Is there really a home-field advantage in sports?

Submitted by: THunter 88

Yes, there is really a home-field advantage in sports. The studies in this list for which we have identified answers are unanimous on this conclusion.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 46 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong.
41
YES ANSWERS
0
NO ANSWERS
0
MIXED RESULTS ANSWERS
0
INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE ANSWERS
5
NO DATA ON ANSWER


Chart summary of 46 studies examining this question
Showing up to 10 at a time

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Mixed means that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This label is often applied when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). The label Insuff. Evidence means that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. The label No Data means that State of K wasn't able to identify the study's response to the question based on the information that was available. This label is often applied when the person creating the list does not have access to the full text and the answer isn't clear from the abstract.

All labels of Literature Reviews and Highly Regarded Source are assigned by State of K. The label Highly Regarded Source, as applied to journals, is a label assigned to the top 20 journals (as measured by the h-index) in various subcategories as classified and reported by Google Scholar. As applied to NGOs, the label is assigned to US NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labelled "highly regarded" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label.

Literature Reviews
Although we recommend you consider all of the studies below, we believe the following studies are literature reviews, which survey and evaluate many studies on this question:
Frequently Cited Studies
The following studies are frequently cited by the other studies in this list and may be thought of as key studies on this question.
Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Is there a homefield advantage in baseball?
5 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 105

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Do baseball players perform worse in years where they perceive themselves to be under-compensated?
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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 46 showing 20 studies at a time
Sorted by publication year
21
AUTHOR
Marshall B Jones
PUBLISHED
2008 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
22
AUTHORS
MI Lambert
M Du Preez
PUBLISHED
2007 in South African Journal of Sports Medicine
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
23
Home Advantage in the NBA as a Game-Long Process
"The quantitative analysis of sports is a growing branch of science and, in many ways one that has developed through non-academic and non-traditionally peer-reviewed work. The aim of this paper is to bring to a peer-reviewed journal the generally accepted basics of the analysis of basketball, thereby providing a common starting point for future research in basketball. The possession concept, in particular the concept of equal possessions for opponents in a game, is central to basketball analysis. Estimates of possessions have existed for approximately two decades, but the various formulas have sometimes created confusion. We hope that by showing how most previous formulas are special cases of our more general formulation, we shed light on the relationship between possessions and various statistics. Also, we hope that our new estimates can provide a common basis for future possession estimation. In addition to listing data sources for statistical research on basketball, we also discuss other concepts and methods, including offensive and defensive ratings, plays, per-minute statistics, pace adjustments, true shooting percentage, effective field goal percentage, rebound rates, Four Factors, plus/minus statistics, counterpart statistics, linear weights metrics, individual possession usage, individual efficiency, Pythagorean method, and Bell Curve method. This list is not an exhaustive list of methodologies used in the field, but we believe that they provide a set of tools that fit within the possession framework and form the basis of common conversations on statistical research in basketball. A Starting Point for Analyzing Basketball Statistics. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/4985986_A_Starting_Point_for_Analyzing_Basketball_Statistics [accessed Jun 4, 2015]."
AUTHOR
Marshall B Jones
PUBLISHED
2007 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
24
An Analysis of the Home-Field Advantage in Major League Baseball Using Logit Models: Evidence from the 2004 and 2005 Seasons
"Using data from the 4,858 baseball games that were played in the major leagues during the 2004 and 2005 seasons, four logit regression models that measure the likelihood of a team winning a game are estimated. Of particular interest is the effect of being the home team. As expected, the results indicate that a home-field advantage does exist in the major leagues, but only under certain circumstances. Specifically, the strength of the home-field advantage varies with the number of runs scored by the home team and with the run differential between the winning and losing team. The probability of a home team winning a game increases as it scores more runs, but it increases at a decreasing rate. Also, for a given number of runs scored, a home team is more likely to win a game than a visiting team. The home-field advantage is strongest in games where the run differential between the winning team and losing team is one run. It is weaker in games where the run differential is two runs and is non-existent in games where the run differential is three runs or more."
AUTHORS
Anthony G. Barilla
William Levernier
PUBLISHED
2007 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
25
Worldwide regional variations in home advantage in association football
"Home advantage plays an important part in determining the result of a game of football. Its existence and magnitude is well documented in England, but its causes are still not completely understood. In this study, reliable estimates of home advantage are calculated for the domestic leagues of all countries of Europe and South America, as well as a selection of countries from other continents. The results of all games during the last six seasons are used for each of these 72 countries. In Europe, home advantage in the Balkan countries, especially Bosnia and Albania, is much higher than average. It is generally lower than average in northern Europe, from the Baltic republics, through Scandinavia to the British Isles. In South America, home advantage is high in the Andean countries and lower elsewhere, especially in Uruguay. Home advantage is not unusually high or low in any of the countries from other continents. A multiple regression model for the 51 European countries, which included variables for geographical location, crowd effects and travel, accounted for 76.7% of the variability in home advantage. The large geographical variations can be interpreted in terms of territoriality being a contributing factor to home advantage."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Richard Pollard
PUBLISHED
2006 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
26
Home advantage in southern hemisphere rugby union: Nationaland international
"This study evaluates home advantages both for national (Super 12) and international (Tri-nations) rugby union teams from South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, over the five-year period 2000-2004 using linear modelling. These home advantages are examined for statistical and practical significance, for variability between teams, for stability over time and for inter-correlation. These data reveal that the overall home advantage in elite rugby union has a mean of +6.7 points, and that this changes little from year to year. Closer scrutiny nevertheless reveals a high degree of variability. Different teams can and do have different home advantages, which ranges from a low of -0.7 to a high of +28.3 points in any one year. Furthermore, some team home advantages change up or down from one year to the next, by as much as -36.5 to +31.4 points at the extremes. There is no evidence that the stronger teams have the higher home advantages, or that a high home advantage leads to a superior finishing position in the competition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)"
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Hugh Morton R
PUBLISHED
2006 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
27
AUTHOR
Byron J Gajewski
PUBLISHED
2006 in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports
Q2
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
28
The home advantage in sport competitions: Courneya and Carron's (1992) conceptual framework a decade later
"This paper had three aims. The first was to review research carried out on the home advantage from 1992 to the present. The second was to examine the extent to which a Conceptual Framework proposed by Courneya and Carron (1992) was/is viable as a tool to highlight and organise an understanding of the home advantage. The final aim was to provide suggestions for future research."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Steven R Bray
Todd M Loughhead
Albert V Carron
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
29
Home-Field Effect and Team Performance
"This article discusses the home-field effect in professional team sports and provides further evidence of home advantage in association football as played in the English Premier League. Utilizing play data it employs match-based production function to investigate the home-field effect on within-match performance by home and away teams."
AUTHORS
Dennis Thomas
Fiona Carmichael
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Economics
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
30
An investigation of home advantage and other factors affecting outcomes in English one-day cricket matches
"We examined the factors affecting the outcome of cricket matches played in the English one-day county cricket league. In particular, we focused on the home-field effect and the importance of winning the pre-match toss of a coin to determine a team's strategic decision to bat first or second. A home-field effect appeared to be confirmed in that home teams won 57% of all matches with a win/loss result. A logistical regression model was used, with the outcome variable defined in terms of a home team win/loss. We found that while winning the toss is an important aspect of a one-day cricket match, other factors tend to dominate in determining the result, especially team quality and match importance for the home and away teams in the overall league context. Our results also indicate, not surprisingly given the nature of cricket attendance and spectating, that the crowd effect is largely insignificant. The results of our study do not support any rule changes requiring the abandonment of the coin toss to determine batting order."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Dennis Thomas
Bruce Morley
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
31
Home advantage in the Australian football league
"The results of this study on home advantage in Australian rules football demonstrate that individual clubs have different home advantages. Traditional measures of home advantage as applied to whole competitions such as percentage of games won, and alternative measures such as average margin of victory for the home team, are calculated. Problems with these measures are discussed. Individual home advantages for each team are obtained using a linear model fitted to individual match margins; the resultant home advantages are analysed, and variations and possible causes or groupings of home advantage are proposed. It is shown that some models allowing different home advantages for different clubs are a significant improvement over previous models assuming a common home advantage. The results show a strong isolation effect, with non-Victorian teams having large home advantages, and lend support to the conclusion that crowd effects and ground familiarity are a major determinant of home advantage."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Stephen R Clarke
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
32
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Sandy Wolfson
Nigel Balmer
Alan Nevill
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
33
Home advantage in speed skating: Evidence from individual data
"Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home advantage in some individual sports, but there is a much more limited literature. This paper addresses the issue of home advantage in speed skating. From a methodological point of view, it is difficult to identify home advantage, because skaters vary in their abilities and the conditions of tournaments vary. There is a small but significant home advantage using a generalized linear mixed model, with random effects for skaters and fixed effects for skating rinks and seasons. Even though the home advantage effect exists, it is very small when compared to variation in skating times due to differences of rinks and individual abilities."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHOR
Ruud H Koning
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
NO DATA
NO DATA
34
Modelling home advantage in the Summer Olympic Games
"Home advantage in team games is well proven and the influence of the crowd upon officials' decisions has been identified as a plausible cause. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of home advantage for five event groups selected from the Summer Olympic Games between 1896 and 1996, and put home advantage in team games in context with other sports. The five event groups were athletics and weightlifting (predominantly objectively judged), boxing and gymnastics (predominantly subjectively judged) and team games (involving subjective decisions). The proportion of points won was analysed as a binomial response variable using generalized linear interactive modelling. Preliminary exploration of the data highlighted the need to control for the proportion of competitors entered and to split the analysis pre- and post-war. Highly significant home advantage was found in event groups that were either subjectively judged or rely on subjective decisions. In contrast, little or no home advantage (and even away advantage) was observed for the two objectively judged groups. Officiating system was vital to both the existence and extent of home advantage. Our findings suggest that crowd noise has a greater influence upon officials' decisions than players' performances, as events with greater officiating input enjoyed significantly greater home advantage."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
AM WILLIAMS
AM NEVILL
NJ BALMER
PUBLISHED
2003 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
35
Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998)
"We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
A. Mark Williams
Alan M. Nevill
Nigel J. Balmer
PUBLISHED
2001 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
36
Identifying home advantage in international tennis and golf tournaments
"A regression analysis of competitors' tournament results in relation to their world rankings was proposed to identify the effect of home advantage in international 'grand-slam' tennis and 'major' golf tournaments. The results provided little evidence of home advantage in either the grand-slam tennis or the golf tournaments held in 1993. The only possible evidence of home advantage was found in the Wimbledon tennis and the US Open golf championships. Even these findings can be explained, at least partially, by (1) the availability of information concerning the low world rankings of the British tennis players competing at Wimbledon, and (2) selective entry, allowing only the world's top-ranked foreign golfers into the US open golf tournament. In both cases, the lower ranking home competitors have a greater opportunity to perform above their anticipated world rankings. Therefore, provided entry into tennis and golf tournaments is truly 'open' to both the host nation's representatives and foreign competitors alike, home advantage does not appear to be a major factor influencing the competitors' performance in such competitions. These findings may be explained by the relatively objective nature of the scoring systems used in tennis and golf, unlike the subjective influence of refereeing decisions on the results of team-games such as soccer."
HIGHLY REGARDED SOURCE
AUTHORS
Stephen Jones
Helen Calvert
Andrew Bardsley
Roger L. Holder
Alan M. Nevill
PUBLISHED
1997 in Journal of Sports Sciences
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
37
Home Ground Advantage of Individual Clubs in English Soccer
"SUMMARY Least squares is used to fit a model to the individual match results in English football and to produce a home ground advantage effect for each team in addition to a team rating. We show that for a balanced competition this is equivalent to a simple calculator method using only data from the final ladder. The existence of a spurious home advantage is discussed. Home advantages for all teams in the English Football League from 1981-82 to 1990-91 are calculated, and some reasons for their differences investigated. A paired home advantage is defined and shown to be linearly related to the distance between club grounds."
AUTHORS
John M. Norman
Stephen R. Clarke
PUBLISHED
1995 in The Statistician
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
38
AUTHOR
Francis T. McAndrew
PUBLISHED
1993 in The Journal of Social Psychology
SUSPECT SOURCE
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
39
AUTHORS
Stephen Clarke
Raymond Stefani
PUBLISHED
1992 in Journal of Applied Statistics
Q3
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes
40
LITERATURE REVIEW
AUTHORS
Albert V. Carron
Kerry S. Courneya
PUBLISHED
1992 in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Q1
SUBMITTED BY
JAloni 105
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 16
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Is there really a home-field advantage in sports?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Testosterone, territoriality, and the ‘home advantage’
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9384(02)00969-1
AUTHORS
Sandy Wolfson
Nick Neave
PUBLISHED
2003 in Physiology & Behavior

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The Effect of an Artificial Pitch Surface on Home Team Performance in Football (Soccer)
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2307/2982859
AUTHORS
S. Hilditch
V. Barnett
PUBLISHED
1993 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society)

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Highly regarded source
Evidence of a reduced home advantage when a team moves to a new stadium
"Home advantage is well documented for professional baseball, basketball and ice hockey in North America. One of the possible causes of this advantage is familiarity with the local playing facility. This was investigated and quantified in an analysis of 37 teams moving to new stadiums, but in the same city, from 1987 to 2001. Home advantage during the first season in a new stadium after the move was significantly less than home advantage in the final season in the old stadium (P= 0.011). The reduction was evident in all three sports. Possible confounding factors, such as crowd size and crowd density, were considered but did not appear to have an effect. It is estimated that about 24% of the advantage of playing at home maybe lost when a team relocates to a new facility."
AUTHOR
Richard Pollard
PUBLISHED
2002 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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Modelling performance at international tennis and golf tournaments: is there a home advantage?
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9884.00109
AUTHORS
Alan M. Nevill
Roger L. Holder
PUBLISHED
1997 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series D (The Statistician)

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Highly regarded source
Long-term trends in home advantage in professional team sports in North America and England (1876 – 2003)
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021559
AUTHORS
G Pollard
R Pollard
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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An Analysis of Home and Away Game Performance of Male College Basketball Teams
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.2.3.245
AUTHOR
Philip E. Varca
PUBLISHED
1980 in Journal of Sport Psychology

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Highly regarded source
Do judges enhance home advantage in European championship boxing?
"There have been many examples of contentious points decisions in boxing. Professional boxing is scored subjectively by judges and referees scoring each round of the contest. We assessed whether the probability of a home win (and therefore home advantage) increased when bouts were decided by points decisions rather than knockouts. Overall, we found that bouts ending in points decisions had a significantly higher proportion of home wins than those decided by a knockout, though this effect varied across time, and controlling for relative quality of boxers was only effective when using more recent data. Focusing on these data, again the probability of a home win was higher with a points decision and this effect was consistent as “relative quality” varied. For equally matched boxers (“relative quality” = 0), expected probability of a home win was 0.57 for knockouts, 0.66 for technical knockouts and 0.74 for points decisions. The results of the present study lend general support to the notion that home advant..."
AUTHORS
AM Lane
AM Nevill
NJ Balmer
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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Spectator Booing and the Home Advantage: A Study of Social Influence in the Basketball Arena
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2307/3033796
AUTHOR
Donald L. Greer
PUBLISHED
1983 in Social Psychology Quarterly

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Highly regarded source
The influence of crowd noise and experience upon refereeing decisions in football
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1469-0292(01)00033-4
AUTHORS
A Mark Williams
N.J Balmer
A.M Nevill
PUBLISHED
2002 in Psychology of Sport and Exercise

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The Home Advantage in Collegiate Basketball
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.2.4.352
AUTHORS
Dean A. Purdy
Eldon E. Snyder
PUBLISHED
1985 in Sociology of Sport Journal

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Highly regarded source
The influence of game location on athletes' psychological states
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(98)80006-6
AUTHORS
Albert V. Carron
Nicholas Walrond
Peter C. Terry
PUBLISHED
1998 in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

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The Effect of the Audience on the Home Advantage
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1993.76.3c.1123
AUTHOR
Simo Salminen
PUBLISHED
1993 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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Highly regarded source
Favoritism Under Social Pressure
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1162/0034653053970267
AUTHORS
Canice Prendergast
Ignacio Palacios-Huerta
Luis Garicano
PUBLISHED
2005 in Review of Economics and Statistics

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Highly regarded source
Strategic decisions of ice hockey coaches as a function of game location
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1080/026404199365984
AUTHORS
ALBERT V. CARRON
PAUL W. DENNIS
PUBLISHED
1999 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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Highly regarded source
Favoritism of agents – The case of referees' home bias
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870(03)00013-8
AUTHORS
Martin G Kocher
Matthias Sutter
PUBLISHED
2004 in Journal of Economic Psychology

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Is there a homefield advantage in baseball?
5 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 105

Are presidential democracies more prone to becoming dictatorships than parliamentary democracies?
24 studies
Submitted by: SMendoza 75

Do baseball players perform worse in years where they perceive themselves to be under-compensated?
6 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Do formula-fed infants sleep more than breastfed infants?
15 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "Is there really a home-field advantage in sports" to consider?