Who sells guns in gun buyback programs?

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Chart summary of 7 studies examining this question

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QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
Do gun buyback programs reduce gun violence?
12 studies
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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 7
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1
And the survey said.... evaluating rationale for participation in gun buybacks as a tool to encourage higher yields
"Background Gun buyback programs represent one arm of a multipronged approach to raise awareness and education about gun safety. Methods The city of Worcester, MA has conducted an annual gun buyback at the Police Department Headquarters since 2002. We analyzed survey responses from a voluntary, 18-question, face-to-face structured interview from December 2009 to June 2015 using descriptive statistics to determine participant demographics and motivations for participation. Results A total of 943 guns were collected, and 273 individuals completed surveys. The majority of participants were white males older than 55 years (42.4%). Participants represented 61 zip codes across Worcester County, with 68% having prior gun safety training and 61% with weapons remaining in the home (27% of which children could potentially access). The top reasons for turning in guns were “no longer needed” (48%) and “fear of children accessing the gun” (14%). About 1 in 3 respondents knew someone injured/killed by gun violence. Almost all (96%) respondents claimed the program raised community awareness of firearm risk. Conclusion The Worcester Goods for Guns Buyback has collected more than 900 guns between 2009 and 2015. The buyback removes unwanted guns from homes and raises community awareness about firearm safety."
AUTHORS
Mariann Manno
Pradeep Nazarey
Jeremy Aidlen
Rachelle N. Damle
Jonathan Green
Rebecca E. Kasper et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in Journal of Pediatric Surgery
High quality source
2
Are “goods for guns” good for the community? An update of a community gun buyback program
"BACKGROUND Gun violence remains a leading cause of death in the United States. Community gun buyback programs provide an opportunity to dispose of extraneous firearms. The purpose of this study was to understand the demographics, motivation, child access to firearms, and household mental illness of buyback participants in hopes of improving the program's effectiveness. METHODS A 2015 Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback program which collaborated with local police departments was studied. We administered a 23-item questionnaire survey to gun buyback participants assessing demographic characteristics, motivation for relinquishing firearms, child firearm accessibility, and mental illness/domestic violence history. RESULTS A total of 186 individuals from Central/Western Massachusetts turned in 339 weapons. Participants received between US $25 and US $75 in gift cards dependent on what type of gun was turned in, with an average cost of $41/gun. A total of 109 (59%) participants completed the survey. Respondents were mostly white (99%), men (90%) and first-time participants in the program (85.2%). Among survey respondents, 54% turned in firearms "for safety reasons." Respondents reported no longer needing/wanting their weapons (47%) and approximately one in eight participants were concerned the firearm(s) were accessible to children. Most respondents (87%) felt the program encouraged neighborhood awareness of firearm safety. Three of every five participants reported that guns still remained in their homes; additionally, 21% where children could potentially access them and 14% with a history of mental illness/suicide/domestic violence in the home. CONCLUSION Gun buybacks can provide a low-cost means of removing unwanted firearms from the community. Most participants felt their homes were safer after turning in the firearm(s). In homes still possessing guns, emphasis on secure gun storage should continue, increasing the safety of children and families. The results of this survey also provided new insights into the association between mental illness/suicide and gun ownership. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiological, level III."
AUTHORS
Pradeep P. Nazarey
Mariann Manno
Pina Violano
Rebecca E. Kasper
Rachelle N. Damle
Jonathan Green et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
High quality source
3
Gun buyback programs: A venue to eliminate unwanted guns in the community
"Background: The United States has a high rate of death due to firearms, and gun buyback programs may mitigate these high death rates. Understanding the demographics, motivation, and geographic region of participants may improve program efficacy. Methods: Three Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback programs, in collaboration with the local police, were studied: Phoenix, Arizona; Worcester, Massachusetts; and New Haven, Connecticut. Participants were defined as those who relinquished a firearm. A self-administered, anonymous, paper survey elicited information from participants regarding demographic data, formal training on the use of the firearm, how the firearm was acquired, potential child access, knowledge of others injured by a firearm, whether the firearm was stored unlocked, factors motivating the surrender of the firearm, and other factors. Survey results were entered into a composite database and analyzed for differences in location, race, sex, and other factors. Results: Participants (n = 301) were predominantly male (73.5%), white (80.9%), and older than 55 years (59.0%). They lived an average of 19.0 miles from the event by zip codes and had an average median household income of $65,731. More than half (54.5%) did not purchase the firearm, acquiring it through inheritance, gift, or random find. Most (74.8%) had previous firearms training and were relinquishing for safety reasons (68.3%). Those relinquishing firearms for safety reasons were less likely to have purchased the firearm (odds ratio [OR], 2.46, p <0.05), less likely to have any formal training (OR, 5.92; p < 0.01), and less likely to keep the firearm locked (OR, 3.50; p < 0.01). Women were less likely to have purchased the firearm (OR, 0.50; p < 0.05). Fifty-three percent of those turning in firearms reported having at least one more firearm at home; designated themselves to be white, compared with all other groups combined (OR, 2.55; p < 0.05); more likely to report locking the firearm (OR, 0.11; p < 0.001); more interested in receiving a gun lock (OR, 0.15; p < 0.001); and more likely to know others who also own firearms (OR, 0.17; p < 0.001). In at least one of the cities participating in this study, as many as 30 percent of the weapons used in gun-wielding criminal acts were burglarized from the home of legal gun owners that had failed to secure them properly. Conclusion: The gun buyback program is solely one prong of a multipronged approach in reducing firearm-based interpersonal violence. Additional research is necessary to determine effective methods to target individuals who would have the greatest impact on gun violence if they relinquished their weapons. Through the forging of relationships and enhancement of firearm knowledge among medical, law enforcement, judicial, and school communities, the prevention of intentional and unintentional firearm-related injuries will be able to be managed more effectively."
AUTHORS
Cassandra Driscoll
Michael P. Hirsh
Winters JK
Borer E
Davis KA
Pina Violana et al
PUBLISHED
2014 in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
High quality source
4
Gun buyback programs
"BACKGROUND: The United States has a high rate of death due to firearms, and gun buyback programs may mitigate these high death rates. Understanding the demographics, motivation, and geographic region of participants may improve program efficacy.METHODS: Three Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback programs, in collaboration with the local police, were studied: Phoenix, Arizona; Worcester, Massachusetts; and New Haven, Connecticut. Participants were defined as those who relinquished a firearm. A self-administered, anonymous, paper survey elicited information from participants regarding demographic data, formal training on the use of the firearm, how the firearm was acquired, potential child access, knowledge of others injured by a firearm, whether the firearm was stored unlocked, factors motivating the surrender of the firearm, and other factors. Survey results were entered into a composite database and analyzed for differences in location, race, sex, and other factors.RESULTS: Participants (n = 301) were predominantly male (73.5%), white (80.9%), and older than 55 years (59.0%). They lived an average of 19.0 miles from the event by zip codes and had an average median household income of $65,731. More than half (54.5%) did not purchase the firearm, acquiring it through inheritance, gift, or random find. Most (74.8%) had previous firearms training and were relinquishing for safety reasons (68.3%). Those relinquishing firearms for safety reasons were less likely to have purchased the firearm (odds ratio {[}OR], 2.46,\np < 0.05), less likely to have any formal training (OR, 5.92; p < 0.01), and less likely to keep the firearm locked (OR, 3.50; p < 0.01). Women were less likely to have purchased the firearm (OR, 0.50; p < 0.05). Fifty-three percent of those turning in firearms reported having at least one more firearm at home; designated themselves to be white, compared with all other groups combined (OR, 2.55; p < 0.05); more likely to report locking the firearm (OR, 0.11; p < 0.001); more interested in receiving a gun lock (OR, 0.15; p < 0.001); and more likely to know others who also own firearms (OR, 0.17; p < 0.001). In at least one of the cities participating in this study, as many as 30 percent of the weapons used in gun-wielding criminal acts were burglarized from the home of legal gun owners that had failed to secure them properly.CONCLUSION: The gun buyback program is solely one prong of a multipronged approach in reducing firearm-based interpersonal violence.\nAdditional research is necessary to determine effective methods to target individuals who would have the greatest impact on gun violence if they relinquished their weapons. Through the forging of relationships and enhancement of firearm knowledge among medical, law enforcement, judicial, and school communities, the prevention of intentional and unintentional firearm-related injuries will be able to be managed more effectively."
AUTHORS
Esther Borer
Kimberly A. Davis
Kevin M. Schuster
Neil K. Chaudhary
Cassandra Driscoll
Pina Violano et al
PUBLISHED
2014 in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
High quality source
5
Hartford's gun buy-back program: Are we on target?
"Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths."
AUTHORS
Hassan Saleheen
George C. Bentley
David S. Shapiro
Kevin Borrupjd
Shefali Thaker
Laura W. Marinelli et al
PUBLISHED
2013 in Connecticut Medicine
Q4
6
Goods for Guns—The Use of a Gun Buyback as an Injury Prevention/Community Education Tool
"BACKGROUND: US children aged between 5 years and 14 years have a rate of gun-related homicide 17 times higher and a rate of gun-related suicide and unintentional firearm injury 10 times higher than other developed countries. Gun buyback programs have been criticized as ineffective interventions in decreasing violence. The Injury Free Coalition for Kids-Worcester (IFCK-W) Goods for Guns buyback is a multipronged approach to address these concerns and to reduce the number of firearms in the community.METHODS: The IFCK-W buyback program is funded by corporate sponsors, grants, and individual donations. Citizens are instructed to transport guns, ammunition, and weapons safely to police headquarters on two Saturdays in December. Participants are guaranteed anonymity by the District Attorney's office and receive gift certificates for operable guns. Trained volunteers administer an anonymous survey to willing participants. Individuals who disclose having unsafely stored guns remaining at home receive educational counseling and trigger locks. Guns and ammunition are destroyed at a later time in a gun crushing ceremony.RESULTS: Since 2002, 1,861 guns (444 rifle/shotgun, 738 pistol/revolver, and 679 automatic/semiautomatic) have been collected at a cost of $99,250 (average, $53/gun). Seven hundred ten people have surrendered firearms, 534 surveys have been administered, and ≈ 75 trigger locks have been distributed per year.CONCLUSIONS: IFCK-W Goods for Guns is a relatively inexpensive injury prevention model program that removes unwanted firearms from homes, raises community awareness about gun safety, and provides high-risk individuals with trigger locks and educational counseling."
AUTHORS
Anthony DeRoss
Elizabeth Renaud
Louise Maranda
Allison Rook
Mariann Manno
Margaret McGuire et al
PUBLISHED
2011 in THE JOURNAL OF TRAUMA: INJURY, INFECTION, AND CRITICAL CARE
UNRANKED SOURCE
7
Money for guns: evaluation of the Seattle Gun Buy-Back Program
"Community involvement in local firearms policy is advocated to be an important component of efforts to curtail violence. This report describes the first evaluation of one such effort, a gun buy-back program conducted in Seattle, WA, during the fall of 1992. The evaluation included (a) surveys of 500 participants and a description of the firearms exchanged; (b) monitoring police reports, trauma center admissions, and medical examiners' data to assess short-term effects on the frequency of firearm-related events; and (c) an assessment of community beliefs by random-digit dialing telephone interviews of 1,000 residents. Of the 1,172 firearms relinquished, 95 percent were handguns, 83 percent were operational, and 67 percent were owned for more than 5 years. Twenty-five percent were exchanged by women. The mean age of participants in the exchange program was 51 years. Females and persons in older age groups were more likely than males (83 percent versus 70 percent, P < 0.01) and minors (88 percent versus 55 percent, P < 0.05) to select safe disposal as motivation to participate. Comparing firearm-related events per month before and after the program, crimes and deaths increased, and injuries decreased, but the changes were not statistically significant. Telephone interviews revealed broad support for publicly funded gun buy-back programs even among households (61 percent) with firearms. Gun buy-back programs are a broadly supported means to decrease voluntarily the prevalence of handguns within a community, but their effect on decreasing violent crime and reducing firearm mortality is unknown."
AUTHORS
C M Callahan
Koepsell TD
Rivara FP
PUBLISHED
1994 in Public Health Reports
High quality source







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 22
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Gun Buybacks and Firm Behavior: Do Buyback Programs Really Reduce the Number of Guns?
"We suppose that guns or firearms are subject to an anticipated future buyback program undertaken by the government. A simple linear demand durable-goods monopoly model is then analyzed where the durable-good manufactured is a firearm that lasts for two-periods. The model is calibrated so that buyers are indifferent between selling (participating in the buyback program) or holding the gun in the future period. This allows us to focus solely on the firm''s behavior. We find, among other things, that if the firm can credibly commit to its current buyers the anticipated buyback has no impact on the future stock of guns. In this case, the firm simply increases its production of new firearms after the buyback, and offsets all the units collected and destroyed by the government. However, in contrast, we show that if the seller cannot commit to these buyers, the future stock is indeed reduced (but by only one-half of the buyback program level). Thus, any anticipated (repeated) buyback's impact on future stock levels of firearms depends critically on the commit ability of the durable-goods manufacturer, independent of the buyers' reselling and arbitrage activities. Moreover, regardless of commitment ability, the model suggests the imperfectly competitive firms may, at least partially, counteract the buyback program, making any governmental buyback less effective at reducing future firearm stocks than expected."
AUTHOR
Gregory E. Goering
PUBLISHED
in Review of Economics and Finance

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Will gun buyback programs increase the quantity of guns?
"Gun buyback programs have become widespread in the United States. This paper offers a model of gun demand in which people make decisions about gun ownership as they would any other durable consumer good. Two insights are generated. First, if the buyback program is unanticipated and never-to-be-repeated, then the buyback program will reduce gun holdings only temporarily, by affecting the timing of consumption. Second, a repeated buyback program, formally analyzed as a permanent buyback program, will actually raise gun holdings, since it permanently lowers ownership costs. Current, repeated buybacks will therefore have the opposite effect of what buyback proponents intend.JEL classification: H30; L68 © 2001 Elsevier Science Inc."
AUTHOR
Wallace P. Mullin
PUBLISHED
in International Review of Law and Economics

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Suicide, guns, and buyback programs: an epidemiologic analysis of firearm-related deaths in Connecticut
"Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides. Detailed firearm and case data was obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the CDC’s National Violent Death Reporting System from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (SMALL ≤ .32 caliber, MEDIUM = .357 caliber to 9 millimeter, LARGE ≥ .40 caliber). Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons between groups. In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention). Comparisons between buyback, crime and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback=63±11, suicide=52±18, homicide=34±12 years), sex (buyback=81%, suicide=91%, homicide=84% male), and race (buyback=80%, suicide=97%, homicide=47% white). Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community, and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide. Epidemiologic study, level III"
AUTHORS
David Shapiro
James C. Rovella
Susan Williams
Rob Berntsson
Heather Clinton
Laura Baumann et al
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Suicide, guns, and buyback programs: An epidemiologic analysis of firearm-related deaths in Connecticut
"BACKGROUND:
Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides.

METHODS:
Detailed firearm and case data were obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (small, ≤ 0.32 caliber; medium, 0.357 caliber to 9 mm; large, ≥ 0.40 caliber). χ analyses were used for comparisons between groups.

RESULTS:
In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention). Comparisons between buyback, crime, and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback, 63 ± 11; suicide, 52 ± 18; homicide, 34 ± 12 years), sex (buyback, 81%; suicide, 91%; homicide, 84% men), and race (buyback, 80%; suicide, 97%; homicide, 47% white).

CONCLUSION:
Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide."
AUTHORS
Rovella JC
Williams SS
Berntsson R
Clinton H
Baumann L
PUBLISHED
2017 in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Will gun buyback programs increase the quantity of guns?
"Gun buyback programs have become widespread in the United States. This paper offers a model of gun demand in which people make decisions about gun ownership as they would any other durable consumer good. Two insights are generated.

First, if the buyback program is unanticipated and never-to-be-repeated, then the buyback program will reduce gun holdings only temporarily, by affecting the timing of consumption. Second, a repeated buyback program, formally analyzed as a permanent buyback program, will actually raise gun holdings, since it permanently lowers ownership costs. Current, repeated buybacks will therefore have the opposite effect of what buyback proponents intend.JEL classification: H30; L68 © 2001 Elsevier Science Inc."
AUTHOR
Wallace P. Mullin
PUBLISHED
2001 in International Review of Law and Economics

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Suicide, guns, and buyback programs
"Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides.

Detailed firearm and case data was obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the CDC’s National Violent Death Reporting System from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (SMALL ≤ .32 caliber, MEDIUM = .357 caliber to 9 millimeter, LARGE ≥ .40 caliber). Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons between groups. In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention).

Comparisons between buyback, crime and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback=63±11, suicide=52±18, homicide=34±12 years), sex (buyback=81%, suicide=91%, homicide=84% male), and race (buyback=80%, suicide=97%, homicide=47% white).

Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community, and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide. Epidemiologic study, level III"
AUTHORS
David Shapiro
James C. Rovella
Susan S. Williams
Rob Berntsson
Heather Clinton
Laura Baumann et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Improving the potential effectiveness of gun buyback programs
"Gun buybacks, amnesties and exchange programs have wide appeal for communities affected by gun violence, for understandable reasons. The theoretic premise of gun buybacks is that these programs will reduce the number of firearms available to criminals, those with mental illnesses, and other high-risk individuals who may harm themselves or others with a gun. Moreover, these programs arguably empower participants and supporters to take an active role in the fight against gun violence and, as a result, believe that they are making a difference in their communities. [Copyright American Journal of Preventive Medicine; published by Elsevier Inc.]"
AUTHORS
Garen J. Wintemute
Anthony A. Braga
PUBLISHED
in American Journal of Preventive Medicine

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Suicide, guns, and buyback programs: An epidemiologic analysis of firearm-related deaths in Connecticut.
"Background: Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides.

Methods: Detailed firearm and case data were obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (small, ≤ 0.32 caliber; medium, 0.357 caliber to 9 mm; large, ≥ 0.40 caliber). χ analyses were used for comparisons between groups.

Results: In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention). Comparisons between buyback, crime, and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback, 63 ± 11; suicide, 52 ± 18; homicide, 34 ± 12 years), sex (buyback, 81%; suicide, 91%; homicide, 84% men), and race (buyback, 80%; suicide, 97%; homicide, 47% white).

Conclusion: Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide.

Level Of Evidence: Epidemiologic/therapeutic study, level IV.

"
AUTHORS
Kevin Borrup
Shefali Thaker
David Shapiro
Rob Berntsson
Heather Clinton
Laura Baumann et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Improving the Potential Effectiveness of Gun Buyback Programs
"Gun buybacks, amnesties and exchange programs have wide appeal for communities affected by gun violence, for understandable reasons. The theoretic premise of gun buybacks is that these programs will reduce the number of firearms available to criminals, those with mental illnesses, and other high-risk individuals who may harm themselves or others with a gun. Moreover, these programs arguably empower participants and supporters to take an active role in the fight against gun violence and, as a result, believe that they are making a difference in their communities.

[Copyright American Journal of Preventive Medicine; published by Elsevier Inc.]"
AUTHORS
Garen J. Wintemute
Anthony A. Braga
PUBLISHED
2013 in American Journal of Preventive Medicine

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Goods for Guns--the use of a gun buyback as an injury prevention/community education tool.
"Background: US children aged between 5 years and 14 years have a rate of gun-related homicide 17 times higher and a rate of gun-related suicide and unintentional firearm injury 10 times higher than other developed countries. Gun buyback programs have been criticized as ineffective interventions in decreasing violence. The Injury Free Coalition for Kids-Worcester (IFCK-W) Goods for Guns buyback is a multipronged approach to address these concerns and to reduce the number of firearms in the community.

Methods: The IFCK-W buyback program is funded by corporate sponsors, grants, and individual donations. Citizens are instructed to transport guns, ammunition, and weapons safely to police headquarters on two Saturdays in December. Participants are guaranteed anonymity by the District Attorney's office and receive gift certificates for operable guns. Trained volunteers administer an anonymous survey to willing participants. Individuals who disclose having unsafely stored guns remaining at home receive educational counseling and trigger locks. Guns and ammunition are destroyed at a later time in a gun crushing ceremony.

Results: Since 2002, 1,861 guns (444 rifle/shotgun, 738 pistol/revolver, and 679 automatic/semiautomatic) have been collected at a cost of $99,250 (average, $53/gun). Seven hundred ten people have surrendered firearms, 534 surveys have been administered, and ≈ 75 trigger locks have been distributed per year.

Conclusions: IFCK-W Goods for Guns is a relatively inexpensive injury prevention model program that removes unwanted firearms from homes, raises community awareness about gun safety, and provides high-risk individuals with trigger locks and educational counseling.

"
AUTHORS
Anthony DeRoss
Elizabeth Renaud
Louise Maranda
Allison Rook
Mariann Manno
Margaret McGuire et al
PUBLISHED

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Highly regarded source
An Evaluation of a Multiyear Gun Buy-Back Programme: Re-Examining the Impact on Violent Crimes
"The purpose of this study is to examine gun buy-backs as a policy response to gun-related crime. It improves upon past studies by examining a city that has used multiple gun buy-backs as a standard crime prevention approach, allowing the multiple intervention points to be assessed. Further, the study examined crime data over a longer period and included a comparison group of similar crime trends without a gun. Total crime, homicide, robbery and assault data spanning several years are subject to an interrupted time-series analysis. Non-gun crimes served as control variables. Examining the first two intervention dates indicated that the gun buy-back programme had no impact on reducing crimes. Specifically, the gun buy-back programme in the study location reduced gun homicide levels, but results failed to reach statistical significance. When the third intervention date was examined, the gun buy-back programme resulted in a significant decrease in gun robbery levels, controlling for non-gun robbery levels and unemployment rates.

The results for gun robbery suggest that gun buy-back programmes may take years to affect crime numbers, although future research is warranted."
AUTHORS
James J. Sobol
Dae-Young Kim
Scott W. Phillips
PUBLISHED
2013 in International Journal of Police Science & Management

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Cease Fire Tampa Bay: a three-tiered approach to firearm injury prevention.
"Cease Fire Tampa Bay is a multifaceted, broad-based community effort working to increase awareness of firearm injuries and provide an opportunity for the people of the southwest-central Florida region to eliminate unwanted firearms. Three approaches to develop this program were implemented; a six-county gun buy-back program, firearm safety education for school-aged children and community education programs. The program has been successful in removing 6,981 unwanted guns from the streets, and has reached thousands of children and families in the region. This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation of the program."
AUTHORS
Lewis Flint
Sherry Swan
Karen Pesce
Nancy B Crane
Kathie Gonzales
J Celeste Kallenborn et al
PUBLISHED
in Journal of trauma nursing : the official journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses

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Cease Fire Tampa Bay: a three-tiered approach to firearm injury prevention.
"Cease Fire Tampa Bay is a multifaceted, broad-based community effort working to increase awareness of firearm injuries and provide an opportunity for the people of the southwest-central Florida region to eliminate unwanted firearms. Three approaches to develop this program were implemented; a six-county gun buy-back program, firearm safety education for school-aged children and community education programs. The program has been successful in removing 6,981 unwanted guns from the streets, and has reached thousands of children and families in the region. This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation of the program."
AUTHORS
Lewis Flint
Sherry Swan
Karen Pesce
Nancy B Crane
Kathie Gonzales
J Celeste Kallenborn et al
PUBLISHED
2006 in Journal of trauma nursing : the official journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses

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Highly regarded source
Microsoft Word - tibet0516
"May 4, 2016 ... “China: No End to Tibet Surveillance Program: 21,000 Officials Stationed ...... (Ch.: Guoluo) prefecture, Qinghai province, who had arranged to buy back 300 yaks in ..... reincarnation issue; mother of two attempts suicide protest,” TCHRD, ... “Machine gun fire in Tibet: exclusive video of police breaking up ..."
PUBLISHED
2016 in HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

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Gun safety management with patients at risk for suicide.
"Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person responsible for removing guns from the home. A call-back to the clinician from the designated person is required confirming that guns have been removed and secured according to plan. The principle of gun safety management applies to outpatients, inpatients, and emergency patients, although its implementation varies according to the clinical setting."
AUTHOR
Robert I Simon
PUBLISHED
in Suicide & life-threatening behavior

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Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide
"Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person responsible for removing guns from the home. A call-back to the clinician from the designated person is required confirming that guns have been removed and secured according to plan. The principle of gun safety management applies to outpatients, inpatients, and emergency patients, although its implementation varies according to the clinical setting."
AUTHOR
Robert I. Simon
PUBLISHED
2007 in Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior

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Assessing survey methods and firearm exposure among adolescent emergency department patients.
"Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the nature of gun exposure in an adolescent population presenting to an urban emergency department (ED) and to ascertain attributes that correlate with the ability to buy a gun or to access a loaded gun within 3 hours.

Methods: A convenience sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years presenting to a single ED was surveyed from September 2005 to February 2006. The survey tool was derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Study and the Hamilton Youth and Guns Poll with additional questions related to gun accessibility.

Results: Of the 300 total participants, 28% could access a loaded gun in less than 3 hours, and 22% stated that they could easily buy a gun. A significant increase in the ability to buy a gun in ninth grade (27%) compared with eighth grade (6%) was found. Independent predictors of the ability to buy a gun include gang membership, drug use, male sex, and witnessing a gun at school. Independent predictors of being able to access a loaded gun within 3 hours include having a gun in the home and witnessing a gun at school.

Conclusions: The ability to buy a gun and access to a loaded gun within 3 hours are relatively common among ED adolescent patients. Having a gun in the home and witnessing a gun at school were independent predictors of the ability to access a loaded gun within 3 hours. Gang membership and drug use were associated with a self-reported ability to buy a gun.

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AUTHORS
Ryan Shonce
Emily Herman
Jim Fiechtl
Gretchen Roe
Maria Pelucio
Jonathan Leake et al
PUBLISHED
2011 in Pediatric Emergency Care

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Federalism, guns, and jurisdictional gun policies
"The paper studies the effects of federalism on gun ownership and efficiency of jurisdictional gun policies. Jurisdictions in a federal system choose gun policies to suit their preferences, and gun policies differ across jurisdictions. The cost of owning a gun depends on the extent of gun regulations, and the differences in gun policies between jurisdictions in a federal system entail cross-jurisdiction gun buying. By contrast, in a unitary system, gun regulations are uniform across jurisdictions, and cross-jurisdiction gun buying is absent. As cross-jurisdiction gun buying enables residents of a jurisdiction to buy guns from other jurisdictions with less stringent regulations, federalism tends to increase gun ownership relative to a unitary system. In addition, more stringent regulations of a jurisdiction decrease the number of illegal guns that criminals of other jurisdictions can purchase, reducing crimes in other jurisdictions and benefiting other jurisdictions. However, the jurisdiction does not consider the external benefits on other jurisdictions when setting its gun policies, and gun policies tend be too lax relative to the efficient level. The paper also provides an empirical analysis of the effect of federalism on gun ownership, and available evidence suggests that gun ownership depends on federalism."
AUTHOR
Kangoh Lee
PUBLISHED
in Regional Science and Urban Economics

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Are "goods for guns" good for the community? An update of a community gun buyback program.
"Background: Gun violence remains a leading cause of death in the United States. Community gun buyback programs provide an opportunity to dispose of extraneous firearms. The purpose of this study was to understand the demographics, motivation, child access to firearms, and household mental illness of buyback participants in hopes of improving the program's effectiveness.

Methods: A 2015 Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback program which collaborated with local police departments was studied. We administered a 23-item questionnaire survey to gun buyback participants assessing demographic characteristics, motivation for relinquishing firearms, child firearm accessibility, and mental illness/domestic violence history.

Results: A total of 186 individuals from Central/Western Massachusetts turned in 339 weapons. Participants received between US $25 and US $75 in gift cards dependent on what type of gun was turned in, with an average cost of $41/gun. A total of 109 (59%) participants completed the survey. Respondents were mostly white (99%), men (90%) and first-time participants in the program (85.2%). Among survey respondents, 54% turned in firearms "for safety reasons." Respondents reported no longer needing/wanting their weapons (47%) and approximately one in eight participants were concerned the firearm(s) were accessible to children. Most respondents (87%) felt the program encouraged neighborhood awareness of firearm safety. Three of every five participants reported that guns still remained in their homes; additionally, 21% where children could potentially access them and 14% with a history of mental illness/suicide/domestic violence in the home.

Conclusion: Gun buybacks can provide a low-cost means of removing unwanted firearms from the community. Most participants felt their homes were safer after turning in the firearm(s). In homes still possessing guns, emphasis on secure gun storage should continue, increasing the safety of children and families. The results of this survey also provided new insights into the association between mental illness/suicide and gun ownership.

Level Of Evidence: Epidemiological, level III.

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AUTHORS
Rebecca E Kasper
Mariann Manno
Pina Violano
Jeremy T Aidlen
Jonathan Green
Rachelle N Damle et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Are "goods for guns" good for the community? An update of a community gun buyback program
"BACKGROUND Gun violence remains a leading cause of death in the United States. Community gun buyback programs provide an opportunity to dispose of extraneous firearms. The purpose of this study was to understand the demographics, motivation, child access to firearms, and household mental illness of buyback participants in hopes of improving the program's effectiveness.

METHODS A 2015 Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback program which collaborated with local police departments was studied. We administered a 23-item questionnaire survey to gun buyback participants assessing demographic characteristics, motivation for relinquishing firearms, child firearm accessibility, and mental illness/domestic violence history.

RESULTS A total of 186 individuals from Central/Western Massachusetts turned in 339 weapons. Participants received between US $25 and US $75 in gift cards dependent on what type of gun was turned in, with an average cost of $41/gun. A total of 109 (59%) participants completed the survey. Respondents were mostly white (99%), men (90%) and first-time participants in the program (85.2%). Among survey respondents, 54% turned in firearms "for safety reasons." Respondents reported no longer needing/wanting their weapons (47%) and approximately one in eight participants were concerned the firearm(s) were accessible to children. Most respondents (87%) felt the program encouraged neighborhood awareness of firearm safety. Three of every five participants reported that guns still remained in their homes; additionally, 21% where children could potentially access them and 14% with a history of mental illness/suicide/domestic violence in the home.

CONCLUSION Gun buybacks can provide a low-cost means of removing unwanted firearms from the community. Most participants felt their homes were safer after turning in the firearm(s). In homes still possessing guns, emphasis on secure gun storage should continue, increasing the safety of children and families. The results of this survey also provided new insights into the association between mental illness/suicide and gun ownership. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiological, level III."
AUTHORS
Pradeep P. Nazarey
Mariann Manno
Pina Violano
Rebecca E. Kasper
Rachelle N. Damle
Jonathan Green et al
PUBLISHED
2017 in Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Goods for guns-the use of a gun buyback as an injury prevention/community education tool
"BACKGROUND: US children aged between 5 years and 14 years have a rate of gun-related homicide 17 times higher and a rate of gun-related suicide and unintentional firearm injury 10 times higher than other developed countries. Gun buyback programs have been criticized as ineffective interventions in decreasing violence. The Injury Free Coalition for Kids-Worcester (IFCK-W) Goods for Guns buyback is a multipronged approach to address these concerns and to reduce the number of firearms in the community.\n\nMETHODS: The IFCK-W buyback program is funded by corporate sponsors, grants, and individual donations. Citizens are instructed to transport guns, ammunition, and weapons safely to police headquarters on two Saturdays in December. Participants are guaranteed anonymity by the District Attorney's office and receive gift certificates for operable guns. Trained volunteers administer an anonymous survey to willing participants. Individuals who disclose having unsafely stored guns remaining at home receive educational counseling and trigger locks. Guns and ammunition are destroyed at a later time in a gun crushing ceremony.\n\nRESULTS: Since 2002, 1,861 guns (444 rifle/shotgun, 738 pistol/revolver, and 679 automatic/semiautomatic) have been collected at a cost of $99,250 (average, $53/gun). Seven hundred ten people have surrendered firearms, 534 surveys have been administered, and ≈ 75 trigger locks have been distributed per year.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: IFCK-W Goods for Guns is a relatively inexpensive injury prevention model program that removes unwanted firearms from homes, raises community awareness about gun safety, and provides high-risk individuals with trigger locks and educational counseling."
AUTHORS
Anthony DeRoss
Elizabeth Renaud
Louise Maranda
Allison Rook
Mariann Manno
Margaret McGuire et al
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care

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And the survey said. evaluating rationale for participation in gun buybacks as a tool to encourage higher yields
"Background Gun buyback programs represent one arm of a multipronged approach to raise awareness and education about gun safety. Methods The city of Worcester, MA has conducted an annual gun buyback at the Police Department Headquarters since 2002. We analyzed survey responses from a voluntary, 18-question, face-to-face structured interview from December 2009 to June 2015 using descriptive statistics to determine participant demographics and motivations for participation. Results A total of 943 guns were collected, and 273 individuals completed surveys. The majority of participants were white males older than 55 years (42.4%). Participants represented 61 zip codes across Worcester County, with 68% having prior gun safety training and 61% with weapons remaining in the home (27% of which children could potentially access). The top reasons for turning in guns were “no longer needed” (48%) and “fear of children accessing the gun” (14%). About 1 in 3 respondents knew someone injured/killed by gun violence. Almost all (96%) respondents claimed the program raised community awareness of firearm risk. Conclusion The Worcester Goods for Guns Buyback has collected more than 900 guns between 2009 and 2015. The buyback removes unwanted guns from homes and raises community awareness about firearm safety."
AUTHORS
Mariann Manno
Pradeep Nazarey
Jeremy Aidlen
Rachelle N. Damle
Jonathan Green
Rebecca E. Kasper et al
PUBLISHED
in Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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Do gun buyback programs reduce gun violence?
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