diseases and neonatalogy have proposed a French protocol for the management of possible and proven cases of SARS-Covid-2 in pregnant women. These proposals may evolve on a daily basis with the advancement of the epidemic and knowledge in pregnant women. Subsequently, an in-depth analysis of cases in pregnant women will be necessary in order to improve knowledge on the subject."
AUTHORS
Lucet JC
Lescure X
Huissoud C
Deruelle P
Sibiude J
Peyronnet V
PUBLISHED
2020 in Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie
Q3
No
No
6
Lack of Vertical Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, China
"A woman with 2019 novel coronavirus disease in her 35th week of pregnancy delivered an infant by cesarean section in a negative-pressure operating room. The infant was negative for severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2. This case suggests that mother-to-child transmission is unlikely for this virus."
AUTHORS
Zheng S
Chen X
Li Y
Wang J
Sheng X
Zhao R
PUBLISHED
2020 in Emerging Infectious Diseases
High quality source
No
No
7
Analysis of the pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 in Hubei Province
"Objective: To study the effect of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes and neonatal prognosis in Hubei Province. Methods: A retrospective comparison of the pregnancy outcomes was done between 16 women with COVID-19 and 45 women without COVID-19. Also, the results of laboratory tests, imaging examinations, and the 2019-nCoV nucleic acid test were performed in 10 cases of neonatal deliverd from women with COVID-19. Results: (1) Of the 16 pregnant women with COVID-19, 15 cases were ordinary type and 1 case was severe type. No one has progressed to critical pneumonia. The delivery method of the two groups was cesarean section, and the gestational age were (38.7±1.4) and (37.9±1.6) weeks, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P> 0.05). Also, there wee no significant differences in the intraoperative blood loss and birth weight of the newborn between the two groups (all P>0.05). (2) Ten cases of neonates delivered from pregnant women with COVID-19 were collected. The 2019-nCoV nucleic acid test were all negative. There were no significant differences in fetal distress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, preterm birth, and neonatal asphyxia between the two groups (all P>0.05). (3) In the treatment of uterine contraction fatigue, carbetocin or carboprost tromethamine was used more in cesarean section for pregnant women with COVID-19 (1.3±0.6), compared with Non-COVID-19 group (0.5±0.7), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). Conclusions: If there is an indication for obstetric surgery or critical illness of COVID-19 in pregnant women, timely termination of pregnancy will not increase the risk of premature birth and asphyxia of the newborn, but it is beneficial to the treatment and rehabilitation of maternal pneumonia. Preventive use of long-acting uterotonic agents could reduce the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage during surgery. 2019-nCoV infection has not been found in neonates deliverd from pregnant women with COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei M
Jiang Y
Zhang L
LI Ji
Zhou XC
Cheng BH
PUBLISHED
2020 in Chinese Medical Association
No
No







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 57
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Is it likely that a baby will contract COVID-19 simply by being born to a woman who has COVID-19?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

A case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in a pregnant woman with preterm delivery
"Abstract
We presented a case of a 30-week pregnant woman with COVID-19 delivering a healthy baby with no evidence of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Yongyan Tang
Zhiqiang Zhou
Xiaotong Wang
Jianping Zhang
Xinghua Shen
Fengfeng Zhu
PUBLISHED
2020 in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Add to List
Perceived vulnerability to COVID-19 infection from event attendance: Results from Louisiana, USA, two weeks preceding the national emergency declaration
"In response to the mounting threat of COVID-19, we added questions to an ongoing food preference study held at Louisiana State University from March 3-12 of 2020. We asked 356 participants: (1) In your opinion, how likely is it that the spread of COVID-19 (the coronavirus) will cause a public health crisis in the United States? (2) How concerned are you that you will contract COVID-19 by attending events on campus? Participants' estimates of an impending national health crisis increased significantly during the study's second week (March 9-12) while concern about personally contracting COVID-19 from attending campus events increased only marginally during the study's final days. We find those expressing a higher likelihood of an impending national crisis were more concerned about contracting COVID-19 by attending campus events, suggesting a possible transmission from perceptions of national-level events to perceived personal vulnerability via local exposure. However, about 30% of participants perceived that COVID-19 would likely cause a public health crisis yet did not express concern about contracting COVID-19 from event attendance. These participants were significantly more likely to be younger students who agreed to participate in response to recruitment using same-day flyer distribution. Women expressed a higher likelihood of an emerging national health crisis, although they were not more concerned than men that attending campus events would result in virus contraction. Other groups (e.g., white, students younger than 25, highest income group) displayed similar concern about a national-level crisis, yet were significantly less concerned about contracting COVID-19 from attending campus events than others. Also, participants randomly assigned to information emphasizing the national impacts of food waste expressed significantly greater concern of contracting COVID-19 by attending campus events. These results provide some initial insight about how people perceived national and personal risks in the early stages of the COVID-19 crisis in Louisiana."
AUTHORS
Bingchen Yang
Witoon Prinyawiwatkul
Ran Li
Jerrod Penn
Danyi Qi
Brian Roe et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Add to List
2019 novel coronavirus disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients: Report from one HD center in Wuhan, China
"The outbreak of COVID-19 originated in Wuhan has become a global epidemic of contagious diseases, which poses a serious threat to human life and health, especially for those with underlined diseases. However, Impacts of COVID-19 epidemic on HD center and HD patients are still unknown. In this report, we reviewed the whole course of the epidemic emerged in the HD center of Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University from January 14, 2020, the day the first case was confirmed, to February 17, 2020, the day the epidemic extinction. There are totally 37 cases among 230 HD patients and 4 cases among 33 staff being diagnosed with COVID-19. The epidemiology, clinical presentation and immune profile of dialysis patients contracted COVID-19 were further studied. We found that the two key measures we took in response to the epidemic, one was upgrading level of prevention and protection on January 21 and the other one starting universal screening, isolating, and distributing the infected cases on February 4, were effective in the epidemic control. No new COVID-19 case had been diagnosed since February 13. During the epidemic, 7 HD patients died, including 6 with COVID-19 and 1 without COVID-19. The presumed causes of death were not directly related to pneumonia, but due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, hyperkalemia, etc. Most of the leukocytes in the peripheral blood of the HD patients infected with COVID-19 decreased, and the CT images of the chest mostly showed the ground glass like changes on the right side. The symptoms of most of the patients were mild, and there were no cases admitted to ICU. The frequency of lymphocytes in PBMCs and the serum level of inflammatory cytokines were assessed in HD patients contracted COVID-19 or not, non-HD COVID-19 patients, as well as healthy volunteers. The results showed that lymphocytes of T cell, Th cells, killer T cells, as well as NK cells in PBMCs of HD patients decreased significantly than other groups. HD patients with COVID-19 also displayed remarkable lower serum level of inflammatory cytokines than other COVID-19 patients. Our study indicates that HD patients are the highly susceptible population and HD centers are high risk area in the outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic. Measures of prevention, protection, screening, isolation, and distribution are essential in the epidemic management and should be taken in the early stage. HD Patients with COVID-19 are mostly clinical mild and unlikely progress to severe pneumonia due to the impaired cellular immune function and incapability of mounting cytokines storm. More attention should be paid to prevent cardiovascular events, which may be the collateral impacts of COVID-19 epidemic on HD patients."
AUTHORS
Bo Shen
Lei Liu
Xifeng Lv
Guohua Ding
Yiqiong Ma
Lianhua Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Add to List
A Single and Two-Stage, Closed-Tube, Molecular Test for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) at Home, Clinic, and Points of Entry
"&lt;p&gt;The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a newly emerged strain that has never been found in humans before. At present, the laboratory-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the main method to confirm COVID-19 infection. The intensification of the COVID-19 epidemic overwhelms limited clinical resources in particular, but not only, in developing countries, resulting in many patients not being tested for the infection and in large queues of potentially infected individuals waiting to be tested while providing a breeding ground for the disease. We describe here a rapid, highly sensitive, point-of-care, molecular test amenable for use at home, in the clinic, and at points of entry by minimally trained individuals and with minimal instrumentation. Our test is based on loop mediated isothermal amplification (COVID-19 LAMP) and for higher sensitivity on nested nucleic acid, two stage isothermal amplification (COVID-19 Penn-RAMP). Both tests can be carried out in closed tubes with either fluorescence or colorimetric (e.g., leuco crystal violet LCV) detection. COVID-19 LAMP performs on par with COVID-19 RT-PCR. COVID-19 RAMP has 10 fold better sensitivity than COVID-19 LAMP and COVID-19 RT-PCR when testing purified targets and 100 times better sensitivity than COVID-19 LAMP and COVID-19 RT-PCR when testing rapidly prepared sample mimics. Due to fortunate scarcity of COVID-19 infections in the USA, we were not able to test our assays and methods with patient samples. We hope that such tests will be carried out by colleagues in impacted countries. Our Closed-Tube Penn-RAMP has the potential to significantly reduce false negatives while being amenable to use with minimal instrumentation and training. &lt;/p&gt;"
AUTHORS
Jinzhao Song
Haim H. Bau
Mohamed El-Tholotha
PUBLISHED
2020 in American Chemical Society (ACS)

Add to List
Literature review
A systematic review investigating the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among medically not diagnosed individuals: shedding light on current recommendations provided to individuals not medically diagnosed with COVID-19
"Abstract

BackgroundFace masks are being used by individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 as a means to limit the spread of COVID-19 in several countries around the world. While some countries recommend the use of face masks, other countries do not recommend their use to limit the transmission of COVID-19 among this specific population. Because of contradicting recommendations provided by health authorities of different countries, this paper aims to investigate the availability of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 through a systematic review search. This paper will further discuss concerns around current recommendations provided to those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 regarding face mask use in the context of available evidence.MethodsTo carry out the systematic review on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, databases Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. Two groups of keywords were combined: those relating to face masks and COVID-19.ResultsThe systematic review search did not find any studies that investigated the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of this specific virus, COVID-19 among this specific population, those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19.ConclusionsIn light of the finding of this systematic review search, which is a lack of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face masks in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, the significance of this finding is highlighted and extensively discussed in this paper. This paper calls for, but does not limit to; 1) evidence-based recommendations; 2) considerations when providing recommendations in the absence of evidence; 3) evidence and knowledge transparency on current recommendations with the public; 4) global alignment on recommendations; and 5) further research.
"
AUTHOR
Keshini Madara Marasinghe
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

Add to List
A Single and Two-Stage, Closed-Tube, Molecular Test for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) at Home, Clinic, and Points of Entry
"&lt;p&gt;The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a newly emerged strain that has never been found in humans before. At present, the laboratory-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the main method to confirm COVID-19 infection. The intensification of the COVID-19 epidemic overwhelms limited clinical resources in particular, but not only, in developing countries, resulting in many patients not being tested for the infection and in large queues of potentially infected individuals waiting to be tested while providing a breeding ground for the disease. We describe here a rapid, highly sensitive, point-of-care, molecular test amenable for use at home, in the clinic, and at points of entry by minimally trained individuals and with minimal instrumentation. Our test is based on loop mediated isothermal amplification (COVID-19 LAMP) and for higher sensitivity on nested nucleic acid, two stage isothermal amplification (COVID-19 Penn-RAMP). Both tests can be carried out in closed tubes with either fluorescence or colorimetric (e.g., leuco crystal violet LCV) detection. COVID-19 LAMP performs on par with COVID-19 RT-PCR. COVID-19 RAMP has 10 fold better sensitivity than COVID-19 LAMP and COVID-19 RT-PCR when testing purified targets and 100 times better sensitivity than COVID-19 LAMP and COVID-19 RT-PCR when testing rapidly prepared sample mimics. Due to fortunate scarcity of COVID-19 infections in the USA, we were not able to test our assays and methods with patient samples. We hope that such tests will be carried out by colleagues in impacted countries. Our Closed-Tube Penn-RAMP has the potential to significantly reduce false negatives while being amenable to use with minimal instrumentation and training. &lt;/p&gt;"
AUTHORS
Jinzhao Song
Haim H. Bau
Mohamed El-Tholotha
PUBLISHED
2020 in American Chemical Society (ACS)

Add to List
Literature review
A systematic review investigating the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among medically not diagnosed individuals: shedding light on current recommendations provided to individuals not medically diagnosed with COVID-19
"Abstract

BackgroundFace masks are being used by individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 as a means to limit the spread of COVID-19 in several countries around the world. While some countries recommend the use of face masks, other countries do not recommend their use to limit the transmission of COVID-19 among this specific population. Because of contradicting recommendations provided by health authorities of different countries, this paper aims to investigate the availability of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 through a systematic review search. This paper will further discuss concerns around current recommendations provided to those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19 regarding face mask use in the context of available evidence.MethodsTo carry out the systematic review on the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among individuals who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, databases Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. Two groups of keywords were combined: those relating to face masks and COVID-19.ResultsThe systematic review search did not find any studies that investigated the effectiveness of face mask use in limiting the spread of this specific virus, COVID-19 among this specific population, those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19.ConclusionsIn light of the finding of this systematic review search, which is a lack of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of face masks in limiting the spread of COVID-19 among those who are not medically diagnosed with COVID-19, the significance of this finding is highlighted and extensively discussed in this paper. This paper calls for, but does not limit to; 1) evidence-based recommendations; 2) considerations when providing recommendations in the absence of evidence; 3) evidence and knowledge transparency on current recommendations with the public; 4) global alignment on recommendations; and 5) further research.
"
AUTHOR
Keshini Madara Marasinghe
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

Add to List
Plasma Metabolomic and Lipidomic Alterations Associated with COVID-19
"The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health crisis. COVID-19 is marked by its rapid progression from mild to severe conditions, particularly in the absence of adequate medical care. However, the physiological changes associated with COVID-19 are barely understood. In this study, we performed untargeted metabolomic and lipidomic analyses of plasma from a cohort of COVID-19 patients who had experienced different symptoms. We found the metabolite and lipid alterations exhibit apparent correlation with the course of disease in these COVID-19 patients, indicating that the development of COVID-19 affected patient metabolism. Moreover, many of the metabolite and lipid alterations, particularly ones associated with hepatic functions, have been found to align with the progress and severity of COVID-19. This work provides valuable knowledge about blood biomarkers associated with COVID-19 and potential therapeutic targets, and presents important resource for further studies of COVID-19 pathogenesis."
AUTHORS
Muhan Huang
Liu Wen
Tang Tang
Jian-Xin Song
Mingliang Zhang
Ting Shu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Dispositional and situational attribution of COVID-19 risk: A content analysis of response typology
"In the current COVID-19 pandemic, there have been official health recommendations of social distancing, thorough handwashing, and self-isolation to prevent the spread of the virus. However, compliance with these recommendations has been mixed. We suggest that non-compliance may be justified by one’s (mis)perception of their own COVID-19 risk. In this paper, we explore the dispositional and situational attribution of self-reported COVID-19 risk, as per Heider’s Attribution Theory. We conducted a content and framework analysis of responses to an online survey, in which participants (N = 114) were asked to rate their likelihood of contracting the COVID-19 virus, before providing textual responses to explain their rating. Overall, we observed that generally, participants who rated their risk to be low made more dispositional attributions (i.e. attributing their risk to factors such as age and own personal hygiene) whereas higher risk participants made more situational attributions (i.e. attributing COVID-19 risk to government decision-making and other people’s cleanliness). A finalised framework of five response typologies including intrinsic, behavioural, balanced, contextual, and disengaged responses was systematically applied to the data. These results will be discussed in the context of attribution theory and risk perception, whilst providing future recommendations for research that tackles non-compliance of COVID-19 behaviours."
AUTHORS
Madeleine Pownall
Alice Dunning
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Chest CT Could Be Used to Diagnose 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Clinically in Hubei Province
"Abstract

Background: In December 2019, novel coronavirus pneumonia-19 (COVID-19) was discovered in the viral pneumonia cases that occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China; and then quickly spread inside and outside of Wuhan and even other countries. This report describes the clinical course of two patients who had COVID-19.Case presentation: The first case was a typical COVID-19 case. A 66-year-old female presented to our hospital with a 3-day history of fever with coughing, white sputum, runny nose and dizziness. She had contacted with a COVID-19 patient, her daughter-in-law who was diagnosed with COVID-19 two days before. Chest CT showed typical COVID-19 CT imaging. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 by positive nucleic acid test. The second case was a 50-year-old male with a 2-day history of fever and dry coughing. He denied having been to Wuhan. Chest CT also showed typical COVID-19 CT imaging. He accepted COVID-19 nucleic acid test using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of his throat swab sampling 7 times and the test results remained controversial. Eventually, he was diagnosed with COVID-19 after 5 days.Conclusions: Chest CT examination has high sensitivity for diagnosis of COVID-19 clinically, particularly when nucleic acid test is negative. Chest CT should be considered for the COVID-19 screening, comprehensive evaluation and following-up and patients could benefit from effective treatment in time.
"
AUTHORS
Xin Wang
Peng Wen
Yun Li
Zhi-Gang Sun
Chun-Yan Xing
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19): Molecular Evolutionary Analysis, Global Burden and Possible Threat to Bangladesh
"Abstract

Recently a new coronavirus strain, COVID-19 has emerged in Wuhan City, China which cause disease and in many cases deaths to humans. Considering its severity a number of works are working on it and full genomic sequences has already released in the last few weeks to understand the evolutionary origin and molecular characteristics of this virus. Based on currently available genomic information a phylogenetic tree was constructed from four types of representative viral proteins (Spike, Membrane, Envelope and Nucleoproetin) of COVID-19, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63, HKU1, MERS-CoV, HKU4, HKU5 and BufCoV-HKU26 clearly demonstrated that the ancestral origin and distant evolutionary relation of newly epidemic novel coronavirus (COVID-19). It had been found that COVID-19 was evolutionary related to SARS-CoV. It was also found that COVID-19 proteins were almost more than ninety (90%) similar and identical with SARS-CoV proteins. The cross-checked conservancy analysis of COVID-19 antigenic epitopes showed significant conservancy with SARS-CoV proteins. VaxiJen server reveal almost 100% immunogenic potential of four viral proteins with COVID-19. In this article, we present an effort on molecular evolutionary analysis, temperature comparison and compile and analyze epidemiological outbreak information on the 2019 novel coronavirus based on the several open datasets on COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) and possible threat to Bangladesh.Authors Md Bashir Uddin and Mahmudul Hasan contributed equally to this work
"
AUTHORS
Syed Sayeem Uddin Ahmed
Md. Abdus Shukur Imran
Md. Irtija Ahsan
Mahmudul Hasan
Ahmed Harun-Al-Rashid
Md Bashir Uddin
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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When Darkness Becomes a Ray of Light in the Dark Times: Understanding the COVID-19 via the Comparative Analysis of the Dark Proteomes of SARS-CoV-2, Human SARS and Bat SARS-Like Coronaviruses
"AbstractRecently emerged coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2 (also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or Wuhan coronavirus) is a causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is rapidly spreading throughout the world now. More than 9,00,000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and more than 47,000 COVID-19-associated mortalities have been reported worldwide till the writing of this article, and these numbers are increasing every passing hour. World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the SARS-CoV-2 spread as a global public health emergency and admitted that the COVID-19 is a pandemic now. The multiple sequence alignment data correlated with the already published reports on the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and indicated that this virus is closely related to the bat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-like coronavirus (bat SARS-like CoV) and the well-studied Human SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV). The disordered regions in viral proteins are associated with the viral infectivity and pathogenicity. Therefore, in this study, we have exploited a set of complementary computational approaches to examine the dark proteomes of SARS-CoV-2, bat SARS-like, and human SARS CoVs by analysing the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in their proteins. According to our findings, SARS-CoV-2 proteome contains very significant levels of structural order. In fact, except for Nucleocapsid, Nsp8, and ORF6, the vast majority of SARS-CoV-2 proteins are mostly ordered proteins containing less intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs). However, IDPRs found in SARS-CoV-2 proteins are functionally important. For example, cleavage sites in its replicase 1ab polyprotein are found to be highly disordered, and almost all SARS-CoV-2 proteins were shown to contain molecular recognition features (MoRFs), which are intrinsic disorder-based protein-protein interaction sites that are commonly utilized by proteins for interaction with specific partners. The results of our extensive investigation of the dark side of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome will have important implications for the structural and non-structural biology of SARS or SARS-like coronaviruses.SignificanceThe infection caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes severe respiratory disease with pneumonia-like symptoms in humans is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic. No in-depth information on structures and functions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins is currently available in the public domain, and no effective anti-viral drugs and/or vaccines are designed for the treatment of this infection. Our study provides the first comparative analysis of the order- and disorder-based features of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome relative to human SARS and bat CoV that may be useful for structure-based drug discovery."
AUTHORS
Rajanish Giri
Christopher J. Oldfield
Kundlik Gadhave
Bhuvaneshwari R. Gehi
Meenakshi Shegane
Taniya Bhardwaj et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Protecting healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 infection: practical indications
"The World Health Organization has recently defined the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection a pandemic. The infection, that may cause a potentially very severe respiratory disease, now called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has airborne transmission via droplets. The rate of transmission is quite high, higher than common influenza. Healthcare workers are at high risk of contracting the infection particularly when applying respiratory devices such as oxygen cannulas or noninvasive ventilation. The aim of this article is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the correct use of “respiratory devices” in the COVID-19 emergency and protect healthcare workers from contracting the SARS-CoV-2 infection."
AUTHORS
Stefano Nava
Paolo Palange
Lara Pisani
Valentina Leo
Cecilia Cisternino
Martina Ferioli
PUBLISHED
2020 in European Respiratory Review

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In search of feasible interventions for the prevention and cure of novel Coronavirus disease 2019
"COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical, phytopharmaceutical or traditional medicine for cure or prevention of COVID-19, although it is urgently needed. Based on the current understanding of the disease molecular mechanisms from the closest relatives of SARS-CoV-2 as well as novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, I attempt to translate this knowledge into identifying some naturally occurring plant based substances and Ayurvedic medicinal herbs that could feasibly be used as preventive as well as treatment options for COVID-19."
AUTHOR
Sunil Verma
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Has mortality due to other causes increased during the Covid-19 pandemic? Early evidence from England and Wales
"The covid-19 pandemic has claimed many lives in the UK and globally. The objective of this paper is to study whether the covid-19 pandemic has also caused any increase in death rates for those who have not contracted the disease. Reasons behind this may include avoiding visits hospitals or GPs, health system capacity, and the effects of the lockdown. I used graphical analysis and a differences-in-differences econometric approach to study whether there was an increase in non-covid-19 deaths, compared to a control. There is a steep relative and absolute increase in non-covid-19 deaths in the latest available week of data, which might suggest that the pandemic may have caused an increase in deaths even for those who did not contract the virus. Nevertheless, a dip in deaths in the week before, and different patterns in the period before the outbreak makes interpreting the data particularly challenging. Results of the differences-in-differences approach are largely inconclusive. While overall there seems to be an increase in non-covid-19 deaths, we have to rely on limited data for the time being, and results of this study should be treated with caution. As additional mortality data become available every week, further analysis may allow us to study this research question further. Analysing the cause of death for non-covid-19 deaths will shed light upon the reasons for any increase in such deaths and will help design appropriate policy responses to save lives."
AUTHOR
Sotiris Vandoros
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Facing a disruptive threat: how can a nuclear medicine service be prepared for the coronavirus outbreak 2020?
"Purpose: The aim of this short communication is to outline our experience in policies and processes of a nuclear medicine service during the COVID-19 outbreak in Singapore.

Methods: We describe the key considerations of policies and processes that have been implemented in our nuclear medicine service since the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Singapore General Hospital on 23 January 2020, up to the present time.

Results: Infection control, screening of patients and visitors, segregation of risk groups, segregation of staff and service continuity plans, communication and staff welfare, using electronic platforms for multi-disciplinary meetings and tele-reporting are discussed.

Conclusion: Since our hospital received the first patient with COVID-19 in Singapore, our centre has managed 16 COVID-19 cases to date. There has not been any healthcare worker in our institution who has contracted COVID-19 through patient contact. We have highlighted for discussion some of the policies and processes to prepare a nuclear medicine service for the COVID-19 threat.

"
AUTHORS
David Chee-Eng Ng
Wai Yin Wong
Kelvin Siu-Hoong Loke
Winnie Wing-Chuen Lam
PUBLISHED
2020 in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

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A Normalized Mortality Rate Showed the Diverse Severity of COVID-19 in the World
"Covid-19 has given a halt to all the activities in the world. Europe was most affected followed by the United States of America. In this study we have assessed the severity of Covid-19 by analyzing the mortality rate in Covid-19 and other diseases. The Covid-19 data and &amp;ldquo;death rate&amp;rdquo; data caused by other diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, non-communicable respiratory diseases, respiratory infectious diseases, diabetes mellitus, and kidney diseases) were downloaded from the world health organization (WHO) website. A normalized period based method was used to see the mortality rate of Covid-19 in comparison to other diseases. The deaths occurred by cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases were more in number than the Covid-19 caused deaths in the 45 days period where most of the Covid-19 deaths had taken place. The mortality rate of Covid-19 was highest in France followed by Belgium and the lowest in Russia while the share of Covid-19 caused deaths in total deaths by all causes was the highest in Belgium followed by Spain and the lowest in Japan. The severity of Covid-19 in the USA was moderate. The severity of Covid-19 in Asian countries was found to be moderate to low. The severity of Covid-19 was diverse in the world. Europe showed the highest diversity in the mortality rate of Covid-19. Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and non-communicable diseases were still more lethal and caused more deaths than Covid-19."
AUTHORS
C. Priscilla
P.R. Renjith
Selva Kumar Ganesan
Santosh Kumar
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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The first Jordanian newborn delivered to COVID-19 infected mother with no evidence of vertical transmission: A case report.
"Abstract
Background: COVID-19 has been recently declared by WHO a global health pandemic. Theoretically, it might affect all age groups but it is not known if vertical transmission during pregnancy occurs. We hereby report a case about the first Jordanian newborn delivered to COVID-19 infected mother. Case presentation: A late preterm female was delivered by Cesarean section to COVID-19 mother who was diagnosed after presenting with a dry cough, nasal congestion, headache, and sore throat in the context of direct contact with other confirmed patients. The infant’s clinical examination was reassuring throughout the hospital stay. COVID-19 was not detected by RT-PCR tests performed on the amniotic fluid and on two samples of the newborn’s nasopharyngeal swabs indicating no vertical transmission of the virus. After 10 days of hospital stay and following two negative consecutive RT-PCR assays on the mother’s nasopharyngeal swabs, both the mother and the infant were discharged home in stable clinical conditions. Conclusion: Vertical transmission is not likely among the routes of COVID-19 transmission. However, data about more number of deliveries to COVID-19 infected mothers is needed to support this conclusion."
AUTHORS
Fadel Abdelal
Wail Hayajneh
Laila Al Zaghal
Mohammad Khassawneh
Wasim Khasawneh
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Lactoferrin as potential preventative and treatment for COVID-19
"The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly advancing across the globe despite public and personal health measures. Antivirals and nutritional supplements have been proposed as potentially useful against SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19), but few have been clinically established. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that is orally available as a nutritional supplement and has established in vitro anti-viral efficacy against a wide range of virus including SARS-CoV, a closely related corona virus to SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19). Furthermore, Lf possesses unique immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that maybe especially relevant to the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 cases. We review the underlying biological mechanisms of Lf as antiviral and immune regulator, and propose its unique potential as preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. We hope that further research and development of Lf nutritional supplementation would establish its role for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Wei-Zen Sun
Raymond Chang
Tzi Bun Ng
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Highly regarded source
An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
" The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threating respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true. "
AUTHOR
David A. Schwartz
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor
"The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). To date, no prophylactic vaccines or approved therapeutic agents are available for preventing and treating this highly transmittable disease. Here we report two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cloned from memory B cells of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, and both mAbs specifically bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, block the binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and effectively neutralize S protein-pseudotyped virus infection. These human mAbs hold the promise for the prevention and treatment of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Lilin Ye
Zhirong Li
Jianfang Tang
Xiangyu Chen
Zhaohui Qian
Yang Yang et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Clinical features and the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019
"BACKGROUND
There is little information about the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) during pregnancy. This study aimed to determine the clinical features and the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with Covid-19.

METHODS
In this retrospective analysis from five hospitals, we included pregnant women with Covid-19 from January 1 to February 20, 2020. The primary composite endpoints were admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Secondary endpoints included the clinical severity of Covid-19, neonatal mortality, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and the incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of pregnant women and newborns.

RESULTS
Thirty-three pregnant women with Covid-19 and 28 newborns were identified. One (3%) pregnant woman needed the use of mechanical ventilation. No pregnant women admitted to the ICU. There were no moralities among pregnant women or newborns. The percentages of pregnant women with mild, moderate, and severe symptoms were 13 (39.4%),19(57.6%), and 1(3%). One (3.6%) newborn developed ARDS and was admitted to the NICU. The rate of perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was 3.6%.

CONCLUSIONS
This report suggests that pregnant women are not at increased risk for severe illness or mortality with Covid-19 compared with the general population. The SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy might not be associated with as adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes that are seen with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection during pregnancy. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program.)"
AUTHORS
Qiong Yang
Ling Feng
Wen-cong He
Cui-fang Fan
Yu-ling Liu
Kutluk Oktay et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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Sitagliptin: a potential drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2?
"Recently, an outbreak of fatal coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged from China and is rapidly spreading worldwide. As the coronavirus pandemic rages, drug discovery and development become even more challenging. Drug repurposing of the antimalarial drug chloroquine and its hydroxylated form had demonstrated apparent effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical trials. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shares 31.9% sequence identity with the spike protein presents in the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), which infects cells through the interaction of its spike protein with the DPP4 receptor found on macrophages. Sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, that is known for its antidiabetic, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial cardiometabolic effects has been shown to reverse macrophage responses in MERS-CoV infection and reduce CXCL10 chemokine production in AIDS patients. We suggest that Sitagliptin may be beneficial alternative for the treatment of COVID-19 disease especially in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who are already at higher risk of COVID-19 infection."
AUTHOR
Sanaa Bardaweel
PUBLISHED
2020 in Center for Open Science

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COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses
"The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize and comparatively analyze the emergence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection and previous human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We also discuss the approaches for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to cope with this viral outbreak."
AUTHORS
Nadia Bashir
Muhammad Adnan Shereen
Abeer Kazmi
Rabeea Siddique
Suliman Khan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Advanced Research

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives
"Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, Central China, and has spread quickly to 72 countries to date. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [previously provisionally known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)]. At present, the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 has caused a large number of deaths with tens of thousands of confirmed cases worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health. However, there are no clinically approved vaccines or specific therapeutic drugs available for COVID-19. Intensive research on the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiological characteristics and to identify potential drug targets, which will contribute to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Hence, this review will focus on recent progress regarding the structure of SARS-CoV-2 and the characteristics of COVID-19, such as the aetiology, pathogenesis and epidemiological characteristics."
AUTHORS
Shang-Ming Liu
Heng Li
Chao-Ke Tang
Shi-Lin Tang
Xiao-Hua Yu
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

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Beyond predicting the number of infections: predicting who is likely to be COVID negative or positive
"This study provides the first attempt to identify people at greater risk of COVID-19 infection, enabling more targeted infectious disease prevention and control, which are especially important in the ongoing shortage of COVID-19 testing.

We conducted a primary survey of 521 adults on April 1-10, 2020 in Iran, where the official infection rate was 0.08%. In our sample, 3% reported being COVID-19 positive and 15% were unsure of their status. This relatively high positive rate enabled us to conduct the analysis at the 5% significance level.

At the time of the survey, 44% of the adults worked from home; 26% still went to work in their workplaces; 27% had stopped working due to the COVID-19 pandemic; and 3% were unemployed. Adults who exercised more were more likely to be COVID-19 negative. Each additional hour of exercise per day predicted a 78% increase in the likelihood of being COVID-19 negative. Adults with chronic medical illnesses were 48% more likely to be COVID-19 negative. In terms of work situation, those who worked from home were the most likely to be COVID-19 negative, and those who had stopped working were the most likely to be COVID-19 positive. Individuals in larger organizations were less likely to be COVID-19 positive.

Given the testing shortage in many countries, we identify a novel approach to predict the likelihood of COVID-19 infection by a set of personal and work situation characteristics, in order to help to identify individuals with more or less risk of contracting the virus. We hope this research opens a new research avenue to identify the individual risk factors of COVID-19 infection to enable more targeted infectious disease prevention, communication, testing, and control to complement the effort to expand testing capacity."
AUTHORS
Yifei Wang
Shuhua Sun
Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi
Stephen X. Zhang
Maryam Mokhtari Dinani
Abbas Nazarian Madavani
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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A case of postpartum maternal death with COVID-19 in the west of Iran
"Abstract
Background: There are a limited number of studies about COVID-19 during delivery and postpartum.Case presentation: A 38-years old G3p2 woman at 35 weeks and 4 days of gestation referred with the chief complaints of dyspnea, cough, headache, and fever. Pharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative for COVID-19; however, in chest computed tomography (CT) angiography, ground glass was observed in the basal lobe of the left lung. The infant was born via cesarean section with gestational age of 36 weeks and an Apgar score of 8/9. No infant document was found about COVID-19‎ and other infections in several days after delivery. The patient died eight days after the onset of symptoms due to cardiovascular collapse.Conclusions: We reported the first death of postpartum maternal with COVID-19 and a healthy baby with no evidence of COVID-19 and gestational age of 36 weeks."
AUTHORS
Shohreh Alimohammadi
Hamideh parsapour
Sorour Akbari
Mehrangiz Zamani bonab
Ensiyeh Jenabi
Maryam Ahmadi
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Literature review
The impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy and neonatal health: a systematic review
"Abstract
Background: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. With an incredible rate of contagion, it has reached all over the world, with more than 2 million confirmed cases at the mid of April. However, the vertical transmission of COVID-19 is uncertain. This is a systematic review of published studies concerning pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 and their neonates.Methods: We performed a systematic search in Pubmed, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, Scopus, and World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 database to find articles reporting clinical data of COVID-19-positive pregnant women and their neonates.Results: 37 articles, involving 364 pregnant women with COVID-19 and 302 neonates, were included. The vast majority of pregnant patients were in their third trimester of pregnancy, and only 45 cases were in the first or second trimester (12.4%). Most mothers described mild to moderate manifestations of COVID-19. Of 364 pregnant women, 25 were asymptomatic at the time of admission. The most common symptoms were fever (62.4%) and cough (45.3%). Two maternal deaths occurred. Some pregnant patients (12.1%) had a negative SARS‐CoV‐2 test but displayed clinical manifestations and abnormalities in computed tomography (CT) scan related to COVID‐19. Twenty‐two (6.0%) pregnant patients developed severe pneumonia. Two maternal deaths occurred from severe pneumonia and multiple organ dysfunction. Studies included a total of 302 neonates from mothers with COVID‐19. Of the studies that provided data on the timing of birth, there were 65 (23.6%) preterm neonates. One baby was born dead from a mother who also died from COVID-19. Of the babies born alive from mothers with COVID‐19, five newborns faced critical conditions, and two of which later died. A total of 219 neonates underwent nasopharyngeal specimen collection for SARS‐CoV‐2, of which 11 tested positive (5%). Seventeen studies examined samples of the placenta, breast milk, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid, and all tested negative except one amniotic fluid sample.Conclusions: A systematic review of published studies confirm that the course of COVID-19 in pregnant women resembles that of other populations. However, there is not sufficient evidence to establish an idea that COVID-19 would not complicate pregnancy."
AUTHORS
Nima Rezaei
Mona Mirbeyk
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Beyond predicting the number of infections: predicting who is likely to be COVID negative or positive (Preprint)
"
BACKGROUND
The current COVID-19 pandemic and the severe shortage of testing kits in many countries pose a first and foremost problem in medical informatics—the information on the risk predictors of people who are at greater risk of contracting COVID-19 to enable more targeted infectious disease prevention, communication, testing, and control.


OBJECTIVE
This study aims to identify individuals’ likelihood to be COVID negative or positive, enabling more targeted infectious disease prevention and control.


METHODS
We conducted a primary survey of 521 adults on April 1-10, 2020 in Iran, where the official infection rate was 0.08%. In our sample, 3% reported positive and 15% were unsure whether they were infected. This relatively high positive rate enabled us to conduct the analysis at 5% significance level.


RESULTS
Adults who exercised more were more likely to be COVID-19 negative. Each additional hour of exercise per day predicted a 78% increase in the likelihood of being COVID-19 negative. Adults with chronic medical illnesses were 48% more likely to be COVID-19 negative. In terms of work situation, those who worked from home were the most likely to be COVID-19 negative, and those who had stopped working were the most likely to be COVID-19 positive. Individuals in larger organizations were less likely to be COVID-19 positive.


CONCLUSIONS
This study enables more targeted infectious disease prevention and control by identifying the risk factors of COVID-19 infections from a set of readily accessible information on demographic and work characteristics. We hope this research opens a new research avenue of medical informatics to help healthcare services to predict the individual likelihood of COVID-19 infection by risk factors.
"
AUTHORS
Maryam Mokhtar Dinani
Yifei Wang
Shuhua Sun
Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi
Stephen X. Zhang
Abbas Nazarian Madavani
PUBLISHED
2020 in JMIR Publications Inc.

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Third trimester pregnancy and cesarean delivery of a patient with COVID-19: a case report
"Abstract
Background: Limited data is available about the clinical features, management and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women COVID-19 positive. Case: At 37 WGA, a 34-year-old woman G3C1A1 of Puerto Rican origin presented to her follow-up perinatologist visit with flu-like symptoms and COVID-19 contact exposure history. After confirmation of COVID-19 infection and findings on chest radiography, she was successfully treated with ceftriaxone, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and supportive measures. She had an uncomplicated cesarean delivery with no evidence of vertical transmission. The infant’s physical examination was unremarkable, without any clinical indication of infection.Conclusion: We describe the favorable clinical outcome of a delivery in a woman with COVID-19 in Puerto Rico. It highlights the importance of the rapid clinical management and the hospital coordinated response for the care of a COVID-19 positive pregnant patient at a point where there are no evidence-based or established guidelines. Universal screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women who are admitted for delivery should be considered as part of the hospitals COVID-19’s protocols to improve the staff and patient’s protection."
AUTHORS
Marielys Otero Maldonado
William Ramírez Cacho
Edwin Soto Tapia
Aracelis Nieves Rodríguez
Martha L. Villarreal Morales
Maribel Rodríguez González
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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The impact of believing you have had COVID-19 on behaviour: Cross-sectional survey
"Objectives: To investigate whether people who think they have had COVID-19 are less likely to engage in social distancing measures compared with those who think they have not had COVID-19.
Design: On-line cross-sectional survey.
Setting: Data were collected between 20th and 22nd April.
Participants: 6149 participants living in the UK aged 18 years or over.
Main outcome measures: Perceived immunity to COVID-19, self-reported adherence to social distancing measures (going out for essential shopping, nonessential shopping, and meeting up with friends/family; total out-of-home activity), worry about COVID-19 and perceived risk of COVID-19 to oneself and people in the UK. Knowledge that cough and high temperature / fever are the main symptoms of COVID-19.
Results: In this sample, 1493 people (24.3%) thought they had had COVID-19. Only 245 (4.0%) reported receiving a test result saying they had COVID-19. Reported test results were often incongruent with participants' belief that they had had COVID-19. People who believed that they had had COVID-19 were: more likely to agree that they had some immunity to COVID-19; less likely to report adhering to social distancing measures; less worried about COVID-19; and less likely to know that cough and high temperature / fever are two of the most common symptoms of COVID-19.
Conclusions: The number of people in the UK who think they have already had COVID-19 is about twice the rate of current prevalence estimates. People who think that they have had COVID-19 may contribute to transmission of the virus through non-adherence to social distancing measures. Clear communications to this growing group are needed to explain why protective measures continue to be important and to encourage sustained adherence."
AUTHORS
G. James Rubin
Louise E. Smith
Theresa M. Marteau
Jo Waller
Mark Egan
Abigail L. Mottershaw
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Literature review
Rapid systematic review of neonatal COVID-19 including a case of presumed vertical transmission
"ObjectiveTo carry out a systematic review of the available studies on COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) in neonates seen globally since the onset of the COVID-19 global pandemic in 2020. The paper also describes a premature baby with reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-positive COVID-19 seen at the Blackpool Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK.DesignWe conducted a multifaceted search of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Medline and PubMed from 1 December 2019 to 12 May 2020 to harvest articles from medical journals and publications reporting cases of COVID-19 in neonates from anywhere in the world. Additional searches were also done so as not to miss any important publications. Write-up was in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, the protocol for the review was registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), and risk of bias was analysed with the Newcastle-Ottawa tool. Additionally, the preterm neonate with COVID-19 from our hospital is also reported.ResultsThe systematic review has revealed eight studies where neonates have been described to have confirmed COVID-19, with low risk of bias. Of the 10 reported cases elsewhere, only three are likely to be vertically transmitted, while seven occurred in the postperinatal period and are likely to have been postnatally acquired. All neonates had a mild course, recovered fully and were negative on retesting. Our case of COVID-19 in a 32-week premature baby from the UK was delivered by emergency caesarean section, with the mother wearing a face mask and the family having no contact with the neonate, suggesting vertical transmission. On day 33, the neonate was asymptomatic but was still RT-PCR-positive on nasopharyngeal airway swab.ConclusionsNeonatal infection is uncommon, with only two previously reported cases likely to be of vertical transmission. The case we report is still RT-PCR-positive on day 28 and is asymptomatic. Ongoing research is needed to ascertain the epidemiology of COVID-19 in neonates."
AUTHORS
Achyut Guleri
M Idris Ahmed
Chris Rawlingson
Karim Rezk
Taher Kagalwala
Morris Gordon
PUBLISHED
2020 in BMJ Paediatrics Open

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Neonatal Late Onset Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
"
Objective To date, no information on late-onset infection in newborns to mother with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contracted in pregnancy are available. This study aimed to evaluate postdischarge SARS-CoV-2 status of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy that, at birth, were negative to SARS-CoV-2.
Study Design This is an observational study of neonates born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Results Seven pregnant women with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection have been evaluated in our institution. One woman had a spontaneous abortion at 8 weeks of gestational age, four women recovered and are still in follow-up, and two women delivered. Two newborns were enrolled in the study. At birth and 3 days of life, newborns were negative to SARS-CoV-2. At 2-week follow-up, one newborn tested positive although asymptomatic.
Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of follow-up of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy, since they remain at risk of contracting the infection in the early period of life and long-term consequences are still unknown.
Key Points
"
AUTHORS
Simonetta Costa
Maurizio Sanguinetti
Antonio Lanzone
Brunella Posteraro
Piero Valentini
Danilo Buonsenso et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in American Journal of Perinatology

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THE FACTS ABOUT CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): THE CURRENT SCENARIO AND IMPORTANT LESSONS
"This paper discusses the important review about the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and main facts about it. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristic of Patients With COVID-19:The Wuhan city in China, faced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, with extreme acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being the causative agent. The clinical characteristics and the epidemiological criteria for COVID-19 patients were described. Still, the risk factors for mortality and a clear course of the disease clinically, including viral shedding, have not been identified. Corona Virus and its Types: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family which infect animals as well as humans. The name "coronavirus" was developed in 1968, which stemmed from the morphology similar to "corona" or crown-like. The Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV), Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV). Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub-genera or lineages. COVID-19 Strategic Prevention on different levels: In dealing with COVID-19 challenge, most countries are practicing a mix of inclusion and stopping crowds hoping to delay an increased number of affected individuals and minimizing the need for hospital facilities, as well as securing those at higher risk from being infected, especially old age population and people with long-standing illness"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Global Journal of Public Health Medicine

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The novel coronavirus and its possible treatment by vaccines, therapeutics and drug delivery systems: Current status and future perspectives
"In the mid-end of December 2019, several cases of pneumonia outbreak of unknown cause and etiology were identified in Wuhan City of Hubei province in China, a city with a population of over 11 million.Till date(April 2020) around 1,051,635 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and 56,985 confirmed deaths have been reported according to COVID-19 Situation Report – 75 by WHO. On 7th January 2020, the causative agent was identified and named consequently as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) from throat swab samples. Later, on 12th January 2020, this coronavirus was named as 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by World Health Organization (WHO) and in 11th February 2020,it has been declared the epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) as it is spreading rapidly from its origin in Wuhan City to the rest of the world. In this context, the current review provides a landscape of the novel Corona Virus including its origin, transmission, epidemiology, drugs and vaccines in clinical trials for better understanding to the reads and peoples the status and future perspectives of this pandemic disease"
AUTHORS
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy Somanathan Balasubramanian
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan Dhanabal Palanisamy
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan Arun Radhakrishnan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan
Madhurya Kadavakollu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Madhurya Kadavakollu et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Literature review
Covid-2019:“A Microbiological Monster”
"Pneumonia triggered by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China in December 2019 is a extremely contagious disease. The WHO has stated the outbreak of Covid 19(Corona virus) as a pandemic issue. Currently, the research on this virus is in its primary stage. Based on the existing and available data, this is to enlighten on the epidemiology, its clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19. This review is for the public to effectively recognize and fight with the 2019 novel coronavirus and providing a spark for future studies."
AUTHOR
Ravichandra Ravi
PUBLISHED
2020 in Asian Journal of Medicine and Health

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Highly regarded source
Effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnant women and their infants: A retrospective study in Wuhan, China
" Context: The pandemic of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, has created an unprecedented global health burden. Objective: To investigate the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and other poor obstetrical outcomes. Design: All suspected cases of pregnant women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted into one center of Wuhan from Jan 20, 2020 to March 19, 2020 were included. Detailed clinical data of those pregnancies with COVID-19 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: Twenty-seven laboratory or clinically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection pregnant women (4 early pregnancies included) and 24 neonates born to the 23 late pregnant mothers were analyzed. On admission, 46.2% (13/27) of the patients had symptoms, including fever (11/27), cough (9/27) and vomiting (1/27). Decreased total lymphocytes count was observed in 81.6% (22/27) patients. Twenty-six patients showed typical viral pneumonia by chest computed tomography (CT) scan, while one patient confirmed with COVID-19 infection showed no abnormality on chest CT. One mother developed severe pneumonia three days after her delivery. No maternal and perinatal death occurred. Moreover, one early preterm newborn, born to a mother with complication of premature rupture of fetal membranes, highly suspected with SARS-CoV-2 infection, was SARS-CoV-2 negative after repeated real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. Statistical difference was observed between the groups of early pregnant and late pregnant women with COVID-19 in the occurrence of lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: No major complication were reported among the studied cohort, though one serious case and one perinatal infection were observed. Much effort should be done to reduce the pathogenic effect of COVID-19 infection in pregnancies. "
AUTHORS
Li-ye Yang
Sudong Zhan
Guoping Xiong
Hui Yang
Bin Hu
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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Hydroxychloroquine-induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome in COVID-19: a rare case report
"Abstract
The international outbreak of respiratory illness termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 that has affected &amp;gt;0.8 million individuals. Self-limiting respiratory tract involvement, severe pneumonia, multiorgan failure and death are the spectrum of COVID-19. To date, there are no especial therapeutic agents for COVID-19 infections. One such medication includes the antimalarial hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which recently reported as a possible therapy for shortening the duration of COVID-19 symptoms, reducing inflammatory reactions to infection, impairing the exacerbation of pneumonia and boosting lung imaging findings. Like all medications, HCQ has side effects and may occur in COVID-19 patients. Here, we report on the case of a 42-year-old woman, presented with fever and dry cough, who had COVID-19 and 2 days later presented with a pruritic erythematous maculopapular rash, which started from the distal of upper extremities and rapidly, involved the entire body."
AUTHORS
Eissa Soleymani
Hamed Jafarpour
Alireza Razavi
Lotfollah Davoodi
Zahra Akbari
Armaghan Kazeminejad
PUBLISHED
2020 in Oxford Medical Case Reports

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Literature review
The Impact of COVID-19 on HIV Treatment and Research: A Call to Action
"The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is far reaching, with devastating effects on individuals, communities, and societies across the world. People with chronic health conditions may be at greater risk of contracting or experiencing complications from COVID-19. In addition to illness or death for those who contract the virus, the physical distancing required to flatten the curve of new cases is having a negative impact on the economy, the effects of which intersect with mental health and other existing health concerns, thus affecting marginalized communities. Given that HIV also has a disproportionate impact on marginalized communities, COVID-19 is affecting people with HIV (PWH) in unique ways and will continue to have an impact on HIV research and treatment after the COVID-19 crisis passes. Using the biopsychosocial framework to contextualize the impact of COVID-19 on PWH, the purpose of this review article is to: (1) outline the similarities and differences between the COVID-19 and HIV pandemics; (2) describe the current and future impact of COVID-19 on PWH; and (3) outline a call to action for scientists and practitioners to respond to the impact of COVID-19 on HIV prevention and treatment."
AUTHORS
Tiffany Chenneville
Cashea Holyfield
Patricia Hanson
Kemesha Gabbidon
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

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THE FACTS ABOUT CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): THE CURRENT SCENARIO AND IMPORTANT LESSONS Authors
"This paper discusses the important review about the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and main facts about it. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristic of Patients With COVID-19:The Wuhan city in China, faced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, with extreme acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being the causative agent. The clinical characteristics and the epidemiological criteria for COVID-19 patients were described. Still, the risk factors for mortality and a clear course of the disease clinically, including viral shedding, have not been identified. Corona Virus and its Types: Coronaviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family which infect animals as well as humans. The name "coronavirus" was developed in 1968, which stemmed from the morphology similar to "corona" or crown-like. The Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV), Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV). Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub-genera or lineages. COVID-19 Strategic Prevention on different levels: In dealing with COVID-19 challenge, most countries are practicing a mix of inclusion and stopping crowds hoping to delay an increased number of affected individuals and minimizing the need for hospital facilities, as well as securing those at higher risk from being infected, especially old age population and people with long-standing illness"
PUBLISHED
2020 in Global Journal of Public Health Medicine

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Literature review
A systematic review of vertical transmission and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among infants born to mothers with COVID-19
"Abstract
Amidst the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, evidence on vertical transmission and natural passive immunity among the newborns exposed to COVID-19 is scanty and varies. This pose a challenge on preventive interventions for the newborns. We conducted a systematic review to first, determine the likelihood of vertical transmission among COVID-19 exposed infants and second, determine whether antibodies against Severe Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/ COVID-19 virus exist among COVID-19 vertically exposed but negative infants. This review registered in PROSPERO searched evidence from PubMed/ MEDLINE and Google Scholar, among others. About 517 studies were retrieved, where only 33 articles (5.8%) qualified for final analysis. A total of 205 infants born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were pooled from 33 eligible studies. Overall, 6.3% (13/205; 95%CI: 3.0%-9.7%) of the infants tested positive for COVID-19 virus at birth. Of 33 eligible studies, 6 studies (18.8%) reported about IgG/IgM against SARS-CoV-2. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM were detected in 90% (10/11; 95%CI: 73.9%-107.9%) of infants who had no COVID-19 but vertically exposed. In conclusion, the current evidence revealed a low possibility of vertical transmission of COVID-19 while antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in most of the infants who had no COVID-19. Further studies on perinatal outcomes and the magnitude of natural passive immunity in infants born to mothers with COVID-19 are warranted."
AUTHORS
Bruno F. Sunguya
Deodatus Sabas
Dorkasi L. Mwakawanga
Belinda J. Njiro
George M. Bwire*
PUBLISHED
2020 in Research Square

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Covid 19 Infected Mothers and Antibodies Transmission to Their Babies
"Previous studies on the outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on
information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19.
This study aimed to evaluate the antibodies transmission to babies from their mothers.
Methods: Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for 18
pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (i.e., with maternal throat swab samples that were
positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted from 20
Marsh to 16 May 2020 in one of the hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Evidence of antibodies transmission was
assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IMG, IMG, and neonatal samples after labor.
Findings: All 18 patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. most of the babies had a 1-min
Apgar score of 8-9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9-10. All samples tested negative for the virus.
Interpretation: Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for
intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 in late pregnancy.
"
AUTHORS
Ashraf Mohamed Safwat Ibrahim
Ashraf Mohamed Safwat Ibrahim
PUBLISHED
2020 in Case Reports in Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive

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COVID 19 Vertical Transmission: A Growing Concern
"Context: COVID 19 vertical transmission is a great concern in different aspects of mother, child, healthcare staff and community safety and protection. There is lack of definitive evidence confirming or declining mother to child COVID 19 transmission. This article is an update on this challenging issue. Evidence Acquisition: This article is a comprehensive search in scientific major database from 1 January 2020 up to 25 April 2020 with the key words of “COVID 19” and “vertical transmission” or “neonatal”. Two researchers reviewed all selected articles to extract data about neonatal COVID 19 and vertical transmission. Those reports that provided the results of PCR on fetus or neonate blood, amniotic fluid or pharyngeal secretion samples or elevated COVID 19 specific IgM were included. Those reports based on clinical COVID 19 characteristics or radiological findings were not included in data extraction. Thirty six articles have been reviewed and evidence supporting or against COVID 19 Vertical transmission have been extracted and discussed. Results: Most previous studies on vertical COVID 19 transmission have been tested placenta, amniotic fluid, cord blood and newborn blood or pharyngeal swab sample using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) that may show false negative results due to suboptimal sampling or inefficient viral load. Increased COVID 19 specific IgG/IgM antibodies have been reported in newborns from COVID 19 mothers; however, data is limited and longitudinal follow up is needed. Evidence supporting COVID 19 vertical transmission: Recent reports indicate that pharyngeal PCR test turned positive in first few hours of life in several neonates. Also increased level of COVID 19 specific IgM and IgG antibodies in newborns to COVID 19 positive mothers are reported. Rate of perinatal complications were higher among newborns of COVID 19 mothers. Evidence against COVID 19 vertical transmission: All tissue or blood specimens and pharyngeal swab qRT-PCR tests among neonates born from COVID 19 mothers were negative. Rate of cross reactivity and false positive results are high in serologic studies. Conclusions: COVID 19 vertical transmission is a growing health care concern that needs further investigation; however, it is suggested to be equipped with PPE on contacts with both COVID 19 pregnant woman and her newborn baby and apply early separation, isolation, testing and close follow up for both mother and child."
AUTHORS
Reza Shojaeian
Ahmet Athab Alzubaidi
Ameer Isam AlAasam
Sultan Muhsin Ghanim
PUBLISHED
2020 in Iranian Journal of Pediatrics

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Extremely Preterm Infant Born to a Mother With Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia
" Little is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates, especially when the virus is contracted early in pregnancy. The literature is especially lacking on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on extremely preterm (&lt;28 weeks gestation) infants who have underdeveloped immune systems. We report the case of an extremely preterm, 25-week 5-days old infant, born to a mother with severe COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) pneumonia. In this case, there is no evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing, despite extreme prematurity. However, it appears that severe maternal COVID-19 may have been associated with extremely preterm delivery, based on observed histologic chorioamnionitis. This is the first reported case of an extremely preterm infant born to a mother with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who required intubation, and was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, inhaled nitric oxide, and prone positioning for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure prior to and after delivery of this infant. The infant remains critically ill with severe respiratory failure on high-frequency ventilation, inotropic support, hydrocortisone for pressor-resistant hypotension, and inhaled nitric oxide for severe persistent pulmonary hypertension with a right to left shunt across the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. Pregnant women or women planning to get pregnant should take all precautions to minimize exposure to SARS-CoV-2 to decrease adverse perinatal outcomes. "
AUTHORS
Rangasamy Ramanathan
Fiona B. Wertheimer
Amy M. Yeh
Theodore De Beritto
Molly C. Easterlin
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports

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Karakteristik Bayi Baru Lahir dari Ibu Terkait COVID-19 di RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang
"Latar belakang&#x0D;
Kejadian kasus COVID-19 pada bayi belum banyak dilaporkan dan mekanisme penularan terhadap bayi baru lahir masih belum jelas.&#x0D;
Tujuan&#x0D;
Melaporkan perbedaan karakteristik bayi baru lahir dari ibu terkait COVID-19 di RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang&#x0D;
Metode&#x0D;
Penelitian retrospektif dengan data sekunder catatan medik bayi baru lahir dari ibu terkait COVID-19 di RSUP dr Kariadi Semarang pada periode April-Mei 2020 dengan kelompok pembanding bayi baru lahir dari ibu tidak terkait COVID-19. Kriteria inklusi semua bayi lahir dari ibu terkait COVID-19 dirawat di rumah sakit dan dilakukan pemeriksaan PCR dengan spesimen swab nasofaring. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah usia kehamilan, jenis kelamin, berat lahir, cara persalinan, usia ibu dan jenis minum yang diberikan pada bayi. Dilakukan uji beda menggunakan uji chi square dan shapiro wilk. Analisis data menggunakan program komputer SPSS.&#x0D;
Hasil&#x0D;
Dari 46 sampel penelitian terdiri dari 23 bayi lahir dari ibu terkait COVID-19 dan 23 bayi lahir dari ibu tidak terkait COVID-19 dilakukan analisis dengan hasil tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna dari usia kehamilan, berat lahir, cara persalinan dan usia ibu. Pada kelompok bayi lahir terkait COVID-19 mayoritas lahir dengan jenis kelamin perempuan (74%) dan jenis minum yang diberikan sekitar 86% dengan susu formula. Tidak ada bayi yang mendapat ASI eksklusif pada bayi yang lahir dari ibu terkait COVID-19. Semua bayi yang lahir dari ibu terkait COVID-19 didapatkan hasil swab nasofaring negatif dan tidak menunjukkan gejala apapun sampai dengan pulang.&#x0D;
Simpulan&#x0D;
Tidak didapatkan perbedaan karakteristik usia kehamilan, berat lahir, cara persalinan dan usia ibu. Terdapat perbedaan karakteristik jenis kelamin dan jenis minum yang diberikan pada kedua kelompok penelitian.&#x0D;
Keyword: bayi baru lahir, COVID-19&#x0D;
 &#x0D;
Background&#x0D;
The incidence of COVID-19 cases in newborn has not been widely reported and the mechanism of transmission to the newborn is unclear.&#x0D;
Objective&#x0D;
To report the characteristics of newborns from mothers related to COVID-19 at Kariadi Hospital Semarang.&#x0D;
Method&#x0D;
Retrospective study with secondary data on medical records of newborns from mothers related to COVID-19 at Kariadi Hospital in the April-May 2020 period with a comparison group of newborns from mothers not related to COVID-19. Criteria for inclusion of all infants born to mothers associated with COVID-19 were hospitalized and PCR examination carried out with nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Data collected were gestational age, sex, birth weight, mode of delivery, maternal age and type of dietary given to the baby. Analysis tests were performed using chi square test and Shapiro Wilk. Data analysis using SPSS computer programs&#x0D;
Result&#x0D;
Of the 46 study samples consisting of 23 babies born to mothers related to COVID-19 and 23 babies born to mothers not related to COVID-19 were analyzed with the results that there were no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, mode of delivery and maternal age. In the group of babies born with COVID-19 the majority were born with a female sex (74%) and the type of dietary given was around 86% with formula milk. No baby gets exclusive breastfeeding for babies born to mothers related to COVID-19. All babies born to mothers related to COVID-19 obtained negative nasopharyngeal swab results and did not show any symptoms until discharge.&#x0D;
Conclusion&#x0D;
There were no differences in the characteristics of gestational age, birth weight, mode of delivery and maternal age. There were differences in the characteristics of the sexes and types of dietary given in the two study groups.&#x0D;
Keyword: newborn, COVID-19"
AUTHORS
Gatot Irawan Sarosa
Moh Syarofil Anam
Arsita Eka Rini
Adhie Nur Radityo
PUBLISHED
2020 in Medica Hospitalia : Journal of Clinical Medicine

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Literature review
Challenges of Glycemic Control in COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Resource-poor Settings
"Background and objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 is now a global pandemic affecting most countries in the world. Some conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, are associated with increased morbidity and mortality among COVID-19 patients. Poor glycemic control has been associated with the risk of contracting COVID-19 and it is also poor prognostic factors among patients infected. Therefore, all efforts should be focused on glycemic control especially among COVID-19 patients who also have diabetes. In the COVID-19 era however, getting a good glycemic control is faced with myriads of challenges. These challenges cut across different phases of the infection from a patient living with diabetes who has mild COVID-19 and is being managed at home to a critically ill patient with COVID-19. These challenges need to be identified and elaborated upon so as to device mechanisms to effectively address them.
The aim of this review article is to highlight the various challenges of achieving a good glycemic control among COVID-19 patients who have diabetes. Relevant articles were gotten from PubMed, Google scholar, science direct as well as the grey literature using search terms such as ‘diabetes, covid 19’, ‘glycemic control, covid 19’, covid 19, resource-poor settings’."
AUTHORS
Azeez T. A.
Esan A.
PUBLISHED
2020 in International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science

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Fatal COVID-19 in an MS patient on natalizumab: A case report
" We report a fatal case of COVID-19 in a 51-year-old African American woman with multiple sclerosis on natalizumab. She had multiple risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease including race, obesity, hypertension, and elevated inflammatory markers, but the contribution of natalizumab to her poor outcome remains unknown. We consider whether altered dynamics of peripheral immune cells in the context of natalizumab treatment could worsen the cytokine storm syndrome associated with severe COVID-19. We discuss extended interval dosing as a risk-reduction strategy for multiple sclerosis patients on natalizumab, and the use of interleukin-6 inhibitors in such patients who contract COVID-19. "
AUTHORS
Lauren Sutherland
Dina Podolsky
Genna Braverman
Kiran Thakur
Rebecca Farber
Kathryn Rimmer et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Multiple Sclerosis Journal - Experimental, Translational and Clinical

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Physiological and clinical aspects in COVID-19
"There is a new public health crises threatening globally with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel corona virus (COVID-19) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In very recent decade we have seen endemic outbreaks in the form of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Now we again see the emergence of another serious outbreak due to a new strain called the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This SARS-CoV-2 initially presented as pneumonia of unknown etiology with group of symptoms including fever, dry cough and shortness of breath in a cluster of patients in December 2019 Wuhan, China. COVID-19 now has quickly became a health emergency now across worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging human infectious corona virus that causes COVID-19, now this has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March, 2020. Because of the pathogenesis and proliferation pathways of COVID-19 are still unknown the development of vaccine was not developed yet and definitive treatment was not implemented. Therefore, in this article, new potential COVID-19 therapies are briefly reviewed. The world is in emergent need for searching of possible medications for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
S. Jayachandra
J. Sorout
R. Kodidala Satyanath
S. Kacker
A. Gandhi
PUBLISHED
2020 in RUDN Journal of Medicine

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Highly regarded source
Neonates With Complex Cardiac Malformation and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Born to SARS-CoV-2 Positive Women—A Single Center Experience
"Background: Our understanding of the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pregnancies and perinatal outcomes is limited. The clinical course of neonates born to women who acquired coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during their pregnancy has been previously described. However, the course of neonates born with complex congenital malformations during the COVID-19 pandemic is not known. Methods: We report a case series of seven neonates with congenital heart and lung malformations born to women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during their pregnancy at a single academic medical center in New York City. Results: Six infants had congenital heart disease and one was diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In all seven infants, the clinical course was as expected for the congenital lesion. None of the seven exhibited symptoms generally associated with COVID-19. None of the infants in our case series tested positive by nasopharyngeal test for SARS-CoV-2 at 24 hours of life and at multiple points during their hospital course. Conclusions: In this case series, maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy did not result in adverse outcomes in neonates with complex heart or lung malformations. Neither vertical nor horizontal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was noted. "
AUTHORS
Mariel E. Turner
Kinjal Desai
Faith Kim
Angelica Vasquez
Diana Vargas
Nimrod Goldshtrom et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery

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