Does the prevalence of firearms increase gun-related police deaths?

Submitted by: DEvans 8

Yes.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 4 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong.


Chart summary of 4 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficut to determine how a study answered a question.

All labels of Literature Reviews and source quality are assigned by State of K. For academic journals, the label "Q[NUMBER]" is an indication of the quality of the publication. The "NUMBER" refer to the best quartile in which the journal appeared among all the subjects in which the journal was ranked by Scimago Institutions Rankings. For example, if a journal was ranked in the third quartile (Q3) in infectious diseases, but in the second quartile in Ebola studies (Q2), you would see "Q2". The best quartile is "Q1". Publications other than academic journals may be labeled as "Highly Regarded Sources". Government sources receive this label as do NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labeled "highly regarded" or "Q1" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label, but these are rough guides to source quality.


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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 4
Sorted by publication year
1
Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States
"OBJECTIVES: In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates.\n\nMETHODS: We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.\n\nRESULTS: Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs."
AUTHORS
David Hemenway
Francesca Dominici
Molly M. Simmons
David I. Swedler
PUBLISHED
2015 in American Journal of Public Health
Q1: High quality source
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
2
The Impact of Gun Laws on Police Deaths
"This paper uses state-level data from 1984-1996 to examine how right-to-carry laws and waiting periods affect police deaths. Many people oppose concealed carry laws because they believe these laws jeopardize law enforcement officials who risk their lives to protect the citizenry. This paper strongly rejects this contention. States that allow law-abiding citizens to carry concealed weapons have a slightly higher likelihood of having a felonious police death and slightly higher police death rates prior to the law. After enactment of the right-to-carry laws, states exhibit a reduced likelihood of having a felonious police death rate and slightly lower rates of police deaths. States that implement waiting periods have slightly lower felonious police death rates both before and after the law. Allowing law-abiding citizens to carry concealed weapons does not endanger the lives of officers, and may help reduce their risk of being killed."
AUTHOR
David B. Mustard
PUBLISHED
2001 in SSRN Electronic Journal
UNRANKED SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
MGiesbrecht 92
No
No
3
The Police as Victims: The Role of Guns in the Murder of Police
"Examined data on murder rates of police officers from the 37 largest cities in the US for 1970–1978. It was found that (1) the rate at which police officers were murdered was related to the murder rate in the cities, and (2) police officers were murdered at a higher rate in cities where a greater proportion of suicides, homicides, robberies, and aggravated assaults involve guns. Findings suggest that the increased availability and use of guns in a community may reflect a higher likelihood of lethal violence toward police."
AUTHOR
David Lester
PUBLISHED
1987 in Psychological Reports
Q3
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
4
Police Officers Killed and the Guns Used by Criminals
"Examined the relationship between the characteristics of confiscated handguns in 17 US cities, as reported in the 1976 Project Identification, and the rates with which police officers were murdered in those cities, as provided by the author (1978). Police officers were murdered at a higher rate in cities where handguns were inexpensive and traceable; revolvers and short-barrelled guns, particularly those from pawn shops, were most often used. (2 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)"
AUTHOR
David Lester
PUBLISHED
1982 in Psychological Reports
Q3
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
State of K periodically recommends additional studies to add to this list, both newly published and newly discovered. There are none for now, but check back another time.


QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do driver training programs reduce traffic injuries?
13 studies
Submitted by: DBuss 82

Does deporting undocumented immigrants reduce crime?
3 studies
Submitted by: GFarahani 0

Does granting legal status to undocumented immigrants reduce their likelihood of committing crime?
5 studies
Submitted by: PSingh 0

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What additional question do you want someone who searches for "does the prevalence of firearms increase gun-related police deaths" to consider?