Does the prevalence of firearms increase gun-related police deaths?

Submitted by: DEvans 8

Yes. Note that some studies in this list give us reason to question their conclusions. This may be because they were published in sources that are not peer-reviewed, are low ranked or not ranked at all, which may indicate limited editorial oversight. Alternatively, it may be because they were criticized in a published article or produced by a financially interested or ideologically motivated source. Carefully review the individual study summaries below for more information.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 4 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 4 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do gun buyback programs reduce gun violence?
12 studies
Submitted by: XJackson 78

Do assault weapons bans reduce mass shootings?
2 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce firearm homicides?
7 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce firearm suicides?
5 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce mass shootings?
1 study
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce total suicides?
2 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 4
Sorted by publication year
1
Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States
"OBJECTIVES: In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates.\n\nMETHODS: We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.\n\nRESULTS: Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs."
AUTHORS
Francesca Dominici
Molly M. Simmons
David Hemenway
David I. Swedler
PUBLISHED
2015 in American Journal of Public Health
High quality source
Yes
Yes
2
The Impact of Gun Laws on Police Deaths
"This paper uses state-level data from 1984-1996 to examine how right-to-carry laws and waiting periods affect police deaths. Many people oppose concealed carry laws because they believe these laws jeopardize law enforcement officials who risk their lives to protect the citizenry. This paper strongly rejects this contention. States that allow law-abiding citizens to carry concealed weapons have a slightly higher likelihood of having a felonious police death and slightly higher police death rates prior to the law. After enactment of the right-to-carry laws, states exhibit a reduced likelihood of having a felonious police death rate and slightly lower rates of police deaths. States that implement waiting periods have slightly lower felonious police death rates both before and after the law. Allowing law-abiding citizens to carry concealed weapons does not endanger the lives of officers, and may help reduce their risk of being killed."
AUTHOR
David B. Mustard
PUBLISHED
2001 in SSRN Electronic Journal
Preprint
No
No
3
The Police as Victims: The Role of Guns in the Murder of Police
"Examined data on murder rates of police officers from the 37 largest cities in the US for 1970–1978. It was found that (1) the rate at which police officers were murdered was related to the murder rate in the cities, and (2) police officers were murdered at a higher rate in cities where a greater proportion of suicides, homicides, robberies, and aggravated assaults involve guns. Findings suggest that the increased availability and use of guns in a community may reflect a higher likelihood of lethal violence toward police."
AUTHOR
David Lester
PUBLISHED
1987 in Psychological Reports
Q3
Yes
Yes
4
Police Officers Killed and the Guns Used by Criminals
"Examined the relationship between the characteristics of confiscated handguns in 17 US cities, as reported in the 1976 Project Identification, and the rates with which police officers were murdered in those cities, as provided by the author (1978). Police officers were murdered at a higher rate in cities where handguns were inexpensive and traceable; revolvers and short-barrelled guns, particularly those from pawn shops, were most often used. (2 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)"
AUTHOR
David Lester
PUBLISHED
1982 in Psychological Reports
Q3
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 31
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Does the prevalence of firearms increase gun-related police deaths?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Highly regarded source
Repeal of the Concealed Weapons Law and its Impact on Gun-related Injuries and Deaths
"This retrospective, observational before-and-after cohort analysis sought to determine the effect of a new gun control law in Arizona on gun-related deaths and injuries. On July 29, 2010, Senate Bill 1108 went into effect and removed the requirement for a permit to carry a concealed weapon. This study spanned a total of 4 years, 2 before and 2 after the law was enacted. Victims of violent crimes vs. accidents were identified from police department event data as the population at risk of gun-related injury."
AUTHOR
Jenelle Holst
PUBLISHED
2014 in The Journal of Emergency Medicine

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Suicide, guns, and buyback programs: An epidemiologic analysis of firearm-related deaths in Connecticut
"BACKGROUND:
Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides.

METHODS:
Detailed firearm and case data were obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (small, ≤ 0.32 caliber; medium, 0.357 caliber to 9 mm; large, ≥ 0.40 caliber). χ analyses were used for comparisons between groups.

RESULTS:
In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention). Comparisons between buyback, crime, and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback, 63 ± 11; suicide, 52 ± 18; homicide, 34 ± 12 years), sex (buyback, 81%; suicide, 91%; homicide, 84% men), and race (buyback, 80%; suicide, 97%; homicide, 47% white).

CONCLUSION:
Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide."
AUTHORS
Rovella JC
Williams SS
Berntsson R
Clinton H
Baumann L
PUBLISHED
2017 in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Suicide, guns, and buyback programs
"Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides.

Detailed firearm and case data was obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the CDC’s National Violent Death Reporting System from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (SMALL ≤ .32 caliber, MEDIUM = .357 caliber to 9 millimeter, LARGE ≥ .40 caliber). Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons between groups. In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention).

Comparisons between buyback, crime and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback=63±11, suicide=52±18, homicide=34±12 years), sex (buyback=81%, suicide=91%, homicide=84% male), and race (buyback=80%, suicide=97%, homicide=47% white).

Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community, and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide. Epidemiologic study, level III"
AUTHORS
David Shapiro
James C. Rovella
Susan S. Williams
Rob Berntsson
Heather Clinton
Laura Baumann et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Guns Automatically Prime Aggressive Thoughts, Regardless of Whether a “Good Guy” or “Bad Guy” Holds the Gun
"The mere presence of weapons can increase aggression—called the " weapons effect. " Weapons are theorized to increase aggression by priming aggressive thoughts. This research tested the robustness of the weapons effect using two large repre-sentative samples of American adults (total N ¼ 1,097). Participants saw photos of criminals, soldiers, police in military gear, or police in regular gear with guns. Experiment 2 also included a condition with photos of Olympians with guns used to shoot inanimate targets. The control group was police in plainclothes without guns. The accessibility of aggressive thoughts was measured using a word fragment task (e.g., KI_ _ can be completed as KILL or KISS). Photos of individuals with guns used to shoot human targets primed aggressive thoughts, regardless of whether a " good guy " (soldier, police) or " bad guy " (criminal) held the gun. Photos of Olympians with guns used to shoot inanimate targets did not prime aggressive thoughts."
AUTHOR
Brad J. Bushman
PUBLISHED
2017 in Social Psychological and Personality Science

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Suicide, guns, and buyback programs: an epidemiologic analysis of firearm-related deaths in Connecticut
"Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides. Detailed firearm and case data was obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the CDC’s National Violent Death Reporting System from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (SMALL ≤ .32 caliber, MEDIUM = .357 caliber to 9 millimeter, LARGE ≥ .40 caliber). Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons between groups. In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention). Comparisons between buyback, crime and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback=63±11, suicide=52±18, homicide=34±12 years), sex (buyback=81%, suicide=91%, homicide=84% male), and race (buyback=80%, suicide=97%, homicide=47% white). Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community, and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide. Epidemiologic study, level III"
AUTHORS
David Shapiro
James C. Rovella
Susan Williams
Rob Berntsson
Heather Clinton
Laura Baumann et al
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Suicide, guns, and buyback programs: An epidemiologic analysis of firearm-related deaths in Connecticut.
"Background: Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides.

Methods: Detailed firearm and case data were obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (small, ≤ 0.32 caliber; medium, 0.357 caliber to 9 mm; large, ≥ 0.40 caliber). χ analyses were used for comparisons between groups.

Results: In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention). Comparisons between buyback, crime, and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback, 63 ± 11; suicide, 52 ± 18; homicide, 34 ± 12 years), sex (buyback, 81%; suicide, 91%; homicide, 84% men), and race (buyback, 80%; suicide, 97%; homicide, 47% white).

Conclusion: Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide.

Level Of Evidence: Epidemiologic/therapeutic study, level IV.

"
AUTHORS
Kevin Borrup
Shefali Thaker
David Shapiro
Rob Berntsson
Heather Clinton
Laura Baumann et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Policing guns and youth violence.
"To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even minor criminal activity. Still others attempted to change youth behavior through "soft" strategies built on alternatives to arrest. Finally, some cities used a combination of approaches. Key findings discussed in this article include: Law enforcement agencies that emphasized police-citizen cooperation benefited from a more positive image and sense of legitimacy in the community, which may have enhanced their efforts to fight crime. Aggressive law enforcement strategies may have contributed to a decline in youth gun violence, but they also may have cost police legitimacy in minority communities where residents felt that the tactics were unfair or racially motivated. Approaches that emphasize nonarrest alternatives and problem-solving strategies offer an intriguing but unproven vision for addressing youth gun violence. None of the initiatives presented in the case studies has been shown conclusively to reduce youth gun crime over the long term. The author suggests that policing alone cannot contain youth gun violence, but by carefully balancing enforcement with community collaboration, police departments can help shift social norms that contribute to youth gun violence."
AUTHOR
Jeffrey Fagan
PUBLISHED
2002 in The Future of Children

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Highly regarded source
Firearm Availability and Fatal Police Shootings
" Do states with more guns have higher rates of fatal police shootings? This article uses a validated measure of firearm availability (the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm) to examine the relationship between gun proliferation and fatal police shootings. It expands on existing research to include (1) measures of access to Level I and II trauma centers, (2) interpretation of the findings from the lenses of “statistical prediction,” and (3) tests for structural differences between models for black decedents versus nonblack decedents. Findings confirm the correlation between statewide prevalence of gun ownership and fatal police shootings for both all decedents and unarmed decedents. It provides partial support for “statistical prediction” by police and finds that greater access to trauma centers is associated with lower rates of citizen deaths. The analysis suggests a far broader range of policy options for saving lives, such as better enforcement of legal restrictions on firearm possession, than focusing solely on policing systems. "
AUTHOR
Daniel S. Nagin
PUBLISHED
2020 in The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science

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Money for guns: evaluation of the Seattle Gun Buy-Back Program
"Community involvement in local firearms policy is advocated to be an important component of efforts to curtail violence. This report describes the first evaluation of one such effort, a gun buy-back program conducted in Seattle, WA, during the fall of 1992.

The evaluation included (a) surveys of 500 participants and a description of the firearms exchanged; (b) monitoring police reports, trauma center admissions, and medical examiners' data to assess short-term effects on the frequency of firearm-related events; and (c) an assessment of community beliefs by random-digit dialing telephone interviews of 1,000 residents.

Of the 1,172 firearms relinquished, 95 percent were handguns, 83 percent were operational, and 67 percent were owned for more than 5 years. Twenty-five percent were exchanged by women. The mean age of participants in the exchange program was 51 years. Females and persons in older age groups were more likely than males (83 percent versus 70 percent, P < 0.01) and minors (88 percent versus 55 percent, P < 0.05) to select safe disposal as motivation to participate. Comparing firearm-related events per month before and after the program, crimes and deaths increased, and injuries decreased, but the changes were not statistically significant.

Telephone interviews revealed broad support for publicly funded gun buy-back programs even among households (61 percent) with firearms. Gun buy-back programs are a broadly supported means to decrease voluntarily the prevalence of handguns within a community, but their effect on decreasing violent crime and reducing firearm mortality is unknown."
AUTHORS
C M Callahan
Koepsell TD
Rivara FP
PUBLISHED
1994 in Public Health Reports

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Firearm Availability and Suicide, Homicide, and Unintentional Firearm Deaths Among Women
"ContextIn the United States, more than 45,000 women died from gun violence over the last decade.ObjectiveTo determine whether measures of firearm availability are related to rates of suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women in the United States.DesignPooled cross-sectional time series data on suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths (1988–1997) were used to estimate the association between the rate of violent death among women and four proxies of firearm availability. Two proxies came from survey reports of household firearm ownership rates; two were derived from mortality statistics.SettingUnited States, 1988–1997.ResultsThe increased rate of suicide and homicide in states with high gun levels was accounted for primarily by significantly elevated firearm suicide and firearm homicide rates. Unintentional firearm death rates were also increased in states with more guns. At the regional level, qualitatively similar results were obtained.ConclusionBetween 1988 and 1997, the suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm death rates among women were disproportionately higher in states where guns were more prevalent. The elevated rates of violent death in states with more guns was not entirely explained by a state’s poverty or urbanization and was driven primarily by lethal firearm violence, not by lethal nonfirearm violence."
AUTHORS
David Hemenway
Deborah Azrael
Matthew Miller
PUBLISHED
2002 in Journal of Urban Health

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Firearm availability and suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women.
"Context: In the United States, more than 45,000 women died from gun violence over the last decade.

Objective: To determine whether measures of firearm availability are related to rates of suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women in the United States.

Design: Pooled cross-sectional time series data on suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths (1988-1997) were used to estimate the association between the rate of violent death among women and four proxies of firearm availability. Two proxies came from survey reports of household firearm ownership rates; two were derived from mortality statistics.

Setting: United States, 1988-1997.

Results: The increased rate of suicide and homicide in states with high gun levels was accounted for primarily by significantly elevated firearm suicide and firearm homicide rates. Unintentional firearm death rates were also increased in states with more guns. At the regional level, qualitatively similar results were obtained.

Conclusion: Between 1988 and 1997, the suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm death rates among women were disproportionately higher in states where guns were more prevalent. The elevated rates of violent death in states with more guns was not entirely explained by a state's poverty or urbanization and was driven primarily by lethal firearm violence, not by lethal nonfirearm violence.

"
AUTHORS
Matthew Miller
Deborah Azrael
David Hemenway
PUBLISHED
2002 in Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine

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Variation in Rates of Fatal Police Shootings across US States: the Role of Firearm Availability
FUNDERS
Joyce Foundation , National Institute of Justice
"The USA has very high rates of homicide by police compared to other high-income countries, with approximately 1000 civilians killed annually. The overwhelming majority of these police homicides are fatal shootings. Over the past 5 years, several comprehensive, real-time, data repositories, drawn largely from news reporting, have kept track of incidents in which civilians die during an encounter with the police and have become widely available. Data from these repositories, which are more complete than data available from federal data systems, have been used to explore fatal police shootings of civilians, often with a focus on racial disparities in police shootings of unarmed civilians, and have consistently found that police are more likely to shoot unarmed African American men than unarmed White men. Although numerous studies have examined how rates of police killings of civilians are related to several ecologic determinants of these events, no peer-reviewed study to date has examined the extent to which variation in police involved firearm homicides is explained by firearm prevalence while adjusting for violent crime rates (the most well-established ecologic factor associated with fatal police shootings). The current cross-sectional state-level analysis uses data on the number of civilians shot and killed by police in the line of duty, aggregated over 2015-2017. Data come from the Washington Post's "Fatal Force Database", which assembles the information from news reports and other sources. Data provided include information on whether the victim was armed, and, if so, with what weapon. Explanatory ecologic variables in our models include the violent crime rate, the percentage of the state population that is non-White, poverty rate, and urbanization, along with a validated proxy for firearm prevalence. We find that rates of police shooting deaths are significantly and positively correlated with levels of household gun ownership, even after accounting for the other explanatory variables. The association is stronger for the shooting of armed (with a gun) rather than unarmed victims."
AUTHORS
Matthew Miller
Andrew Conner
Deborah Azrael
David Hemenway
PUBLISHED
2018 in Journal of Urban Health

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Firearm availability and unintentional firearm deaths, suicide, and homicide among 5-14 year olds.
"Background: In the United States, only motor vehicle crashes and cancer claim more lives among children than do firearms. This national study attempts to determine whether firearm prevalence is related to rates of unintentional firearm deaths, suicides, and homicides among children.

Methods: Pooled cross-sectional time-series data (1988-1997) were used to estimate the association between the rate of violent death among 5-14 year olds and four proxies of firearm availability, across states and regions.

Results: A statistically significant association exists between gun availability and the rates of unintentional firearm deaths, homicides, and suicides. The elevated rates of suicide and homicide among children living in states with more guns is not entirely explained by a state's poverty, education, or urbanization and is driven by lethal firearm violence, not by lethal non-firearm violence.

Conclusion: A disproportionately high number of 5-14 year olds died from suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths in states and regions where guns were more prevalent.

"
AUTHORS
David Hemenway
Deborah Azrael
Mathew Miller
PUBLISHED

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Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States.
"Objectives: In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates.

Methods: We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Results: Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership.

Conclusions: High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs.

"
AUTHORS
Molly M Simmons
David I Swedler
Francesca Dominici
David Hemenway
PUBLISHED
2015 in American Journal of Public Health

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Do Laws Restricting Access to Firearms by Domestic Violence Offenders Prevent Intimate Partner Homicide?
"Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement officers to confiscate firearms at a domestic violence scene. The authors find that female intimate partner homicide rates decline 7% after a state passes a restraining order law. They find no effect from the domestic violence misdemeanor or confiscation laws."
AUTHORS
James A. Mercy
Elizabeth Richardson Vigdor
PUBLISHED
2006 in Evaluation Review

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Separating batterers and guns: a review and analysis of gun removal laws in 50 States.
"Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers through a protective order ("court-ordered removal laws"). As of April 2004, 18 states had police gun removal laws; 16 states had court-ordered removal laws. The authors examine relevant characteristics of the laws and recommend that these laws be mandatory, apply to all guns and ammunition possessed by an abuser, and include clear procedures to enhance implementation."
AUTHORS
Shannon Frattaroli
Jon S Vernick
PUBLISHED
2006 in Evaluation Review

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Separating batterers and guns: A review and analysis of gun removal laws in 50 states
"Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers through a protective order ("court-ordered removal laws"). As of April 2004, 18 states had police gun removal laws; 16 states had court-ordered removal laws. The authors examine relevant characteristics of the laws and recommend that these laws be mandatory, apply to all guns and ammunition possessed by an abuser, and include clear procedures to enhance implementation."
AUTHORS
Jon S. Vernick
Shannon Frattaroli
PUBLISHED
in Evaluation Review

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Firearm-assisted suicide: Legislative, policing and clinical concerns
"Until recent years the Republic of Ireland had one of the most restrictive regimes on firearms access with the Irish police (An Garda Siochana) consistently refusing to grant certificates for a wide range of guns including handguns, high calibre rifles and shotguns capable of holding more than three cartridges. In 2004 the High Court ruled that this policy was without legislative backing and since then the police began to issue certificates for firearms where the applicant is not disentitled under law from possessing a gun. Set against this backdrop, this paper explores the consequences of liberal gun regimes in the context of access to firearms by those suffering from mental illness and who pose a threat of parasuicide or suicide. Consideration is given to experiences in other jurisdictions and international research on firearm suicide prevention. Finally some recommendations for changes in legislation, policy and protocol in the Irish context are presented."
AUTHORS
Susanna Kola
Diarmuid Griffin
Kiran Sarma
PUBLISHED

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Gun Violence in America
"Few social issues have produced more exaggerated claims and contention among Americans than the struggle to control gun violence. Fueling the emotional fire in debates between firearm groups such as the National Rifle Association (NRA) and gun control advocates is the dispute over the importance of guns in American culture. Is the fondness for firearms truly part of a venerable American tradition, one to be observed with very few limits? In this fascinating inquiry, Alexander DeConde delves into the myths and politics regarding gun keeping, as well as the controversies over gun use, crime, and policing from the early days of the republic to the present. DeConde explains why the United States, with all its resources, fails repeatedly to confine gun violence to the same low levels achieved by other advanced democracies."
AUTHOR
Alexander DeConde
PUBLISHED
2003 by UPNE (Book)

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Are “goods for guns” good for the community? An update of a community gun buyback program
"BACKGROUND Gun violence remains a leading cause of death in the United States. Community gun buyback programs provide an opportunity to dispose of extraneous firearms. The purpose of this study was to understand the demographics, motivation, child access to firearms, and household mental illness of buyback participants in hopes of improving the program's effectiveness.

METHODS A 2015 Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback program which collaborated with local police departments was studied. We administered a 23-item questionnaire survey to gun buyback participants assessing demographic characteristics, motivation for relinquishing firearms, child firearm accessibility, and mental illness/domestic violence history. RESULTS A total of 186 individuals from Central/Western Massachusetts turned in 339 weapons.

Participants received between US $25 and US $75 in gift cards dependent on what type of gun was turned in, with an average cost of $41/gun. A total of 109 (59%) participants completed the survey. Respondents were mostly white (99%), men (90%) and first-time participants in the program (85.2%). Among survey respondents, 54% turned in firearms "for safety reasons." Respondents reported no longer needing/wanting their weapons (47%) and approximately one in eight participants were concerned the firearm(s) were accessible to children. Most respondents (87%) felt the program encouraged neighborhood awareness of firearm safety. Three of every five participants reported that guns still remained in their homes; additionally, 21% where children could potentially access them and 14% with a history of mental illness/suicide/domestic violence in the home.

CONCLUSION Gun buybacks can provide a low-cost means of removing unwanted firearms from the community. Most participants felt their homes were safer after turning in the firearm(s). In homes still possessing guns, emphasis on secure gun storage should continue, increasing the safety of children and families.

The results of this survey also provided new insights into the association between mental illness/suicide and gun ownership. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiological, level III."
AUTHORS
Pradeep P. Nazarey
Mariann Manno
Pina Violano
Rebecca E. Kasper
Rachelle N. Damle
Jonathan Green et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Violence and gun crime
"E The headlines about gun crime and violent crime in the United Kingdom are tragic and alarming-seven deaths of young people by October 2007 from gun crime and an apparent increase in violent crime generally. When combined with other news of gun related incidents, such as the shooting ofJean Charles De Menezes by a police officer in a London underground station, anxiety about the danger of guns is understandably high."
AUTHORS
Sameer P. Sarkar
Peter Fonagy
Gwen Adshead
PUBLISHED
2007 in British Medical Journal

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Criminal Use of Assault Weapons and High-Capacity Semiautomatic Firearms: an Updated Examination of Local and National Sources.
"Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban. This study investigates current levels of criminal activity with assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics in the USA using several local and national data sources including the following: (1) guns recovered by police in ten large cities, (2) guns reported by police to federal authorities for investigative tracing, (3) guns used in murders of police, and (4) guns used in mass murders. Results suggest assault weapons (primarily assault-type rifles) account for 2-12% of guns used in crime in general (most estimates suggest less than 7%) and 13-16% of guns used in murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics together generally account for 22 to 36% of crime guns, with some estimates upwards of 40% for cases involving serious violence including murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics appear to be used in a higher share of firearm mass murders (up to 57% in total), though data on this issue are very limited. Trend analyses also indicate that high-capacity semiautomatics have grown from 33 to 112% as a share of crime guns since the expiration of the federal ban-a trend that has coincided with recent growth in shootings nationwide. Further research seems warranted on how these weapons affect injuries and deaths from gun violence and how their regulation may impact public health."
AUTHORS
Natalie Mullins
Ambrozine Ayers
Jordan L Nichols
William D Johnson
Christopher S Koper
PUBLISHED

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Do laws restricting access to firearms by domestic violence offenders prevent intimate partner homicide?
"Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement officers to confiscate firearms at a domestic violence scene. The authors find that female intimate partner homicide rates decline 7% after a state passes a restraining order law. They find no effect from the domestic violence misdemeanor or confiscation laws."
AUTHORS
Elizabeth Richardson Vigdor
James A Mercy
PUBLISHED
2006 in Evaluation Review

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Occupational homicide of law enforcement officers in the US, 1996–2010
"Objective: To understand the circumstances surrounding the occupational homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the USA.

Methods: Narrative text analysis of Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted reports.

Results: A total of 796 officers were killed in the line of duty between 1996 and 2010. The occupational homicide rate during the time peaked in 2001 at 3.76/100 000 (excluding those killed during the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks), and was lowest in 2008 at 1.92/100 000. Most LEOs (67%) were killed by short-barrel firearms; 10% were killed with their own service weapon. The most frequent encounter with a suspect prior to a homicide was responding to a disturbance call.

Conclusions: These results should inform officer training and the policies, as well as procedures used when interacting with suspects, especially when firearms are involved.

"
AUTHORS
Molly M Simmons
Keshia M Pollack
David I Swedler
Cassandra Kercher
PUBLISHED
2013 in Injury Prevention

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Easiness of Legal Access to Concealed Firearm Permits and Homicide Rates in the United States.
"Objectives: To examine the relation of "shall-issue" laws, in which permits must be issued if requisite criteria are met; "may-issue" laws, which give law enforcement officials wide discretion over whether to issue concealed firearm carry permits or not; and homicide rates.

Methods: We compared homicide rates in shall-issue and may-issue states and total, firearm, nonfirearm, handgun, and long-gun homicide rates in all 50 states during the 25-year period of 1991 to 2015. We included year and state fixed effects and numerous state-level factors in the analysis.

Results: Shall-issue laws were significantly associated with 6.5% higher total homicide rates, 8.6% higher firearm homicide rates, and 10.6% higher handgun homicide rates, but were not significantly associated with long-gun or nonfirearm homicide.

Conclusions: Shall-issue laws are associated with significantly higher rates of total, firearm-related, and handgun-related homicide.

"
AUTHORS
Eric Fleegler
Ziming Xuan
Michael Siegel
Bindu Kalesan
Kristin A Goss
Craig S Ross et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in American Journal of Public Health

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Community-level firearm injury surveillance: Local data for local action
"In the United States, firearms are used to commit homicide more frequently than all other methods combined. According to the US Department of Justice, firearms are used to commit more than 1 million crimes each year. Despite the magnitude of this problem, little is known about the epidemiology of firearm crimes and assaults. Many states require medical personnel to report all nonfatal shootings to law enforcement, but the rate of compliance with this requirement is unknown. To enhance cooperation between community emergency departments and law enforcement agencies, we created a unified firearm injury notification system for the City of Atlanta, Georgia, and 5 surrounding counties: Fulton, DeKalb, Cobb, Gwinnett, and Clayton. Our findings are reported here."
AUTHORS
Kidist Bartolomeos
Arthur L. Kellermann
Tomoko Rie Sampson
Constance S. Parramore
Dawna Fuqua-Whitley
PUBLISHED
2001 in Annals of Emergency Medicine

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Firearm Laws and Firearm Homicides
"Importance: Firearm homicide is a leading cause of injury death in the United States, and there is considerable debate over the effectiveness of firearm policies. An analysis of the effectiveness of firearm laws on firearm homicide is important to understand optimal policies to decrease firearm homicide in the United States.

Objective: To evaluate the association between firearm laws and preventing firearm homicides in the United States.

Evidence Review: We evaluated peer-reviewed articles from 1970 to 2016 focusing on the association between US firearm laws and firearm homicide. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Lexis/Nexis, Sociological Abstracts, Academic Search Premier, the Index to Legal Periodicals and Books, and the references from the assembled articles. We divided laws into 5 categories: those that (1) curb gun trafficking, (2) strengthen background checks, (3) improve child safety, (4) ban military-style assault weapons, and (5) restrict firearms in public places and leniency in firearm carrying. The articles were assessed using the standardized Guide to Community Preventive Services data collection instrument and 5 additional quality metrics: (1) appropriate data source(s) and outcome measure(s) were used for the study, (2) the time frame studied was adequate, (3) appropriate statistical tests were used, (4) the analytic results were robust, and (5) the disaggregated results of control variables were consistent with the literature.

Findings: In the aggregate, stronger gun policies were associated with decreased rates of firearm homicide, even after adjusting for demographic and sociologic factors. Laws that strengthen background checks and permit-to-purchase seemed to decrease firearm homicide rates. Specific laws directed at firearm trafficking, improving child safety, or the banning of military-style assault weapons were not associated with changes in firearm homicide rates. The evidence for laws restricting guns in public places and leniency in gun carrying was mixed.

Conclusions And Relevance: The strength of firearm legislation in general, and laws related to strengthening background checks and permit-to-purchase in particular, is associated with decreased firearm homicide rates. High-quality research is important to further evaluate the effectiveness of these laws. Legislation is just 1 part of a multipronged approach that will be necessary to decrease firearm homicides in the United States.

"
AUTHORS
David Hemenway
Saranya Srinivasan
Elorm Avakame
Caitlin Farrell
Eric W. Fleegler
Lois K. Lee et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in JAMA Internal Medicine

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Suicide by cop.
"Study Objective: "Suicide by cop" is a term used by law enforcement officers to describe an incident in which a suicidal individual intentionally engages in life-threatening and criminal behavior with a lethal weapon or what appears to be a lethal weapon toward law enforcement officers or civilians to specifically provoke officers to shoot the suicidal individual in self-defense or to protect civilians. The objective of this study was to investigate the phenomenon that some individuals attempt or commit suicide by intentionally provoking law enforcement officers to shoot them.

Methods: We reviewed all files of officer-involved shootings investigated by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department from 1987 to 1997. Cases met the following criteria: (1) evidence of the individual's suicidal intent, (2) evidence they specifically wanted officers to shoot them, (3) evidence they possessed a lethal weapon or what appeared to be a lethal weapon, and (4) evidence they intentionally escalated the encounter and provoked officers to shoot them.

Results: Suicide by cop accounted for 11% (n=46) of all officer-involved shootings and 13% of all officer-involved justifiable homicides. Ages of suicidal individuals ranged from 18 to 54 years; 98% were male. Forty-eight percent of weapons possessed by suicidal individuals were firearms, 17% replica firearms. The median time from arrival of officers at the scene to the time of the shooting was 15 minutes with 70% of shootings occurring within 30 minutes of arrival of officers. Thirty-nine percent of cases involved domestic violence. Fifty-four percent of suicidal individuals sustained fatal gunshot wounds. All deaths were classified by the coroner as homicides, as opposed to suicides.

Conclusion: Suicide by cop is an actual form of suicide. The most appropriate term for this phenomenon is law enforcement-forced-assisted suicide. Law enforcement agencies may be able to develop strategies for early recognition and handling of law enforcement-forced-assisted suicide (suicide by cop). Health care providers involved in the evaluation of potentially suicidal individuals and in the resuscitation of officer-involved shootings should be aware of law enforcement-forced-assisted suicide as a form of suicide.

"
AUTHORS
B Blum
M Russell
J Yarbrough
H R Hutson
D Anglin
J Strote et al
PUBLISHED
1998 in Annals of Emergency Medicine

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Homicides of law enforcement officers responding to domestic disturbance calls
"Objective: To describe the law enforcement officer (LEO), encounter, perpetrator and victim characteristics of domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides in the USA from 1996 to 2010.

Methods: Narrative text analysis was conducted on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's annual report 'Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted'. Potential cases were confirmed if the narrative included the term 'domestic disturbance' or a domestic disturbance situation was described.

Results: 116 LEOs were killed while responding to domestic disturbance calls. Ninety-five per cent of these homicides were committed with a firearm. Sixty-seven per cent of LEOs were wearing body armour when killed; however, 52% received the fatal wound to the head/neck. Sixty-one per cent of suspects had a criminal history mentioned within the narratives and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) were more likely to be killed by LEOs than suspects involved in other forms of domestic violence. Victims of the domestic disturbance were killed in 21% of the IPV-related LEO homicide cases as opposed to only 5% of other domestic disturbance calls. A firearm was the most common weapon used in the murder of a domestic disturbance victim (86%).

Conclusions: This study describes domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides. Future research in this area should further examine the dangers unique to domestic disturbance calls. A longitudinal analysis could provide greater understanding of the injury and mortality risks faced by LEOs, in order to inform homicide prevention among law enforcement.

"
AUTHORS
Daniel W Webster
Keshia M Pollack
David I Swedler
Cassandra Kercher
PUBLISHED
2013 in Injury Prevention

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Firearm Legislation Linked with Fewer Fatal Police Shootings
"This chapter studies how states with stricter firearm legislation have fewer fatal police shootings—defined as the rate of people killed by law enforcement agencies. The authors of a 2017 study used two data sources to show this relationship: the Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence’s legislative scorecard for firearm laws; and The Counted, an online database produced by The Guardian to assess the number of fatal police shootings. The analysis showed that, even after controlling for age, education, violent crime rates, and household gun ownership, states with the strongest firearm legislation had a 51% lower incidence of fatal police shootings compared to states with the weakest firearm laws. The study also assessed the relationship between different types of legislation and rates of fatal police shootings. Laws that strengthen background checks, promote child and consumer safety, and reduce gun trafficking are linked to lower rates of fatal police shootings."
AUTHORS
Sandro Galea
Michael D. Stein
PUBLISHED
2020 in Pained

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The Impact of Gun Laws on Police Deaths
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1086/323312
AUTHOR
David B. Mustard
PUBLISHED
2001 in The Journal of Law and Economics

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do gun buyback programs reduce gun violence?
12 studies
Submitted by: XJackson 78

Do assault weapons bans reduce mass shootings?
2 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce firearm homicides?
7 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce firearm suicides?
5 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce mass shootings?
1 study
Submitted by: LCheng 132

Do background checks for firearm purchases reduce total suicides?
2 studies
Submitted by: LCheng 132

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