Is there really a home-field advantage in sports?

Submitted by: THunter 88

Yes. The studies in this list for which we have identified answers are unanimous on this conclusion.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 46 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 46 studies examining this question
Showing up to 10 at a time

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

All labels of Literature Reviews and source quality are assigned by State of K. For academic journals, the label "Q[NUMBER]" is an indication of the quality of the publication. The "NUMBER" refer to the best quartile in which the journal appeared among all the subjects in which the journal was ranked by Scimago Institutions Rankings. For example, if a journal was ranked in the third quartile (Q3) in infectious diseases, but in the second quartile in Ebola studies (Q2), you would see "Q2". The best quartile is "Q1". Publications other than academic journals may be labeled as "Highly Regarded Sources". Government sources receive this label as do NGOs ranked by the TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. The information contained in a source that is labeled "highly regarded" or "Q1" is not necessarily more accurate than information contained in a source without that label, but these are rough guides to source quality.

Literature Reviews
Although we recommend you consider all of the studies below, we believe the following studies are literature reviews, which survey and evaluate many studies on this question:
Frequently Cited Studies
The following studies are frequently cited by the other studies in this list and may be thought of as key studies on this question.
Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 46 showing 20 studies at a time
Sorted by publication year
41
AUTHORS
Guy Langevin
William F. Gayton
PUBLISHED
1992 in Perceptual and Motor Skills
Q4
Yes
Yes
42
HOME ADVANTAGE: DOES IT EXIST IN INDIVIDUAL SPORTS
"This study examined whether the home advantage exists in individual sports. The percentage of 792 wrestling matches won at home and away were compared for a high school wrestling team from 1980-1984. A significant home advantage was found: 61% vs 54%."
AUTHOR
WILLIAM F. GAYTON
PUBLISHED
1992 in Perceptual and Motor Skills
Q4
Yes
Yes
43
AUTHORS
Joseph F. Hearns
Sharon A. Mutrie
William F. Gayton
PUBLISHED
1987 in Perceptual and Motor Skills
Q4
Couldn't Identify
Couldn't Identify
44
Home advantage in soccer: A retrospective analysis
"See, stats, and: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20272586 Home : A analysis Article Impact : 2. 25: 10.1080/ 02640418608732122: PubMed CITATIONS 166 READS 679 1 : Richard California , San 52 , 948 SEE Available : Richard Retrieved : 03"
AUTHOR
Richard Pollard
PUBLISHED
1986 in Journal of Sports Sciences
High quality source
Yes
Yes
45
Local Sports Teams and Celebration of Community: A Comparative Analysis of the Home Advantage
"In major sports events between representatives of different cities, the home team has been known to have a major advantage over the visiting team. Drawing on Durkheim, Schwartz and Barsky (1977) have demonstrated that the social support of the audience is the main determinant of this advantage. In their conclusion, Schwartz and Barsky characterize sports events as a "celebration of local community" (p. 658). This article tests the celebration of community thesis by comparing the relative home advantage among 23 professional basketball teams during the 1981-82 season. Three broad variables are hypothesized to affect a team's home court advantage: (1) provincialism and stability of the city; (2) uniqueness of the home arena; and (3) the tradition of the team. Support is found for all three variables. Not only is there a home advantage in organized sports, but the magnitude of the advantage is itself bound by the social context within which the team performs."
AUTHOR
Mark S. Mizruchi
PUBLISHED
1985 in The Sociological quarterly
UNRANKED SOURCE
Yes
Yes
46
The Home Advantage
You can view the abstract at:
AUTHORS
Stephen F. Barsky
Barry Schwartz
PUBLISHED
1977 in Social Forces
High quality source
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 25
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Is there really a home-field advantage in sports?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Testosterone, territoriality, and the ‘home advantage’
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9384(02)00969-1
AUTHORS
Sandy Wolfson
Nick Neave
PUBLISHED
2003 in Physiology & Behavior

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Evidence of a reduced home advantage when a team moves to a new stadium
"Home advantage is well documented for professional baseball, basketball and ice hockey in North America. One of the possible causes of this advantage is familiarity with the local playing facility. This was investigated and quantified in an analysis of 37 teams moving to new stadiums, but in the same city, from 1987 to 2001. Home advantage during the first season in a new stadium after the move was significantly less than home advantage in the final season in the old stadium (P= 0.011). The reduction was evident in all three sports. Possible confounding factors, such as crowd size and crowd density, were considered but did not appear to have an effect. It is estimated that about 24% of the advantage of playing at home maybe lost when a team relocates to a new facility."
AUTHOR
Richard Pollard
PUBLISHED
2002 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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The Effect of an Artificial Pitch Surface on Home Team Performance in Football (Soccer)
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2307/2982859
AUTHORS
S. Hilditch
V. Barnett
PUBLISHED
1993 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society)

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Pre-competition hormonal and psychological levels of elite hockey players: Relationship to the ‘home advantage’
"The home advantage is a robust phenomenon that occurs in the world of amateur and professional sport. Athletic teams have been shown to win significantly more games in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue. Studies have suggested that the home advantage may be related to familiarity with the facility, increased crowd density and even pre-competition hormonal levels. The present study investigated pre-competition physiological and psychological states of elite hockey players in the home and away venues. Physiological measures included salivary cortisol and testosterone, which were assessed using enzyme immunoassays. In addition, pre-competition psychological states were assessed using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Physiological measures indicated that the players had significantly higher pre-game testosterone when playing in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue (t(13)=2.29, p=0.04); however, this difference was not due to a pre-game rise in testosterone while competing at home. Furthermore, players showed a trend toward higher pre-game cortisol when playing in their home venue (t(13)=1.96, p=0.07). Psychological measures indicated that players were more self-confident when playing in their home venue (t(13)=2.8, p=0.008) and also had higher somatic (t(13)=2.3, p=0.02) and cognitive anxiety (t(13)=1.87, p=0.04) when playing in their opponents' venue. The present study supports the notion that there are differences in pre-competition hormonal and psychological states that may play a key role in the "home advantage"."
AUTHORS
S PUTNAM
J BELANGER
C MUIR
J CARRE
PUBLISHED
2006 in Physiology & Behavior

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Modelling performance at international tennis and golf tournaments: is there a home advantage?
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9884.00109
AUTHORS
Alan M. Nevill
Roger L. Holder
PUBLISHED
1997 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series D (The Statistician)

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An Analysis of Home and Away Game Performance of Male College Basketball Teams
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.2.3.245
AUTHOR
Philip E. Varca
PUBLISHED
1980 in Journal of Sport Psychology

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Spectator Booing and the Home Advantage: A Study of Social Influence in the Basketball Arena
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2307/3033796
AUTHOR
Donald L. Greer
PUBLISHED
1983 in Social Psychology Quarterly

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The influence of crowd noise and experience upon refereeing decisions in football
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1469-0292(01)00033-4
AUTHORS
A Mark Williams
N.J Balmer
A.M Nevill
PUBLISHED
2002 in Psychology of Sport and Exercise

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The Home Advantage in Collegiate Basketball
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.2.4.352
AUTHORS
Dean A. Purdy
Eldon E. Snyder
PUBLISHED
1985 in Sociology of Sport Journal

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Long-term trends in home advantage in professional team sports in North America and England (1876 – 2003)
"Home advantage is quantitatively defined and calculated for each season since the start of the main professional sports in North America and England. Over 400,000 games are analysed. The leagues represented are the National League (1876-2002) and American League (1901-2002) for baseball, the National Hockey League (1917-2003) for ice hockey, the National Football League (1933-2002) for American football, the National Basketball Association (1946-2003) for basketball, and the four levels of professional football, formerly called the Football League, in England (1888-2003). Problems caused by unbalanced playing schedules are considered. The results are presented graphically to show long-term trends and sudden changes. The highest levels of home advantage for all sports were in their early years of existence. Home advantage in ice hockey, basketball and football in England has declined over the last two decades. In baseball there has been very little change over the last 100 years, with home advantage consistently lower than in other sports. There was a large drop in home advantage in football in England following the 7-year suspension of the league during the Second World War. The trends and changes provide some evidence that travel and familiarity contribute to home advantage, but little in support of crowd effects."
AUTHORS
G Pollard
R Pollard
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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Do judges enhance home advantage in European championship boxing?
"There have been many examples of contentious points decisions in boxing. Professional boxing is scored subjectively by judges and referees scoring each round of the contest. We assessed whether the probability of a home win (and therefore home advantage) increased when bouts were decided by points decisions rather than knockouts. Overall, we found that bouts ending in points decisions had a significantly higher proportion of home wins than those decided by a knockout, though this effect varied across time, and controlling for relative quality of boxers was only effective when using more recent data. Focusing on these data, again the probability of a home win was higher with a points decision and this effect was consistent as “relative quality” varied. For equally matched boxers (“relative quality” = 0), expected probability of a home win was 0.57 for knockouts, 0.66 for technical knockouts and 0.74 for points decisions. The results of the present study lend general support to the notion that home advant..."
AUTHORS
AM Lane
AM Nevill
NJ Balmer
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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Favoritism Under Social Pressure
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1162/0034653053970267
AUTHORS
Canice Prendergast
Ignacio Palacios-Huerta
Luis Garicano
PUBLISHED
2005 in Review of Economics and Statistics

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The Effect of the Audience on the Home Advantage
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1993.76.3c.1123
AUTHOR
Simo Salminen
PUBLISHED
1993 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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The influence of game location on athletes' psychological states
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(98)80006-6
AUTHORS
Albert V. Carron
Nicholas Walrond
Peter C. Terry
PUBLISHED
1998 in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

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Strategic decisions of ice hockey coaches as a function of game location
"Two studies were performed to determine the influence of game location on the strategic decisions of ice hockey coaches. In study 1, coaches from the National (n = 23) and Ontario Hockey Leagues (n = 17) indicated the degree to which they had their teams forecheck assertively at home versus away. In study 2, video analysis of 62 National Hockey League games was used to verify the extent to which teams in this league use an assertive forechecking strategy at home versus away. In study 1, coaches reported that they implemented a more assertive forechecking style at home versus away (P < 0.001). The results of the video analysis in study 2 were consistent with the coaches' reports: teams used a more assertive forechecking style at home versus away (P < 0.03). The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the home advantage in the National Hockey League."
AUTHORS
ALBERT V. CARRON
PAUL W. DENNIS
PUBLISHED
1999 in Journal of Sports Sciences

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Favoritism of agents – The case of referees' home bias
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870(03)00013-8
AUTHORS
Martin G Kocher
Matthias Sutter
PUBLISHED
2004 in Journal of Economic Psychology

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Literature review
Home Advantage in Sport
"This review identifies the most likely causes of home advantage. The results of previous studies have identified 4 factors thought to be responsible for the home advantage. These can be categorised under the general headings of crowd, learning, travel and rule factors. From the accumulated evidence, rule factors were found to play only a minor role (in a limited number of sports) in contributing to home advantage. Studies investigating the effect of learning factors found that little benefit was to be gained from being familiar with the local conditions when playing at home. There was evidence to suggest that travel factors were responsible for part of the home advantage, provided the journey involved crossing a number of time zones. However, since high levels of home advantage are observed within countries where travel distances are not great, travel factors were not thought to be a major cause of home advantage. The evidence from studies investigating crowd factors appeared to provide the most dominant causes of home advantage. A number of studies provide strong evidence that home advantage increases with crowd size, until the crowd reaches a certain size or consistency (a more balanced number of home and away supporters), after which a peak in home advantage is observed. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain these observations: either (i) the crowd is able to raise the performance of the home competitors relative to the away competitors; or (ii) the crowd is able to influence the officials to subconsciously favour the home team. The literature supports the latter to be the most important and dominant explanation. Clearly, it only takes 2 or 3 crucial decisions to go against the away team or in favour of the home team to give the side playing at home the 'edge'."
AUTHORS
Roger L. Holder
Alan M. Nevill
PUBLISHED
1999 in Sports Medicine

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Literature review
THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.
"Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered."
AUTHOR
Marshall B Jones
PUBLISHED
2015 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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Home Advantage in Sport
"This review identifies the most likely causes of home advantage. The results of previous studies have identified 4 factors thought to be responsible for the home advantage. These can be categorised under the general headings of crowd, learning, travel and rule factors. From the accumulated evidence, rule factors were found to play only a minor role (in a limited number of sports) in contributing to home advantage. Studies investigating the effect of learning factors found that little benefit was to be gained from being familiar with the local conditions when playing at home. There was evidence to suggest that travel factors were responsible for part of the home advantage, provided the journey involved crossing a number of time zones. However, since high levels of home advantage are observed within countries where travel distances are not great, travel factors were not thought to be a major cause of home advantage. The evidence from studies investigating crowd factors appeared to provide the most dominant causes of home advantage.A number of studies provide strong evidence that home advantage increases with crowd size, until the crowd reaches a certain size or consistency (a more balanced number of home and away supporters), after which a peak in home advantage is observed. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain these observations: either (i) the crowd is able to raise the performance of the home competitors relative to the away competitors; or (ii) the crowd is able to influence the officials to subconsciously favour the home team. The literature supports the latter to be the most important and dominant explanation. Clearly, it only takes 2 or 3 crucial decisions to go against the away team or in favour of the home team to give the side playing at home the ‘edge’."
AUTHORS
Roger L. Holder
Alan M. Nevill
PUBLISHED
in Sports Medicine

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Scorecasting
"A behavioral economist and a veteran Sports Illustrated writer analyze hidden influences and subtle biases that shape sports plays, covering such topics as performance pressures, the "home field advantage" and the overpayment of athletic talent. Reprint."
AUTHORS
L. Jon Wertheim
Tobias Moskowitz
PUBLISHED
2012 by Three Rivers Press (CA) (Book)

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Home Field (Dis)Advantage and the "Last-Ups" Effect
"The rules of baseball have an intriguing quirk that other major-league sports do not have, namely, the sequential order of play which always affords the last at-bat to the home team. We became interested in exploring the strategic effects of this quirk. If there is a significant strategic advantage (or disadvantage) to having the last at-bat, it may show up as a difference in win percentage of the home team in close games, where strategy is more important, compared to the win percentage of home teams in games which are blowouts. Our paper is motivated by attempting to exploit the "natural experiment" of comparing close games to blowouts.

In previous literature, the possibility that strategic effects might come into play because of the sequential nature of the play is only partially recognized. For example, Carmichael and Thomas state as their third reason for home field advantage, "rules factors that may extend special privileges explicitly favoring the home team, such as the home team in baseball and softball always having the last 'bat.'"1 These authors only recognize the possibility that the last at-bat might give the home team the advantage when there is reason to believe that it is the visitors who actually have the advantage. Indeed, among baseball, basketball, hockey, football, and soccer, the strategic effect due to sequential play is only operative in baseball, yet baseball has the lowest home-field advantage of these five major sports.

The difference between the home winning percentage and the away winning percentage is statistically significantly positive for all major sports, but differs from sport to sport. In baseball, from 1901–2002, the average difference per team per year was 0.082, which for a .500 team in a 162 game season would lead approximately to records of 44-37 at home and 37-44 on the road."
AUTHORS
Franklin Lowenthal
Stephen Shmanske
PUBLISHED
2009 in NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture

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The Home Advantage in Major League Baseball
"© Perceptual & Motor Skills 2015.Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports.

It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage.

Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered."
AUTHOR
Marshall B. Jones
PUBLISHED
2015 in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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Home advantage in professional tennis
"Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home advantage, restrictions on the specification of the model need to be imposed. We find that although significant home advantage exists for men, the performance of women tennis players appears to be unaffected by home advantage."
AUTHOR
Ruud H. Koning
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Sports Sciences

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The home advantage in individual sports: An augmented review
"Objectives: Is the home advantage in individual sports comparable in magnitude and consistency to that in team sports? If not, is it nevertheless a major factor? The present paper reviews the literature to date with respect to these questions and augments it with original analyses where appropriate. Design: The review is framed and dominated by a design consideration, namely, that all major team sports play balanced home-and-away schedules, whereas individual sports rarely, if ever, do. As a result, it is necessary to take player quality into account in assessing home advantage in an individual sport. Method/approach: The paper begins with three individual sports (tennis, golf, and boxing) in which home advantage has been studied using available controls for player quality. It moves on to individual and team sports in the Olympics, where home advantage has also been studied with credible controls on player (country) quality. Studies are then reviewed in which player quality has not been controlled. Finally, data are presented for two individual efforts embedded in team sports (free throws in basketball and shootouts in ice hockey). Results: Subjectively evaluated sports such as diving, gymnastics, or figure skating usually show sizable and significant home advantages. Otherwise, occasional findings have been reported but they are not consistent within a sport, are generally weak, and often statistically unreliable. Conclusions: Except for subjectively evaluated sports, home advantage is not a major factor in individual sports, much less does it play a role in individual sports comparable to its role in team sports. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd."
AUTHOR
Marshall B. Jones
PUBLISHED
in Psychology of Sport and Exercise

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The Home Advantage in High School Basketball
"Summay.-Occurrence of the home field advantage in high school basketball was examined for percentages of games won at home and away for four male varsity basketball teams from 1968-1988. Statistically significant home advantage for three of the four teams extends previous findings that the difference in che size of the home advantage between sport levels, i.e., college and professional levels within the same sport, is minimal. Results are consistent with the contention that the effects of travel on the size of the home advantage are minimal. In a recent review of the home advantage in sport competitions, Cour-neya and Carron (1992) concluded that ddferences in the home advantage between college and professional teams within the same sport are minimal. The finding raises questions of whether the home advantage exists for high school teams and whether the advantage is similar in magnitude to those of college and professional teams. These questions bear upon the reasons the home advantage is observed in sports. Specifically, fatigue and disruption of routine associated with trav-el would be more hkely to operate in the college and professional teams as they spend considerably more time away from home, travel longer distances on road trips, and experience greater disruption of famhar routines such as eating and sleeping. Such influence would be less for high school teams, and, even if such factors are significant for the home advantage, the magni-tude should be smaller for high school teams. Courneya and Carron (1992) reported one study in which the home ad-vantage was examined at the high school level. McCutcheon (1984) noted that high school football teams won 54% of 218 games, basketball teams won 51% of 302 games, and cross-country track teams 54% of 100 meets and concluded that the home advantage in high school sports is relatively weaker than with college and professional sports. These percentages are con-siderably lower than the over-all home winning percentages of 64.4% for"
AUTHORS
Robert Coombs
William F. Gayton
PUBLISHED
in Perceptual and Motor Skills

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Are presidential democracies more prone to becoming dictatorships than parliamentary democracies?
24 studies
Submitted by: SMendoza 75

Do baseball players perform worse in years where they perceive themselves to be under-compensated?
6 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Do formula-fed infants sleep more than breastfed infants?
15 studies
Submitted by: EZabel 110

Do gun buyback programs reduce gun violence?
12 studies
Submitted by: XJackson 78

Do obese children become obese adults?
5 studies
Submitted by: Anonymous

Do police body cameras reduce use of force by the police?
22 studies
Submitted by: TMifune 55

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "Is there really a home-field advantage in sports" to consider?