Is there really a home-field advantage in sports?

Submitted by: THunter 88

Yes, there is really a home-field advantage in sports. The studies in this list for which we have identified answers are unanimous on this conclusion.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 46 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong.
41
YES ANSWERS
0
NO ANSWERS
0
MIXED RESULTS ANSWERS
0
INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE ANSWERS
5
NO DATA ON ANSWER


Chart summary of 46 studies examining this question
Showing up to 10 at a time

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Mixed means that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This label is often applied when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). The label Insuff. Evidence means that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. The label No Data means that State of K wasn't able to identify the study's response to the question based on the information that was available. This label is often applied when the person creating the list does not have access to the full text and the answer isn't clear from the abstract.

All labels of Literature Reviews and Highly Regarded Source are assigned by State of K. The label Highly Regarded Source, as applied to journals, is a label assigned to the top 20 journals (as measured by the h-index) in various subcategories as classified and reported by Google Scholar. As applied to NGOs, the label is assigned to US NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labelled "highly regarded" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label.

Literature Reviews
Although we recommend you consider all of the studies below, we believe the following studies are literature reviews, which survey and evaluate many studies on this question:
Frequently Cited Studies
The following studies are frequently cited by the other studies in this list and may be thought of as key studies on this question.
Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Is there a homefield advantage in baseball?
5 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 105

Are presidential democracies more prone to becoming dictatorships than parliamentary democracies?
24 studies
Submitted by: SMendoza 75

Do baseball players perform worse in years where they perceive themselves to be under-compensated?
6 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Do formula-fed infants sleep more than breastfed infants?
15 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "Is there really a home-field advantage in sports" to consider?

SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 46 showing 20 studies at a time
Sorted by publication year
1
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Marshall B. Jones
PUBLISHED
2018 in Psychology of Sport and Exercise
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
2
On Winning Probabilities, Weight Categories, and Home Advantage in Professional Judo
"Judo is a combat sport with seven different weight categories. In this\narticle, we examined data from 1,902 men's and 1,400 women's fights at\nthe eight most prestigious judo tournaments during the period 2010-2013.\nUsing a single fight as the unit of observation, we found that the\nprobability for the favorite to win against the underdog in the men's\nhalf-lightweight category is significantly lower than in most other\ncategories. Moreover, in fights in which only European and/or Asian\njudokas participate, we found that the men's half-lightweight category\nis significantly more balanced than all other men's categories. For\nwomen, there is no consistent evidence that any one weight category is\nmore balanced than any of the others. Our results indicate that in\nchoosing the members of a national team, it is to some extent reasonable\nfor national coaches to select a lower ranked judoka in the men's\nhalflightweight category over a higher ranked judoka in several other\nweight categories. We also found that the home advantage increases the\nprobability of winning a single fight for both genders. This result\nimplies that it might be worthwhile for national judo associations to\nbid to host international tournaments in order to improve the world\nrankings of their domestic judokas."
AUTHOR
Alex Krumer
PUBLISHED
2017 in Journal of Sports Economics
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
3
AUTHORS
Mike Hamlin
Nicholas KImber
Peter Olsen
Tina George
Jeremy P. Shearman
PUBLISHED
2016 in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
4
Home advantage in combat sports during the Olympic Games
"Purpose: To determine if there is a home advantage effect in combat sports (boxing, fencing, judo, taekwondo and wrestling) in the Olympic Games during the period between 1996 and 2012.Methods: This study analyzed the performance of United States of America, Australia, Greece, China and Great-Britain in this period, considering only boxing, fencing, judo, taekwondo and wrestling. Relative frequency was calculated considering number of medals won by each country as a percentage of the total number of medals disputed in these sports. A multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for the association of factor of interest as hosting country and country. In multilevel analyses, total number of medals disputed in each sport was included as the exposure in the models. As athletes in each sport changed over time, they were included as random parameters. All significance tests were 2-tailed, and p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: There was a home advantage effect for total number of medals [IRR = 1.97 (1.38-2.80); p < 0.001], gold [IRR = 2.62 (1.45-4.73), p = 0.001] and silver medals [IRR = 2.13 (1.09-4.17); p = 0.027] adjusted for the total number of medals disputed in each situation, country and sport. However, there was no effect for bronze medals [IRR = 1.40 (0.78-2.51); p = 0.267].Conclusion: This study provided evidence for the home advantage effect in combat sports during the Olympic Games disputed between 1996 and 2012 for total number of medals, gold and silver medals, doubling the quantity won when competing at home. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR"
AUTHORS
Monica Yuri Takito
Emerson Franchini
PUBLISHED
2016 in Sport Sciences for Health
Q3
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
5
AUTHORS
Amir Hossein MEHRSAFAR
Rasool Hemayat TALAB
PUBLISHED
2016 in International Journal of Sports Exercise and Training Science
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
6
Inconsistencies of the Evaluation of Home Advantage in Sports Competitions Under the Three Points Per Victory System
"A recent letter sent to the Journal of Human Kinetics' editor (Gómez & Pollard, 2014) warned about a supposed methodology error in the calculation of home advantage in football leagues used in Saavedra et al. (2013) and took the liberty of modifying the research's data. The aim of this letter is to demonstrate that the evaluation system of the home advantage proposed by Pollard (1986) contains serious inconsistencies when applied to competitions which give three points for a win and one point for a draw, as it is the case of the UEFA football leagues in the 21th century ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR"
AUTHORS
Juan J. Fernández Romero
Óscar Gutiérrez Aguilar
Miguel Saavedra García
PUBLISHED
2014 in Journal of Human Kinetics
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
7
New Insights Involving the Home Team Advantage
"Although the home team advantage is known to exist in many sports, there are nuances of the advantage that are less well understood. In this paper, we investigate various aspects of the home team advantage including changes in the advantage over time, the relationship of the advantage to the overall scoring rate and differential advantages within leagues. The analysis is mainly based on descriptive statistics and is confined to the home team advantage pertaining to the National Hockey League and the National Basketball Association."
AUTHORS
Adriano Arce
Tim B. Swartz
PUBLISHED
2014 in International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
8
Home advantage in judo: A study of the world ranking list
"In 2009, the International Judo Federation established a ranking system (RS) to classify athletes and to distribute the competitor quotas of the Olympic Games. However, the RS does not consider the home advantage. This issue has not been studied in judo, and its implications for the RS have not been determined. The objective was to verify the home advantage in judo in terms of winning a medal or the number of matches won. Therefore, 25 competitions that computed points for the RS in 2009 were analysed. Logistic regression analysis and the Poisson generalised linear model were used for the analyses, which included the relative quality of the athletes. The sample was composed only of athletes who had competed both at home and away. The odds ratio for winning medals was higher for athletes who competed at home for both males and females. The association between the number of matches won and competing at home was significant only for the male athletes. The home advantage was observed in the competitions that used the judo RS. Thus, it is likely that athletes from countries that host competitions using the RS have an advantage in terms of obtaining their Olympic classification."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Emerson Franchini
Monica Yuri Takito
Bianca Miarka
Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa
Ursula Ferreira Julio
PUBLISHED
2013 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
9
The home advantage in individual sports: An augmented review
"Objectives: Is the home advantage in individual sports comparable in magnitude and consistency to that in team sports? If not, is it nevertheless a major factor? The present paper reviews the literature to date with respect to these questions and augments it with original analyses where appropriate.Design: The review is framed and dominated by a design consideration, namely, that all major team sports play balanced home-and-away schedules, whereas individual sports rarely, if ever, do. As a result, it is necessary to take player quality into account in assessing home advantage in an individual sport. Method/approach: The paper begins with three individual sports (tennis, golf, and boxing) in which home advantage has been studied using available controls for player quality. It moves on to individual and team sports in the Olympics, where home advantage has also been studied with credible controls on player (country) quality. Studies are then reviewed in which player quality has not been controlled. Finally, data are presented for two individual efforts embedded in team sports (free throws in basketball and shootouts in ice hockey).Results: Subjectively evaluated sports such as diving, gymnastics, or figure skating usually show sizable and significant home advantages. Otherwise, occasional findings have been reported but they are not consistent within a sport, are generally weak, and often statistically unreliable.Conclusions: Except for subjectively evaluated sports, home advantage is not a major factor in individual sports, much less does it play a role in individual sports comparable to its role in team sports. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd."
LITERATURE REVIEW
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Marshall B. Jones
PUBLISHED
2013 in Psychology of Sport and Exercise
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
10
Home Advantage and Sports Performance: Evidence, Causes and Psychological Implications
"Home advantage in competitive sports is well documented despite some contradictory results. Previous studies have identified 5 main causes of home advantage in competitive sports: crowd, familiarity, travels, rules and territoriality. Moreover, several studies have proposed the influence of these factors over psychological and behavioral states in athletes, coaches and referees. The present review summarizes the available scientific evidences about home advantage in sport and tries to identify the environmental and psychological causes of this phenomenon."
AUTHORS
Diego Munguía Izquierdo
Diego Moliner Urdiales
Alejandro Legaz Arrese
PUBLISHED
2013 in Universitas Psychologica
Q4
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
11
There's no place like home: home court advantage in North American sports leagues
"We use a measure of home team advantage (HTA) that allows us to examine its relative strength across dissimilar sports leagues. Our metric confirms the widely reported existence of HTA. We control for relative team strength, thereby allowing comparisons across leagues. We find the strongest HTA in the National Basketball Association, followed by the National Football League and Major League Baseball in decreasing order. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd."
AUTHORS
Anthony C. Krautmann
James Ciecka
John Berdell
PUBLISHED
2013 in International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing
Q3
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
12
The Effect of Home Advantage, Momentum, and Fighting on Winning in the National Hockey League
"Using game-level data, the authors estimate models of team success and\ntest for the effect of three specific factors on game outcomes in\nprofessional ice hockey. First, they estimate the home ice advantage and\nfind that much of it can be attributed to rules advantages for the home\nteam. Second, contrary to previous studies on momentum, the authors find\nsome evidence that game-to-game momentum has a positive effect on\nwinning. Finally, the authors test the impact of fighting on the\nlikelihood of winning and find that winning fights does not lead to\nwinning games."
AUTHORS
Joanne M. Doyle
Benjamin Leard
PUBLISHED
2011 in Journal of Sports Economics
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
13
Home Advantage in American College Football Games: A Multilevel Modelling Approach
"This study examines home advantage in American college football games from a multilevel perspective. It quantifies the extent and significance of that home advantage and examines how it varies between BCS and non-BCS teams as well as analyzing the relationship between home advantage and team parity. Our results indicate that home advantage exists for most teams and conferences. It equates to a 6 point advantage for home teams and a 3-point disadvantage for away teams when controlling for team strength and other predictors. It concludes that after controlling for team ability, non-BCS teams possess a stronger home advantage than BCS teams. Such a result is likely related to the greater parity among BCS teams which leads to a " choking under pressure " effect for them in closely played games."
AUTHORS
Kelvyn Jones
Ron Johnston
Winnie Wang
PUBLISHED
2011 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
14
AUTHORS
Anthony Bedford
Richard Ryall
PUBLISHED
2011 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
15
Home advantage in professional tennis
"Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home advantage, restrictions on the specification of the model need to be imposed. We find that although significant home advantage exists for men, the performance of women tennis players appears to be unaffected by home advantage."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Ruud H. Koning
PUBLISHED
2011 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
16
AUTHORS
R. Hugh Morton
Megan J Pledger
PUBLISHED
2010 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
17
AUTHORS
DJ Wilson
GM Ramchandani
PUBLISHED
2010 in South African Journal of Sports Medicine
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
18
The Home Field Advantage in Athletics: A Meta-Analysis
"This meta-analysis examined the home-field advantage in athletics, with an emphasis on potential moderators. The goal of this research was to quantify the probability of a home victory, thus only studies that included win–loss data were included in the meta-analysis. A significant advantage for home teams was observed across all conditions ( Mπ= .604); and time era, season length, game type, and sport moderated the effect. Furthermore, it was found that season length mediated the effect of sport such that differences between sports could be attributed to some sports having longer seasons than other sports. This research has implications for athletes, fans, and the media alike."
LITERATURE REVIEW
AUTHOR
Jeremy P. Jamieson
PUBLISHED
2010 in Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
19
Home advantage and player nationality in international club football
"The home advantage effect was investigated at a team and player level in Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League football using in-depth performance and disciplinary variables. Performance analysis revealed that the home team scored more goals, had more shots on and off target, had a greater share of possession, and won more corners than the away team. There was an opposite trend for disciplinary variables, with the home team committing less fouls than the away team, and receiving less yellow and red cards. There were home advantage effects at player level for goals, total shots, shots on target, assists, and yellow cards, as found in the team analysis. In addition, foreign players demonstrated a home advantage effect for goals scored, whereas domestic players scored an equivalent number of goals at home and away venues. Results are discussed in relation to the home advantage literature and wider implications for the sport."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Damian R. Poulter
PUBLISHED
2009 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
20
Estimating Quality in Home Advantage and Competitive Balance in the Portuguese Football League
"The issue of competitive balance is not normally considered in the study of home advantage. This paper focuses on home advantage, assessing and comparing it between seasons. The strength of the teams is estimated and linked with competitive balance. The results support that, in both the eighties and early nineties, the home advantage is more visible. After that, it tends to decrease. Meanwhile, competitive balance increases until the nineties and after that, the trend becomes unclear. The changes in the structure of the championship and the reward point system have affected the Portuguese league."
AUTHOR
António Cardoso Marques
PUBLISHED
2009 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 16
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Is there really a home-field advantage in sports?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Testosterone, territoriality, and the ‘home advantage’
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9384(02)00969-1
AUTHORS
Sandy Wolfson
Nick Neave
PUBLISHED
2003 in Physiology & Behavior

Add to List
The Effect of an Artificial Pitch Surface on Home Team Performance in Football (Soccer)
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2307/2982859
AUTHORS
S. Hilditch
V. Barnett
PUBLISHED
1993 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society)

Add to List
Highly regarded source
Evidence of a reduced home advantage when a team moves to a new stadium
"Home advantage is well documented for professional baseball, basketball and ice hockey in North America. One of the possible causes of this advantage is familiarity with the local playing facility. This was investigated and quantified in an analysis of 37 teams moving to new stadiums, but in the same city, from 1987 to 2001. Home advantage during the first season in a new stadium after the move was significantly less than home advantage in the final season in the old stadium (P= 0.011). The reduction was evident in all three sports. Possible confounding factors, such as crowd size and crowd density, were considered but did not appear to have an effect. It is estimated that about 24% of the advantage of playing at home maybe lost when a team relocates to a new facility."
AUTHOR
Richard Pollard
PUBLISHED
2002 in Journal of Sports Sciences

Add to List
Modelling performance at international tennis and golf tournaments: is there a home advantage?
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9884.00109
AUTHORS
Alan M. Nevill
Roger L. Holder
PUBLISHED
1997 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series D (The Statistician)

Add to List
Highly regarded source
Long-term trends in home advantage in professional team sports in North America and England (1876 – 2003)
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021559
AUTHORS
G Pollard
R Pollard
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences

Add to List
An Analysis of Home and Away Game Performance of Male College Basketball Teams
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.2.3.245
AUTHOR
Philip E. Varca
PUBLISHED
1980 in Journal of Sport Psychology

Add to List
Highly regarded source
Do judges enhance home advantage in European championship boxing?
"There have been many examples of contentious points decisions in boxing. Professional boxing is scored subjectively by judges and referees scoring each round of the contest. We assessed whether the probability of a home win (and therefore home advantage) increased when bouts were decided by points decisions rather than knockouts. Overall, we found that bouts ending in points decisions had a significantly higher proportion of home wins than those decided by a knockout, though this effect varied across time, and controlling for relative quality of boxers was only effective when using more recent data. Focusing on these data, again the probability of a home win was higher with a points decision and this effect was consistent as “relative quality” varied. For equally matched boxers (“relative quality” = 0), expected probability of a home win was 0.57 for knockouts, 0.66 for technical knockouts and 0.74 for points decisions. The results of the present study lend general support to the notion that home advant..."
AUTHORS
AM Lane
AM Nevill
NJ Balmer
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences

Add to List
Spectator Booing and the Home Advantage: A Study of Social Influence in the Basketball Arena
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2307/3033796
AUTHOR
Donald L. Greer
PUBLISHED
1983 in Social Psychology Quarterly

Add to List
Highly regarded source
The influence of crowd noise and experience upon refereeing decisions in football
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1469-0292(01)00033-4
AUTHORS
A Mark Williams
N.J Balmer
A.M Nevill
PUBLISHED
2002 in Psychology of Sport and Exercise

Add to List
The Home Advantage in Collegiate Basketball
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.2.4.352
AUTHORS
Dean A. Purdy
Eldon E. Snyder
PUBLISHED
1985 in Sociology of Sport Journal

Add to List
Highly regarded source
The influence of game location on athletes' psychological states
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(98)80006-6
AUTHORS
Albert V. Carron
Nicholas Walrond
Peter C. Terry
PUBLISHED
1998 in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

Add to List
The Effect of the Audience on the Home Advantage
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1993.76.3c.1123
AUTHOR
Simo Salminen
PUBLISHED
1993 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

Add to List
Highly regarded source
Favoritism Under Social Pressure
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1162/0034653053970267
AUTHORS
Canice Prendergast
Ignacio Palacios-Huerta
Luis Garicano
PUBLISHED
2005 in Review of Economics and Statistics

Add to List
Highly regarded source
Strategic decisions of ice hockey coaches as a function of game location
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/026404199365984
AUTHORS
ALBERT V. CARRON
PAUL W. DENNIS
PUBLISHED
1999 in Journal of Sports Sciences

Add to List
Highly regarded source
Favoritism of agents – The case of referees' home bias
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870(03)00013-8
AUTHORS
Martin G Kocher
Matthias Sutter
PUBLISHED
2004 in Journal of Economic Psychology

Add to List

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Is there a homefield advantage in baseball?
5 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 105

Are presidential democracies more prone to becoming dictatorships than parliamentary democracies?
24 studies
Submitted by: SMendoza 75

Do baseball players perform worse in years where they perceive themselves to be under-compensated?
6 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Do formula-fed infants sleep more than breastfed infants?
15 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "Is there really a home-field advantage in sports" to consider?