When do police activate their body worn cameras?

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Chart summary of 2 studies examining this question

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do police body cameras reduce use of force by the police?
22 studies
Submitted by: TMifune 55

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 2
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1
A Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship between Administrative Policy, Technological Preferences, and Body-Worn Camera Activation among Police Officers
"Policymakers and communities are increasingly looking to body-worn cameras to increase accountability and fix the legitimacy crisis affecting American police. Empirical research on the effectiveness of body-worn cameras is therefore an important avenue of study. Although some research shows that body-worn cameras may influence officer behaviour, there is no research examining whether officers will use the device and how usage behaviour may depend on administrative policies. Thus, the relationship between officer preferences, policies regarding camera activation, and camera use remains unknown. The current study examines whether officers’ activation of body-worn cameras depends on two different policy conditions. Integrating research on administrative policy and officer behaviour with studies of technology use in organizations, we test key hypotheses using longitudinal data for 1,475 police-citizen encounters involving 50 officers over a 9-month period. Our study yields two key findings. First, body-worn camera activation is more prevalent under a mandatory use policy relative to a discretionary use policy. Second, although camera activation declined under the discretionary use policy, this was much less likely among officers who volunteered to wear cameras. The lowest levels of activation occurred among officers who were compulsory-assigned to wear cameras. We discuss the dual role of officer preferences and administrative policy on compliance with technological innovations within police organizations."
AUTHORS
Jacob T.N. Young
Justin T. Ready
PUBLISHED
2016 in Policing
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2
On-Officer Video Cameras: Examining the Effects of Police Department Policy and Assignment on Camera Use and Activation
"On-officer video camera (OVC) technology in the field of policing is developing at a rapid pace. Large agencies are beginning to adopt the technology on a limited basis, and a number of cities across the United States have required their police departments to adopt the technology for all first responders. Researchers have just begun to examine its effects on citizen complaints, officers' attitudes, and streetlevel behavior. To date, however, there is no research examining how departmental policy and assignment of officers to a camera program affect officer behavior and opinions of the cameras. Policy and assignment have the potential to impact how officers react to the technology and can affect their interactions with citizens on a daily basis. This study measures camera activations by line officers in the Mesa Police Department during police-citizen encounters over a ten-month period. Data from 1,675 police-citizen contacts involving camera officers were subject to analysis. Net of controls (i.e., the nature of the crime incident, how it was initiated,officer shift, assignment, presence of bystanders and backup, and other situationalfactors), the bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examinehow departmental policy (mandatory versus discretionary activation policy) and officerassignment (voluntary versus mandatory assignment) affected willingness to activate thecameras, as well as officer and citizen behavior during field contacts."
AUTHOR
Allyson Roy
PUBLISHED
2014 in Arizona State University
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ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 20
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Behind the lens: police attitudes toward body-worn cameras and organizational justice
FUNDERS
University of South Florida
"Body-worn cameras are a promising new development in policing. They have been linked to positive outcomes such as decreases in use of force and complaints against officers. However, this new technology has produced a number of issues that could thwart a successful body-worn camera program implementation. One issue is the extent to which officers possess positive attitudes toward using body-worn cameras. If officers do not view body-worn cameras positively, they may not use cameras to their full potential. This study examined the relationship between organizational justice and attitudes toward body-worn cameras in 492 police officers across 3 agencies using structural equation modeling. Findings indicated no observable relationship between perceptions of organizational justice and attitudes toward body-worn cameras. The implications for the organizational adoption of innovations in policy are discussed."
AUTHORS
Joseph A. Schafer
Matthew J. Giblin
George W. Burruss
Nathan L. Lawshe
PUBLISHED
2019 in Journal of Crime and Justice

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Police Body Cameras in Large Police Departments.
"Body Worn Cameras are spreading worldwide, under the assumption that police performance, conduct, accountability, and legitimacy, in the eyes of the public, are enhanced as a result of using these devices. In addition, suspects' demeanor during police-public engagements is hypothesized to change as a result of the video-recording of the encounter. For both parties--officers and suspects--the theoretical mechanism that underpins these behavioral changes is deterrence theory, self-awareness theory, or both. Yet evidence on the efficacy of Body Worn Cameras remains largely anecdotal, with only one rigorous study, from a small force in Rialto, California, validating the hypotheses. How Body Worn Cameras affect police-public interactions in large police departments remains unknown, as does their effect on other outcomes, such as arrests. With one Denver police district serving as the treatment area and five other districts within a large metropolitan area serving as comparisons, we offer mixed findings as in the Rialto Experiment, not least in terms of effect magnitudes. Adjusted odds-ratios suggest a significant 35% lower odds for citizens' complaints against the police use of force, but 14% greater odds for a complaint against misconduct, when Body Worn Cameras are used. No discernable effect was detected on the odds of use of force at the aggregate, compared to control conditions (OR=0.928; p>0.1). Finally, arrest rates dropped significantly, with the odds of an arrest when Body Worn Cameras not present is 18% higher than the odds under treatment conditions. The outcomes are contextualized within the framework of reactive emergency calls for service rather than proactive policing. We further discuss officers' decisions and the degree of the necessity of arrest in policing more broadly, because the burden of proof for tangible evidence necessary for making a legal arrest can be challenged with the evidence produced by Body Worn Cameras: officers become "cautious" about arresting suspects when Body Worn Cameras are present. Limitations associated with the lack of randomly assigned comparison units are discussed, as well, with practical recommendations for future research on Body Worn Cameras. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]"
AUTHOR
BARAK ARIEL
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology

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The Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use of Force and Citizens’ Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial
"Police Body-Worn Cameras breaks down what’s known – and not known – about the promises, perils, and potential best practices around police body-worn cameras. Both law enforcement and civil rights advocates are excited by the potential of body-worn cameras to improve community policing and safety, but there is no empirical research to conclusively suggest that these will reduce the deaths of black male civilians in encounters with police. There are some documented milder benefits evident from small pilot studies, such as more polite interactions between police and civilians when both parties are aware they are being recorded, and decreased fraudulent complaints made against officers. Many uncertainties about best practices of body-worn camera adoption and use remain, including when the cameras should record, what should be stored and retained, who should have access to the footage, and what policies should determine the release of footage to the public. As pilot and permanent body-worn camera programs are implemented, it is important to ask questions about how they can be best used to achieve their touted goals. How will the implementation of these programs be assessed for their efficacy in achieving accountability goals? What are the best policies to have in place to support those goals?"
AUTHORS
Alex Sutherland
William A. Farrar
Barak Ariel
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Quantitative Criminology

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A Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship between Administrative Policy, Technological Preferences, and Body-Worn Camera Activation among Police Officers
"Policymakers and communities are increasingly looking to body-worn cameras to increase accountability and fix the legitimacy crisis affecting American police. Empirical research on the effectiveness of body-worn cameras is therefore an important avenue of study. Although some research shows that body-worn cameras may influence officer behaviour, there is no research examining whether officers will use the device and how usage behaviour may depend on administrative policies. Thus, the relationship between officer preferences, policies regarding camera activation, and camera use remains unknown. The current study examines whether officers’ activation of body-worn cameras depends on two different policy conditions. Integrating research on administrative policy and officer behaviour with studies of technology use in organizations, we test key hypotheses using longitudinal data for 1,475 police-citizen encounters involving 50 officers over a 9-month period. Our study yields two key findings. First, body-worn camera activation is more prevalent under a mandatory use policy relative to a discretionary use policy. Second, although camera activation declined under the discretionary use policy, this was much less likely among officers who volunteered to wear cameras. The lowest levels of activation occurred among officers who were compulsory-assigned to wear cameras. We discuss the dual role of officer preferences and administrative policy on compliance with technological innovations within police organizations. "
AUTHORS
Justin T. Ready
Jacob T.N. Young
PUBLISHED
in Policing

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A Descriptive Study on Police Body Cameras and Civil Liability Cases
"As a result of several highly publicized deaths at the hands of local police officers over the last two years, the public has placed increased pressure on the police for greater transparency and accountability. The use of police body cameras has been one suggested remedy. However, there is a minimal amount of quantitative research about the impacts of police body cameras on the community, the police, and their interactions. This explorative study examines the potential fiscal impact of body-worn cameras by investigating the relationship between the cost of a police body-worn camera program and the annual total of financial civil liability pay outs resulting from police misconduct lawsuits in Oakland, California, from 2003 to 2015. The impact of the body-worn camera program on officer assaults was also examined. While it was hypothesized that the cost of a body-worn camera program would be warranted due to a decrease in annual civil liability settlements, the results indicated that there was no effect. There was, however, a significant decrease in total assaults on police officers. Therefore, while a financial cost-benefit argument cannot be made based on the presently available data, officer safety appears to be greatly enhanced by a body-worn camera program, which can consequentially reduce the cost of healthcare, workman compensation, as well as costs related to missed work. However, due to the limited data and lack of control variables, the present study is only explorative and no definite cost-benefit conclusions to either direction should be drawn based on this study alone."
AUTHOR
Nicolas Berdjis
PUBLISHED

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Police Body-Worn Cameras
"In the wake of the police shooting of Michael Brown in August 2014, as well as the subsequent protests in Ferguson, Missouri and around the country, there has been a call to mandate the use of body-worn cameras to promote accountability and transparency in police- civilian interactions. Body-worn cameras have received positive appraisal from the NAACP Legal Defense & Education Fund, and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). The latter has stated that their widespread use “[has] the potential to be a win-win, helping protect the public against police misconduct, and at the same time helping protect police against false accusations of abuse.” In 2013, the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) sent surveys to 500 of the 12,501 police departments in the U.S, and of the 254 who completed the survey only 63 of the departments reported using body-worn cameras. However, law enforcement agencies throughout the country are now rapidly adopting the cameras. In December 2014, President Obama proposed the Body-Worn Camera Partnership Program, which aims to invest $75 million through a 50% investment matching arrangement with states and localities to cover video storage and equipment expenses, with the goal of underwriting the costs of 50,000 body-worn cameras. The program is part of a broader three-year, $263 million initiative to strengthen community policing, and the funding plan is part of President Obama’s proposed FY2016 budget."
AUTHORS
danah boyd
Alex Rosenblat
Alexandra Mateescu
PUBLISHED
2017 in Center for Open Science

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Police Body Cameras: Mending Fences and How Pittsburgh is a Leading Example
"<p>After the police brutality deaths of Michael Brown, Eric Garner, and Freddie Gray, amongst others, many call for increased accountability through police officer body-worn cameras. The following Note discusses the potential benefits of body camera use, the concerns that body cameras raise, relevant current and pending legislation in Pennsylvania, and whether police body cameras can be used to address race relations in connection with police officer brutality.</p>"
AUTHOR
Danielle Evans
PUBLISHED
in Pittsburgh Journal of Technology Law and Policy

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Self-Awareness to Being Watched and Socially-Desirable Behavior: A Field Experiment on the Effect of Body-Worn Cameras on Police Use-of-Force
"This study was conducted to determine whether body cameras worn by police officers would reduce the incidences of police-use-of-force. Findings from the study include the following: shifts in which officers did not use body cameras experienced twice as many incidents of police-use-of-force compared to shifts where officers used body cameras; and the number of complaints against the police for excessive use of force dropped from 28 complaints in the 12 months prior to the study to 3 during the study period. Researchers were unable to compute a treatment effect due to the large overall reduction in the number of complaints.

The study was conducted with the assistance of the Rialto Police Department. All 54 frontline officers in the department participated in the study. The officers were randomly assigned to either the control group – no use of body cameras, or the experimental group – use of body cameras. The officers in the experimental group were instructed to wear the body cameras during their entire shift and to record all public-police encounters. The content of the videotapes were analyzed to determine the effect of the camera on the incidences of police-use-of-force.

The findings from the analysis suggest that the presence of the cameras resulted in an almost 50 percent reduction in the total number of incidents of use of force, and that when cameras were not used (the control group), citizen complaints were almost 10 times higher compared to the experimental group. Suggestions for future research are discussed. Tables, figure, and references"
PUBLISHED

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Police Officers’ Perceptions of Body-worn Cameras in Buffalo and Rochester
"Police body-worn cameras have been advanced as a solution to disparate perceptions among the citizenry, public officials, community leaders, and the police themselves in the highly contested arena of police-citizen encounters. As with previous innovations in policing it is important that programs or policies developed for street-level application be planned in advance, and the opinions of police officers should be understood prior to implementation. This study provides survey responses from police officers in Buffalo and Rochester regarding their perceptions of body-worn cameras. Survey items were borrowed from prior research in Phoenix and Los Angeles. It also included items intended to measure the officer’s opinions about examining camera images prior to writing a report, an issue that is the subject of some disagreement among policy makers. Findings suggest similar attitudes toward body cameras not only among Buffalo and Rochester police officers, but also with police officers in other agencies. Almost all respondents agree or strongly agree that police officers should have the ability to review body camera images prior to writing a report. The policy implications of this finding are discussed."
AUTHORS
Scott W. Phillips
Joseph A. Gramagila
PUBLISHED
in American Journal of Criminal Justice

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Police Officers’ Perceptions of Body-Worn Cameras in Buffalo and Rochester
"Police body-worn cameras have been advanced as a solution to disparate perceptions among the citizenry, public officials, community leaders, and the police themselves in the highly contested arena of police-citizen encounters. As with previous innovations in policing it is important that programs or policies developed for street-level application be planned in advance, and the opinions of police officers should be understood prior to implementation. This study provides survey responses from police officers in Buffalo and Rochester regarding their perceptions of body-worn cameras. Survey items were borrowed from prior research in Phoenix and Los Angeles. It also included items intended to measure the officer’s opinions about examining camera images prior to writing a report, an issue that is the subject of some disagreement among policy makers. Findings suggest similar attitudes toward body cameras not only among Buffalo and Rochester police officers, but also with police officers in other agencies. Almost all respondents agree or strongly agree that police officers should have the ability to review body camera images prior to writing a report. The policy implications of this finding are discussed."
AUTHORS
Scott W. Phillips
Joseph A. Gramagila
PUBLISHED
2017 in American Journal of Criminal Justice

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Introduction: The privacy and surveillance implications of police body cameras
"Body-worn cameras are being acquired and deployed by police departments around the world at an increasingly rapid pace. Like many technologies before them, body-worn cameras promise to change the way police work is done -- and, indeed, this is a primary claim made by civil liberties and other advocacy groups who are promoting their adoption as a means of "civilizing" the police and increasing police accountability (e.g., Stanley 2015). However, for many, the use of police body-worn cameras also raises interesting and vital privacy and surveillance-related concerns. Like other forms of surveillance, bodyworn cameras gather information and preserve it in a form amendable to processing and analysis but, unlike traditional CCTV or other static cameras, they can also make their way into private homes -- and anywhere else police choose to go -- and record everything they see and hear. These body cameras often come with a rarely discussed range of surveillance capacities that, precisely because they are mobile, raise unique privacy and other issues."
AUTHORS
Bryce Clayton Newell
Randy K. Lippert
PUBLISHED
in Surveillance and Society

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Off the Record? Arrestee Concerns about the Manipulation, Modification, and Misrepresentation of Police Body-Worn Camera Footage
"Police body-worn cameras (BWC) have become the latest technological device introduced to policing on a wave of panacean promises. Recent research has reported the perspectives of police officers, police management, and the general public, but there have been no studies examining the views of police arrestees. Remedying this significant omission, this article presents findings generated from interviews with 907 individuals shortly after their arrest. Overall, we report a strong in principle support for police body-worn cameras amongst this cohort, particularly if the cameras can be operated impartially. The findings are organised into a trilogy of prominent and interrelated concerns voiced by the police detainees, namely the potential for the manipulation, modification, and misrepresentation of events captured by police body-worn cameras. The findings are discussed in a broader context of the “new visibility” of police encounters and contribute much needed findings to understand the culturally specific ways in which different publics experience and respond to visual surveillance."
AUTHORS
Emmeline Taylor Murray Lee
Emmeline Taylor
PUBLISHED
2019 in Surveillance & Society

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Police Body-Worn Cameras
"Police Body-Worn Cameras breaks down what’s known – and not known – about the promises, perils, and potential best practices around police body-worn cameras. Both law enforcement and civil rights advocates are excited by the potential of body-worn cameras to improve community policing and safety, but there is no empirical research to conclusively suggest that these will reduce the deaths of black male civilians in encounters with police. There are some documented milder benefits evident from small pilot studies, such as more polite interactions between police and civilians when both parties are aware they are being recorded, and decreased fraudulent complaints made against officers. Many uncertainties about best practices of body-worn camera adoption and use remain, including when the cameras should record, what should be stored and retained, who should have access to the footage, and what policies should determine the release of footage to the public. As pilot and permanent body-worn camera programs are implemented, it is important to ask questions about how they can be best used to achieve their touted goals. How will the implementation of these programs be assessed for their efficacy in achieving accountability goals? What are the best policies to have in place to support those goals?"
AUTHORS
<!>danah <!>boyd
Alex Rosenblat
Alexandra Claudia Mateescu
PUBLISHED
in SSRN Electronic Journal

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Police Body Cameras in Large Police Departments
"Body Worn Cameras are spreading worldwide, under the assumption
that police performance, conduct, accountability, and legitimacy, in the
eyes of the public, are enhanced as a result of using these devices. In
addition, suspects’ demeanor during police–public engagements is
hypothesized to change as a result of the video-recording of the encounter.
For both parties—officers and suspects—the theoretical mechanism that
underpins these behavioral changes is deterrence theory, self-awareness
theory, or both. Yet evidence on the efficacy of Body Worn Cameras
remains largely anecdotal, with only one rigorous study, from a small force
in Rialto, California, validating the hypotheses. How Body Worn Cameras
affect police–public interactions in large police departments remains
unknown, as does their effect on other outcomes, such as arrests. With one
Denver police district serving as the treatment area and five other districts
within a large metropolitan area serving as comparisons, we offer mixed
findings as in the Rialto Experiment, not least in terms of effect magnitudes.

Adjusted odds-ratios suggest a significant 35% lower odds for
citizens’ complaints against the police use of force, but 14% greater odds
for a complaint against misconduct, when Body Worn Cameras are used.
No discernable effect was detected on the odds of use of force at the
aggregate, compared to control conditions (OR=0.928; p>0.1). Finally,
arrest rates dropped significantly, with the odds of an arrest when Body
Worn Cameras not present is 18% higher than the odds under treatment
conditions. The outcomes are contextualized within the framework of
reactive emergency calls for service rather than proactive policing. We
further discuss officers’ decisions and the degree of the necessity of arrest
in policing more broadly, because the burden of proof for tangible evidence
necessary for making a legal arrest can be challenged with the evidence
produced by Body Worn Cameras: officers become “cautious” about arresting suspects when Body Worn Cameras are present. Limitations
associated with the lack of randomly assigned comparison units are
discussed, as well, with practical recommendations for future research on
Body Worn Cameras."
AUTHOR
Barak Ariel
PUBLISHED
2016 in Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

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Body-worn images: Point-of-view and the new aesthetics of policing
"Police organisations across much of the Western world have eagerly embraced body-worn video camera technology, seen as a way to enhance public trust in police, provide transparency in policing activity, reduce conflict between police and citizens and provide a police perspective of incidents and events. Indeed, the cameras have become an everyday piece of police ‘kit’. Despite the growing ubiquity of the body-worn video camera, understandings of the nature and value of the audiovisual footage produced by police remain inchoate. Given body-worn video camera’s promise of veracity, this article is interested in the aesthetics of the camera images and the socio-cultural construction of the cameras as tellers of truth. We treat body-worn video cameras as image-making devices linked to techniques and technologies of power, which construct and frame police encounters in specific ways, and we suggest that the aesthetics and point-of-view nature of the image contribute greatly to the truth-value that the images acquire. This article begins by providing an historical context for the use of cameras and images in policing. We then introduce our framework of visual criminology and present theories of point-of-view as a construct in the diverse areas of gaming, pornography and the visual arts, as well as in television and cinema. The article deploys the cinematic use of point-of-view to unpack the affective impact and aesthetic of the police body-worn video camera footage. We suggest that viewers of the footage are placed in the position of the corporeally absent police officer whose experience has been recorded by a viewfinderless device. This generates a vacillating interplay between subjectivity and objectivity, given that the alleged faithful recording of the event by the body-worn video camera presents a singular perspective and incomplete document that may not necessarily capture the full context of the law enforcement event."
AUTHORS
Murray Lee
Carolyn McKay
PUBLISHED
2019 in Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal

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Post-experimental follow-ups—Fade-out versus persistence effects: The Rialto police body-worn camera experiment four years on
"Purpose Under certain conditions, experimental treatment effects result in behavioral modifications that persist beyond the study period, at times, even after the interventions are discontinued. On the other hand, there are interventions that generate brief, short-term effects that “fade out” once the manipulation is withdrawn or when the in-study follow-up period is completed. These scenarios are context specific. Methods This study reports the results from a three-year post-experimental follow-up from the world's first randomized controlled trial of police body-worn cameras. Results The results show that initial falls in rates of complaints against police and police use of force during arrest were sustained during the four years following the cameras being introduced. Conclusions The findings suggest that police officers do not become habituated to the effect of the body-worn cameras, and that persistence rather than fade-out effects may characterize this emerging technology."
AUTHORS
Randy De Anda
William Farrar
Barak Ariel
Alex Sutherland
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Criminal Justice

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Cops and cameras: Officer perceptions of the use of body-worn cameras in law enforcement
"There has been a recent surge in the adoption of and media attention to the use of body-worn cameras in law enforcement. Despite this increase in use and media attention, there is little to no research on officer perceptions of body-worn cameras. Methods: This study relies on baseline data of officer perceptions toward body-worn cameras collected from surveys administered to Orlando Police officers who are participants in a randomized experiment evaluating the impact of body-worn cameras (Taser AXON Flex) in law enforcement. Results: Results suggest that police officers are, by and large, open to and supportive of the use of body-worn cameras in policing, they would feel comfortable wearing them, and that they perceive a potential for benefits of body-worn cameras in improving citizen behavior, their own behavior, and the behavior of their fellow officers. Conclusions: Officers are generally supportive of body-worn cameras, and they hold perceptions that these devices can be beneficial in positively affecting relevant outcomes. Study limitations and implications are also discussed."
AUTHORS
Mathew D. Lynch
Lorie A. Fridell
Wesley G. Jennings
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Criminal Justice

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Cops and cameras: Officer perceptions of the use of body-worn cameras in law enforcement
"Purpose
There has been a recent surge in the adoption of and media attention to the use of body-worn cameras in law enforcement. Despite this increase in use and media attention, there is little to no research on officer perceptions of body-worn cameras.

Methods
This study relies on baseline data of officer perceptions toward body-worn cameras collected from surveys administered to Orlando Police officers who are participants in a randomized experiment evaluating the impact of body-worn cameras (Taser AXON Flex) in law enforcement.

Results
Results suggest that police officers are, by and large, open to and supportive of the use of body-worn cameras in policing, they would feel comfortable wearing them, and that they perceive a potential for benefits of body-worn cameras in improving citizen behavior, their own behavior, and the behavior of their fellow officers.

Conclusions
Officers are generally supportive of body-worn cameras, and they hold perceptions that these devices can be beneficial in positively affecting relevant outcomes. Study limitations and implications are also discussed."
AUTHORS
Mathew D. Lynch
Lorie A. Fridell
Wesley G. Jennings
PUBLISHED
2014 in Journal of Criminal Justice

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Dreams of accountability, guaranteed surveillance: The promises and costs of body-worn cameras
"The article focuses on the adoption of police-worn body cameras as instruments that will facilitate accountability and improve police-community as a whole. It cites concerns from civil rights groups on how body-worn cameras may violate privacy as the intimacy of body-worn cameras' presence can be exploited with the application of technologies like facial recognition. It notes that body-worn cameras have been at the center of protracted disputes over interpretation and authoritativeness."
AUTHORS
Danah Boyd
Alex Rosenblat
Alexandra Mateescu
PUBLISHED
in Surveillance and Society

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The rise and risks of police body-worn cameras in Canada
"The article discusses a study on the effectiveness of body-worn cameras on monitoring police officer conduct in Canada including Victoria, Edmonton and Calgary. Topics discussed include the potential of these cameras to become a new police surveillance device aimed at gathering personal information and intelligence, the lack of legislation in Canada that directly addresses the governance of police body-worn cameras and the risks to existing privacy rights with the adoption of these cameras."
AUTHOR
Thomas K. Bud
PUBLISHED
in Surveillance and Society

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do police body cameras reduce use of force by the police?
22 studies
Submitted by: TMifune 55

Add question
What additional question do you want someone who searches for "When do police activate their body worn cameras" to consider?