Is there really a home-field advantage in sports?

Submitted by: THunter 88

Yes. The vast majority of studies in this list came to this conclusion.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 46 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 46 studies examining this question
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Literature Reviews
Although we recommend you consider all of the studies below, we believe the following studies are literature reviews, which survey and evaluate many studies on this question:
Frequently Cited Studies
The following studies are frequently cited by the other studies in this list and may be thought of as key studies on this question.
Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 46 showing 20 studies at a time
Sorted by publication year
21
AUTHOR
Marshall B Jones
PUBLISHED
2008 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
Yes
Yes
22
AUTHORS
MI Lambert
M Du Preez
PUBLISHED
2007 in South African Journal of Sports Medicine
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
23
Home Advantage in the NBA as a Game-Long Process
"The quantitative analysis of sports is a growing branch of science and, in many ways one that has developed through non-academic and non-traditionally peer-reviewed work. The aim of this paper is to bring to a peer-reviewed journal the generally accepted basics of the analysis of basketball, thereby providing a common starting point for future research in basketball. The possession concept, in particular the concept of equal possessions for opponents in a game, is central to basketball analysis. Estimates of possessions have existed for approximately two decades, but the various formulas have sometimes created confusion. We hope that by showing how most previous formulas are special cases of our more general formulation, we shed light on the relationship between possessions and various statistics. Also, we hope that our new estimates can provide a common basis for future possession estimation. In addition to listing data sources for statistical research on basketball, we also discuss other concepts and methods, including offensive and defensive ratings, plays, per-minute statistics, pace adjustments, true shooting percentage, effective field goal percentage, rebound rates, Four Factors, plus/minus statistics, counterpart statistics, linear weights metrics, individual possession usage, individual efficiency, Pythagorean method, and Bell Curve method. This list is not an exhaustive list of methodologies used in the field, but we believe that they provide a set of tools that fit within the possession framework and form the basis of common conversations on statistical research in basketball. A Starting Point for Analyzing Basketball Statistics. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/4985986_A_Starting_Point_for_Analyzing_Basketball_Statistics [accessed Jun 4, 2015]."
AUTHOR
Marshall B Jones
PUBLISHED
2007 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
Yes
Yes
24
An Analysis of the Home-Field Advantage in Major League Baseball Using Logit Models: Evidence from the 2004 and 2005 Seasons
"Using data from the 4,858 baseball games that were played in the major leagues during the 2004 and 2005 seasons, four logit regression models that measure the likelihood of a team winning a game are estimated. Of particular interest is the effect of being the home team. As expected, the results indicate that a home-field advantage does exist in the major leagues, but only under certain circumstances. Specifically, the strength of the home-field advantage varies with the number of runs scored by the home team and with the run differential between the winning and losing team. The probability of a home team winning a game increases as it scores more runs, but it increases at a decreasing rate. Also, for a given number of runs scored, a home team is more likely to win a game than a visiting team. The home-field advantage is strongest in games where the run differential between the winning team and losing team is one run. It is weaker in games where the run differential is two runs and is non-existent in games where the run differential is three runs or more."
AUTHORS
Anthony G. Barilla
William Levernier
PUBLISHED
2007 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
Yes
Yes
25
Worldwide regional variations in home advantage in association football
"Home advantage plays an important part in determining the result of a game of football. Its existence and magnitude is well documented in England, but its causes are still not completely understood. In this study, reliable estimates of home advantage are calculated for the domestic leagues of all countries of Europe and South America, as well as a selection of countries from other continents. The results of all games during the last six seasons are used for each of these 72 countries. In Europe, home advantage in the Balkan countries, especially Bosnia and Albania, is much higher than average. It is generally lower than average in northern Europe, from the Baltic republics, through Scandinavia to the British Isles. In South America, home advantage is high in the Andean countries and lower elsewhere, especially in Uruguay. Home advantage is not unusually high or low in any of the countries from other continents. A multiple regression model for the 51 European countries, which included variables for geographical location, crowd effects and travel, accounted for 76.7% of the variability in home advantage. The large geographical variations can be interpreted in terms of territoriality being a contributing factor to home advantage."
AUTHOR
Richard Pollard
PUBLISHED
2006 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
26
Home advantage in southern hemisphere rugby union: Nationaland international
"This study evaluates home advantages both for national (Super 12) and international (Tri-nations) rugby union teams from South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, over the five-year period 2000-2004 using linear modelling. These home advantages are examined for statistical and practical significance, for variability between teams, for stability over time and for inter-correlation. These data reveal that the overall home advantage in elite rugby union has a mean of +6.7 points, and that this changes little from year to year. Closer scrutiny nevertheless reveals a high degree of variability. Different teams can and do have different home advantages, which ranges from a low of -0.7 to a high of +28.3 points in any one year. Furthermore, some team home advantages change up or down from one year to the next, by as much as -36.5 to +31.4 points at the extremes. There is no evidence that the stronger teams have the higher home advantages, or that a high home advantage leads to a superior finishing position in the competition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)"
AUTHOR
Hugh Morton R
PUBLISHED
2006 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
27
AUTHOR
Byron J Gajewski
PUBLISHED
2006 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
Yes
Yes
28
The home advantage in sport competitions: Courneya and Carron's (1992) conceptual framework a decade later
"This paper had three aims. The first was to review research carried out on the home advantage from 1992 to the present. The second was to examine the extent to which a Conceptual Framework proposed by Courneya and Carron (1992) was/is viable as a tool to highlight and organise an understanding of the home advantage. The final aim was to provide suggestions for future research."
AUTHORS
Steven R Bray
Todd M Loughhead
Albert V Carron
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
29
Home-Field Effect and Team Performance
"This article discusses the home-field effect in professional team sports and provides further evidence of home advantage in association football as played in the English Premier League. Utilizing play data it employs match-based production function to investigate the home-field effect on within-match performance by home and away teams."
AUTHORS
Dennis Thomas
Fiona Carmichael
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Economics
High quality source
Yes
Yes
30
An investigation of home advantage and other factors affecting outcomes in English one-day cricket matches
"We examined the factors affecting the outcome of cricket matches played in the English one-day county cricket league. In particular, we focused on the home-field effect and the importance of winning the pre-match toss of a coin to determine a team's strategic decision to bat first or second. A home-field effect appeared to be confirmed in that home teams won 57% of all matches with a win/loss result. A logistical regression model was used, with the outcome variable defined in terms of a home team win/loss. We found that while winning the toss is an important aspect of a one-day cricket match, other factors tend to dominate in determining the result, especially team quality and match importance for the home and away teams in the overall league context. Our results also indicate, not surprisingly given the nature of cricket attendance and spectating, that the crowd effect is largely insignificant. The results of our study do not support any rule changes requiring the abandonment of the coin toss to determine batting order."
AUTHORS
Dennis Thomas
Bruce Morley
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
31
Home advantage in the Australian football league
"The results of this study on home advantage in Australian rules football demonstrate that individual clubs have different home advantages. Traditional measures of home advantage as applied to whole competitions such as percentage of games won, and alternative measures such as average margin of victory for the home team, are calculated. Problems with these measures are discussed. Individual home advantages for each team are obtained using a linear model fitted to individual match margins; the resultant home advantages are analysed, and variations and possible causes or groupings of home advantage are proposed. It is shown that some models allowing different home advantages for different clubs are a significant improvement over previous models assuming a common home advantage. The results show a strong isolation effect, with non-Victorian teams having large home advantages, and lend support to the conclusion that crowd effects and ground familiarity are a major determinant of home advantage."
AUTHOR
Stephen R Clarke
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
32
AUTHORS
Sandy Wolfson
Nigel Balmer
Alan Nevill
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
33
Home advantage in speed skating: Evidence from individual data
"Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home advantage in some individual sports, but there is a much more limited literature. This paper addresses the issue of home advantage in speed skating. From a methodological point of view, it is difficult to identify home advantage, because skaters vary in their abilities and the conditions of tournaments vary. There is a small but significant home advantage using a generalized linear mixed model, with random effects for skaters and fixed effects for skating rinks and seasons. Even though the home advantage effect exists, it is very small when compared to variation in skating times due to differences of rinks and individual abilities."
AUTHOR
Ruud H Koning
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
34
Modelling home advantage in the Summer Olympic Games
"Home advantage in team games is well proven and the influence of the crowd upon officials' decisions has been identified as a plausible cause. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of home advantage for five event groups selected from the Summer Olympic Games between 1896 and 1996, and put home advantage in team games in context with other sports. The five event groups were athletics and weightlifting (predominantly objectively judged), boxing and gymnastics (predominantly subjectively judged) and team games (involving subjective decisions). The proportion of points won was analysed as a binomial response variable using generalized linear interactive modelling. Preliminary exploration of the data highlighted the need to control for the proportion of competitors entered and to split the analysis pre- and post-war. Highly significant home advantage was found in event groups that were either subjectively judged or rely on subjective decisions. In contrast, little or no home advantage (and even away advantage) was observed for the two objectively judged groups. Officiating system was vital to both the existence and extent of home advantage. Our findings suggest that crowd noise has a greater influence upon officials' decisions than players' performances, as events with greater officiating input enjoyed significantly greater home advantage."
AUTHORS
AM WILLIAMS
AM NEVILL
NJ BALMER
PUBLISHED
2003 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
35
Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998)
"We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance."
AUTHORS
A. Mark Williams
Alan M. Nevill
Nigel J. Balmer
PUBLISHED
2001 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
36
Identifying home advantage in international tennis and golf tournaments
"A regression analysis of competitors' tournament results in relation to their world rankings was proposed to identify the effect of home advantage in international 'grand-slam' tennis and 'major' golf tournaments. The results provided little evidence of home advantage in either the grand-slam tennis or the golf tournaments held in 1993. The only possible evidence of home advantage was found in the Wimbledon tennis and the US Open golf championships. Even these findings can be explained, at least partially, by (1) the availability of information concerning the low world rankings of the British tennis players competing at Wimbledon, and (2) selective entry, allowing only the world's top-ranked foreign golfers into the US open golf tournament. In both cases, the lower ranking home competitors have a greater opportunity to perform above their anticipated world rankings. Therefore, provided entry into tennis and golf tournaments is truly 'open' to both the host nation's representatives and foreign competitors alike, home advantage does not appear to be a major factor influencing the competitors' performance in such competitions. These findings may be explained by the relatively objective nature of the scoring systems used in tennis and golf, unlike the subjective influence of refereeing decisions on the results of team-games such as soccer."
AUTHORS
Stephen Jones
Helen Calvert
Andrew Bardsley
Roger L. Holder
Alan M. Nevill
PUBLISHED
1997 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
37
Home Ground Advantage of Individual Clubs in English Soccer
"SUMMARY Least squares is used to fit a model to the individual match results in English football and to produce a home ground advantage effect for each team in addition to a team rating. We show that for a balanced competition this is equivalent to a simple calculator method using only data from the final ladder. The existence of a spurious home advantage is discussed. Home advantages for all teams in the English Football League from 1981-82 to 1990-91 are calculated, and some reasons for their differences investigated. A paired home advantage is defined and shown to be linearly related to the distance between club grounds."
AUTHORS
John M. Norman
Stephen R. Clarke
PUBLISHED
1995 in The Statistician
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
38
AUTHOR
Francis T. McAndrew
PUBLISHED
1993 in The Journal of Social Psychology
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
39
AUTHORS
Stephen Clarke
Raymond Stefani
PUBLISHED
1992 in Journal of Applied Statistics
Q3
Yes
Yes
40
AUTHORS
Albert V. Carron
Kerry S. Courneya
PUBLISHED
1992 in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
High quality source
Literature Review
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 25
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Is there really a home-field advantage in sports?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Testosterone, territoriality, and the ‘home advantage’
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9384(02)00969-1
AUTHORS
Sandy Wolfson
Nick Neave
PUBLISHED
2003 in Physiology & Behavior

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Evidence of a reduced home advantage when a team moves to a new stadium
"Home advantage is well documented for professional baseball, basketball and ice hockey in North America. One of the possible causes of this advantage is familiarity with the local playing facility. This was investigated and quantified in an analysis of 37 teams moving to new stadiums, but in the same city, from 1987 to 2001. Home advantage during the first season in a new stadium after the move was significantly less than home advantage in the final season in the old stadium (P= 0.011). The reduction was evident in all three sports. Possible confounding factors, such as crowd size and crowd density, were considered but did not appear to have an effect. It is estimated that about 24% of the advantage of playing at home maybe lost when a team relocates to a new facility."
AUTHOR
Richard Pollard
PUBLISHED
2002 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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The Effect of an Artificial Pitch Surface on Home Team Performance in Football (Soccer)
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2307/2982859
AUTHORS
S. Hilditch
V. Barnett
PUBLISHED
1993 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society)

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Pre-competition hormonal and psychological levels of elite hockey players: Relationship to the ‘home advantage’
"The home advantage is a robust phenomenon that occurs in the world of amateur and professional sport. Athletic teams have been shown to win significantly more games in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue. Studies have suggested that the home advantage may be related to familiarity with the facility, increased crowd density and even pre-competition hormonal levels. The present study investigated pre-competition physiological and psychological states of elite hockey players in the home and away venues. Physiological measures included salivary cortisol and testosterone, which were assessed using enzyme immunoassays. In addition, pre-competition psychological states were assessed using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Physiological measures indicated that the players had significantly higher pre-game testosterone when playing in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue (t(13)=2.29, p=0.04); however, this difference was not due to a pre-game rise in testosterone while competing at home. Furthermore, players showed a trend toward higher pre-game cortisol when playing in their home venue (t(13)=1.96, p=0.07). Psychological measures indicated that players were more self-confident when playing in their home venue (t(13)=2.8, p=0.008) and also had higher somatic (t(13)=2.3, p=0.02) and cognitive anxiety (t(13)=1.87, p=0.04) when playing in their opponents' venue. The present study supports the notion that there are differences in pre-competition hormonal and psychological states that may play a key role in the "home advantage"."
AUTHORS
S PUTNAM
J BELANGER
C MUIR
J CARRE
PUBLISHED
2006 in Physiology & Behavior

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Modelling performance at international tennis and golf tournaments: is there a home advantage?
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9884.00109
AUTHORS
Alan M. Nevill
Roger L. Holder
PUBLISHED
1997 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series D (The Statistician)

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An Analysis of Home and Away Game Performance of Male College Basketball Teams
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.2.3.245
AUTHOR
Philip E. Varca
PUBLISHED
1980 in Journal of Sport Psychology

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Spectator Booing and the Home Advantage: A Study of Social Influence in the Basketball Arena
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2307/3033796
AUTHOR
Donald L. Greer
PUBLISHED
1983 in Social Psychology Quarterly

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The influence of crowd noise and experience upon refereeing decisions in football
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1469-0292(01)00033-4
AUTHORS
A Mark Williams
N.J Balmer
A.M Nevill
PUBLISHED
2002 in Psychology of Sport and Exercise

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The Home Advantage in Collegiate Basketball
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.2.4.352
AUTHORS
Dean A. Purdy
Eldon E. Snyder
PUBLISHED
1985 in Sociology of Sport Journal

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Long-term trends in home advantage in professional team sports in North America and England (1876 – 2003)
"Home advantage is quantitatively defined and calculated for each season since the start of the main professional sports in North America and England. Over 400,000 games are analysed. The leagues represented are the National League (1876-2002) and American League (1901-2002) for baseball, the National Hockey League (1917-2003) for ice hockey, the National Football League (1933-2002) for American football, the National Basketball Association (1946-2003) for basketball, and the four levels of professional football, formerly called the Football League, in England (1888-2003). Problems caused by unbalanced playing schedules are considered. The results are presented graphically to show long-term trends and sudden changes. The highest levels of home advantage for all sports were in their early years of existence. Home advantage in ice hockey, basketball and football in England has declined over the last two decades. In baseball there has been very little change over the last 100 years, with home advantage consistently lower than in other sports. There was a large drop in home advantage in football in England following the 7-year suspension of the league during the Second World War. The trends and changes provide some evidence that travel and familiarity contribute to home advantage, but little in support of crowd effects."
AUTHORS
G Pollard
R Pollard
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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Do judges enhance home advantage in European championship boxing?
"There have been many examples of contentious points decisions in boxing. Professional boxing is scored subjectively by judges and referees scoring each round of the contest. We assessed whether the probability of a home win (and therefore home advantage) increased when bouts were decided by points decisions rather than knockouts. Overall, we found that bouts ending in points decisions had a significantly higher proportion of home wins than those decided by a knockout, though this effect varied across time, and controlling for relative quality of boxers was only effective when using more recent data. Focusing on these data, again the probability of a home win was higher with a points decision and this effect was consistent as “relative quality” varied. For equally matched boxers (“relative quality” = 0), expected probability of a home win was 0.57 for knockouts, 0.66 for technical knockouts and 0.74 for points decisions. The results of the present study lend general support to the notion that home advant..."
AUTHORS
AM Lane
AM Nevill
NJ Balmer
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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Favoritism Under Social Pressure
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1162/0034653053970267
AUTHORS
Canice Prendergast
Ignacio Palacios-Huerta
Luis Garicano
PUBLISHED
2005 in Review of Economics and Statistics

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The Effect of the Audience on the Home Advantage
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1993.76.3c.1123
AUTHOR
Simo Salminen
PUBLISHED
1993 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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The influence of game location on athletes' psychological states
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(98)80006-6
AUTHORS
Albert V. Carron
Nicholas Walrond
Peter C. Terry
PUBLISHED
1998 in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

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Strategic decisions of ice hockey coaches as a function of game location
"Two studies were performed to determine the influence of game location on the strategic decisions of ice hockey coaches. In study 1, coaches from the National (n = 23) and Ontario Hockey Leagues (n = 17) indicated the degree to which they had their teams forecheck assertively at home versus away. In study 2, video analysis of 62 National Hockey League games was used to verify the extent to which teams in this league use an assertive forechecking strategy at home versus away. In study 1, coaches reported that they implemented a more assertive forechecking style at home versus away (P < 0.001). The results of the video analysis in study 2 were consistent with the coaches' reports: teams used a more assertive forechecking style at home versus away (P < 0.03). The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the home advantage in the National Hockey League."
AUTHORS
ALBERT V. CARRON
PAUL W. DENNIS
PUBLISHED
1999 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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Favoritism of agents – The case of referees' home bias
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870(03)00013-8
AUTHORS
Martin G Kocher
Matthias Sutter
PUBLISHED
2004 in Journal of Economic Psychology

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Literature review
Home Advantage in Sport
"This review identifies the most likely causes of home advantage. The results of previous studies have identified 4 factors thought to be responsible for the home advantage. These can be categorised under the general headings of crowd, learning, travel and rule factors. From the accumulated evidence, rule factors were found to play only a minor role (in a limited number of sports) in contributing to home advantage. Studies investigating the effect of learning factors found that little benefit was to be gained from being familiar with the local conditions when playing at home. There was evidence to suggest that travel factors were responsible for part of the home advantage, provided the journey involved crossing a number of time zones. However, since high levels of home advantage are observed within countries where travel distances are not great, travel factors were not thought to be a major cause of home advantage. The evidence from studies investigating crowd factors appeared to provide the most dominant causes of home advantage. A number of studies provide strong evidence that home advantage increases with crowd size, until the crowd reaches a certain size or consistency (a more balanced number of home and away supporters), after which a peak in home advantage is observed. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain these observations: either (i) the crowd is able to raise the performance of the home competitors relative to the away competitors; or (ii) the crowd is able to influence the officials to subconsciously favour the home team. The literature supports the latter to be the most important and dominant explanation. Clearly, it only takes 2 or 3 crucial decisions to go against the away team or in favour of the home team to give the side playing at home the 'edge'."
AUTHORS
Roger L. Holder
Alan M. Nevill
PUBLISHED
1999 in Sports Medicine

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Literature review
THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.
"Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered."
AUTHOR
Marshall B Jones
PUBLISHED
2015 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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Home Advantage in Sport
"This review identifies the most likely causes of home advantage. The results of previous studies have identified 4 factors thought to be responsible for the home advantage. These can be categorised under the general headings of crowd, learning, travel and rule factors. From the accumulated evidence, rule factors were found to play only a minor role (in a limited number of sports) in contributing to home advantage. Studies investigating the effect of learning factors found that little benefit was to be gained from being familiar with the local conditions when playing at home. There was evidence to suggest that travel factors were responsible for part of the home advantage, provided the journey involved crossing a number of time zones. However, since high levels of home advantage are observed within countries where travel distances are not great, travel factors were not thought to be a major cause of home advantage. The evidence from studies investigating crowd factors appeared to provide the most dominant causes of home advantage.A number of studies provide strong evidence that home advantage increases with crowd size, until the crowd reaches a certain size or consistency (a more balanced number of home and away supporters), after which a peak in home advantage is observed. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain these observations: either (i) the crowd is able to raise the performance of the home competitors relative to the away competitors; or (ii) the crowd is able to influence the officials to subconsciously favour the home team. The literature supports the latter to be the most important and dominant explanation. Clearly, it only takes 2 or 3 crucial decisions to go against the away team or in favour of the home team to give the side playing at home the ‘edge’."
AUTHORS
Roger L. Holder
Alan M. Nevill
PUBLISHED
in Sports Medicine

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Scorecasting
"A behavioral economist and a veteran Sports Illustrated writer analyze hidden influences and subtle biases that shape sports plays, covering such topics as performance pressures, the "home field advantage" and the overpayment of athletic talent. Reprint."
AUTHORS
L. Jon Wertheim
Tobias Moskowitz
PUBLISHED
2012 by Three Rivers Press (CA) (Book)

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Home Field (Dis)Advantage and the "Last-Ups" Effect
"The rules of baseball have an intriguing quirk that other major-league sports do not have, namely, the sequential order of play which always affords the last at-bat to the home team. We became interested in exploring the strategic effects of this quirk. If there is a significant strategic advantage (or disadvantage) to having the last at-bat, it may show up as a difference in win percentage of the home team in close games, where strategy is more important, compared to the win percentage of home teams in games which are blowouts. Our paper is motivated by attempting to exploit the "natural experiment" of comparing close games to blowouts.

In previous literature, the possibility that strategic effects might come into play because of the sequential nature of the play is only partially recognized. For example, Carmichael and Thomas state as their third reason for home field advantage, "rules factors that may extend special privileges explicitly favoring the home team, such as the home team in baseball and softball always having the last 'bat.'"1 These authors only recognize the possibility that the last at-bat might give the home team the advantage when there is reason to believe that it is the visitors who actually have the advantage. Indeed, among baseball, basketball, hockey, football, and soccer, the strategic effect due to sequential play is only operative in baseball, yet baseball has the lowest home-field advantage of these five major sports.

The difference between the home winning percentage and the away winning percentage is statistically significantly positive for all major sports, but differs from sport to sport. In baseball, from 1901–2002, the average difference per team per year was 0.082, which for a .500 team in a 162 game season would lead approximately to records of 44-37 at home and 37-44 on the road."
AUTHORS
Franklin Lowenthal
Stephen Shmanske
PUBLISHED
2009 in NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture

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The Home Advantage in Major League Baseball
"© Perceptual & Motor Skills 2015.Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports.

It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage.

Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered."
AUTHOR
Marshall B. Jones
PUBLISHED
2015 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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Home advantage in professional tennis
"Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home advantage, restrictions on the specification of the model need to be imposed. We find that although significant home advantage exists for men, the performance of women tennis players appears to be unaffected by home advantage."
AUTHOR
Ruud H. Koning
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sports Sciences

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The home advantage in individual sports: An augmented review
"Objectives: Is the home advantage in individual sports comparable in magnitude and consistency to that in team sports? If not, is it nevertheless a major factor? The present paper reviews the literature to date with respect to these questions and augments it with original analyses where appropriate. Design: The review is framed and dominated by a design consideration, namely, that all major team sports play balanced home-and-away schedules, whereas individual sports rarely, if ever, do. As a result, it is necessary to take player quality into account in assessing home advantage in an individual sport. Method/approach: The paper begins with three individual sports (tennis, golf, and boxing) in which home advantage has been studied using available controls for player quality. It moves on to individual and team sports in the Olympics, where home advantage has also been studied with credible controls on player (country) quality. Studies are then reviewed in which player quality has not been controlled. Finally, data are presented for two individual efforts embedded in team sports (free throws in basketball and shootouts in ice hockey). Results: Subjectively evaluated sports such as diving, gymnastics, or figure skating usually show sizable and significant home advantages. Otherwise, occasional findings have been reported but they are not consistent within a sport, are generally weak, and often statistically unreliable. Conclusions: Except for subjectively evaluated sports, home advantage is not a major factor in individual sports, much less does it play a role in individual sports comparable to its role in team sports. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd."
AUTHOR
Marshall B. Jones
PUBLISHED
in Psychology of Sport and Exercise

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The Home Advantage in High School Basketball
"Summay.-Occurrence of the home field advantage in high school basketball was examined for percentages of games won at home and away for four male varsity basketball teams from 1968-1988. Statistically significant home advantage for three of the four teams extends previous findings that the difference in che size of the home advantage between sport levels, i.e., college and professional levels within the same sport, is minimal. Results are consistent with the contention that the effects of travel on the size of the home advantage are minimal. In a recent review of the home advantage in sport competitions, Cour-neya and Carron (1992) concluded that ddferences in the home advantage between college and professional teams within the same sport are minimal. The finding raises questions of whether the home advantage exists for high school teams and whether the advantage is similar in magnitude to those of college and professional teams. These questions bear upon the reasons the home advantage is observed in sports. Specifically, fatigue and disruption of routine associated with trav-el would be more hkely to operate in the college and professional teams as they spend considerably more time away from home, travel longer distances on road trips, and experience greater disruption of famhar routines such as eating and sleeping. Such influence would be less for high school teams, and, even if such factors are significant for the home advantage, the magni-tude should be smaller for high school teams. Courneya and Carron (1992) reported one study in which the home ad-vantage was examined at the high school level. McCutcheon (1984) noted that high school football teams won 54% of 218 games, basketball teams won 51% of 302 games, and cross-country track teams 54% of 100 meets and concluded that the home advantage in high school sports is relatively weaker than with college and professional sports. These percentages are con-siderably lower than the over-all home winning percentages of 64.4% for"
AUTHORS
Robert Coombs
William F. Gayton
PUBLISHED
in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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