Will frequent hand washing with soap or other disinfectants reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory diseases like COVID-19?

Submitted by: XModi 86

Yes. The studies in this list for which we have identified answers are unanimous on this conclusion.
*Note that the latest study on this question is over 9 years old. A more recent study may provide a more relevant answer.
NOTE: New research on COVID-19 comes out nearly every day. The state of our knowledge may change quickly so take this answer with a grain of salt.
This short answer was generated by aggregating the answers that each of the 5 studies below gave to the question (as indicated by State of K members) and adjusting for source quality and other factors. If key studies are missing or the answers attributed to individual studies are incorrect, the above answer could be wrong. For medical questions, don't rely on the information here. Consult a medical professional.


Chart summary of 5 studies examining this question

All answers are assigned by State of K users. The label Couldn't Identify means that State of K was not able to determine whether a study answers the question "yes" or "no". This could be due to several factors. One possibility is that a study found some evidence to indicate that the answer to the question is "yes" and some evidence to indicate that the answer is "no". This often happens when a study uses two or more proxies to study the same phenomenon (i.e. firearm sales figures and self-reported firearm ownership rates as proxies for the prevalence of firearms) and the proxies yield different results when looking for correlations with another phenomenon (i.e. firearm-related deaths). Alternatively, the label may be applied if the phenomenon under study (i.e. whether breast milk improves cognitive function) is true for one group, but not another (i.e. true for girls, but not for boys). Yet another possibility is that a study found there was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the question. Finally, the full text or abstract of a study may not have been written clearly or was inaccessible. This would make it difficult to determine how a study answered a question.

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Literature Reviews
Although we recommend you consider all of the studies below, we believe the following studies are literature reviews, which survey and evaluate many studies on this question:
Additional Recommended Studies Not in this List (yet)

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
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5 studies
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Do adults get sick from COVID-19 more often than children?
10 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Do cloth masks reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease?
10 studies
Submitted by: JAloni 117

Does air pollution accelerate the spread of COVID-19?
7 studies
Submitted by: JLjilijana 85

Does air pollution increase the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?
6 studies
Submitted by: KKrista 83

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SUMMARIES OF STUDIES
Total studies in list: 5
Sorted by publication year
1
Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses.
"Background: Viral epidemics or pandemics of acute respiratory infections like influenza or severe acute respiratory syndrome pose a global threat. Antiviral drugs and vaccinations may be insufficient to prevent their spread.Objectives: To review the effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses.Search Strategy: We searched The Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2010, Issue 3), which includes the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to October 2010), OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965), EMBASE (1990 to October 2010), CINAHL (1982 to October 2010), LILACS (2008 to October 2010), Indian MEDLARS (2008 to October 2010) and IMSEAR (2008 to October 2010).Selection Criteria: In this update, two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to all identified and retrieved articles and extracted data. We scanned 3775 titles, excluded 3560 and retrieved full papers of 215 studies, to include 66 papers of 67 studies. We included physical interventions (screening at entry ports, isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, hand hygiene) to prevent respiratory virus transmission. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohorts, case-controls, before-after and time series studies.Data Collection And Analysis: We used a standardised form to assess trial eligibility. We assessed RCTs by randomisation method, allocation generation, concealment, blinding and follow up. We assessed non-RCTs for potential confounders and classified them as low, medium and high risk of bias.Main Results: We included 67 studies including randomised controlled trials and observational studies with a mixed risk of bias. A total number of participants is not included as the total would be made up of a heterogenous set of observations (participant people, observations on participants and countries (object of some studies)). The risk of bias for five RCTs and most cluster-RCTs was high. Observational studies were of mixed quality. Only case-control data were sufficiently homogeneous to allow meta-analysis. The highest quality cluster-RCTs suggest respiratory virus spread can be prevented by hygienic measures, such as handwashing, especially around younger children. Benefit from reduced transmission from children to household members is broadly supported also in other study designs where the potential for confounding is greater. Nine case-control studies suggested implementing transmission barriers, isolation and hygienic measures are effective at containing respiratory virus epidemics. Surgical masks or N95 respirators were the most consistent and comprehensive supportive measures. N95 respirators were non-inferior to simple surgical masks but more expensive, uncomfortable and irritating to skin. Adding virucidals or antiseptics to normal handwashing to decrease respiratory disease transmission remains uncertain. Global measures, such as screening at entry ports, led to a non-significant marginal delay in spread. There was limited evidence that social distancing was effective, especially if related to the risk of exposure.Authors' Conclusions: Simple and low-cost interventions would be useful for reducing transmission of epidemic respiratory viruses. Routine long-term implementation of some measures assessed might be difficult without the threat of an epidemic."
AUTHORS
Mieke L van Driel
Sarah Thorning
Eliana Ferroni
Mark A Jones
John M Conly
Tom Jefferson et al
PUBLISHED
2011 in The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
High quality source
Literature Review
Yes
Yes
2
Effectiveness of handwashing in preventing SARS: a review
"This review examines the literature, including literature in Chinese, on the effectiveness of handwashing as an intervention against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) transmission. Nine of 10 epidemiological studies reviewed showed that handwashing was protective against SARS when comparing infected cases and non-infected controls in univariate analysis, but only in three studies was this result statistically significant in multivariate analysis. There is reason to believe that this is because most of the studies were too small. The evidence for the effectiveness of handwashing as a measure against SARS transmission in health care and community settings is suggestive, but not conclusive."
AUTHORS
Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
Sandy Cairncross
PUBLISHED
2006 in Tropical Medicine and International Health
High quality source
Literature Review
Yes
Yes
3
Stability and inactivation of SARS coronavirus.
"The SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a newly emerged, highly pathogenic agent that caused over 8,000 human infections with nearly 800 deaths between November 2002 and September 2003. While direct person-to-person transmission via respiratory droplets accounted for most cases, other modes have not been ruled out. Faecal shedding is common and prolonged and has caused an outbreak in Hong Kong. We studied the stability of SARS-CoV under different conditions, both in suspension and dried on surfaces, in comparison with other human-pathogenic viruses, including human coronavirus HCoV-229E. In suspension, HCoV-229E gradually lost its infectivity completely while SARS-CoV retained its infectivity for up to 9 days; in the dried state, survival times were 24 h versus 6 days. Thermal inactivation at 56 degrees C was highly effective in the absence of protein, reducing the virus titre to below detectability; however, the addition of 20% protein exerted a protective effect resulting in residual infectivity. If protein-containing solutions are to be inactivated, heat treatment at 60 degrees C for at least 30 min must be used. Different fixation procedures, e.g. for the preparation of immunofluorescence slides, as well as chemical means of virus inactivation commonly used in hospital and laboratory settings were generally found to be effective. Our investigations confirm that it is possible to care for SARS patients and to conduct laboratory scientific studies on SARS-CoV safely. Nevertheless, the agents tenacity is considerably higher than that of HCoV-229E, and should SARS re-emerge, increased efforts need to be devoted to questions of environmental hygiene."
AUTHORS
H F Rabenau
B Morgenstern
W Preiser
H W Doerr
J Cinatl
G Bauer
PUBLISHED
2005 in Medical Microbiology and Immunology
High quality source
Yes
Yes
4
Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus
"The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants."
AUTHORS
G. Kampf
H.F. Rabenau
H.W. Doerr
J. Cinatl
PUBLISHED
2005 in Journal of Hospital Infection
High quality source
Yes
Yes
5
Handwashing and respiratory illness among young adults in military training.
"Objectives: In response to increasing concerns about respiratory illness in military recruits, a simple handwashing program was developed and evaluated at a large Navy training center.Methods: Clinical records from 1996 through 1998 were reviewed to determine weekly rates of respiratory illness before and after program implementation (1,089,800 person-weeks reviewed). A supplemental survey was given to a sample of recruits to assess self-reported respiratory illness and compliance with the handwashing program.Results: A 45% reduction in total outpatient visits for respiratory illness was observed after implementation of the handwashing program. No change was noted in hospitalization rates for respiratory illness, which remained low during the observation period. Survey data supported clinical observations, as frequent handwashers self-reported fewer respiratory illness episodes when compared to infrequent handwashers. Surveys also revealed challenges with handwashing compliance.Conclusions: Implementation of a handwashing program in this population of healthy young adults was associated with a marked reduction in outpatient visits for respiratory illness. Despite its success, maintenance of the handwashing program has been challenging in the time-constrained setting of military training."
AUTHORS
J Wohlrabe
M A Ryan
R S Christian
PUBLISHED
2001 in American Journal of Preventive Medicine
High quality source
Yes
Yes







ADDITIONAL STUDIES TO CONSIDER ADDING TO LIST
Total additional studies: 77
State of K's algorithms generated the list of studies below based on the studies that were added to the above list. Some of these studies may also examine: "Will frequent hand washing with soap or other disinfectants reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory diseases like COVID-19?" If a study examines this question, add it to the list by pressing the button.

Only add studies that examine the same question. Do not add studies that are merely on the same topic.

Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus-hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently
"Ethanol-containing hand rubs are used frequently as a substitute for hand washing with water and soap. However, not all viruses are inactivated by a short term rubbing with alcohol. The capacity of a single round of instructed and controlled hand cleaning with water and soap or ethanol-containing hand rub, respectively, was tested for removal of human rhinovirus administered onto the skin of healthy volunteers on the back of the hands. Hand washing with soap and water appeared to be much more efficient for removing rhinoviruses from skin than rubbing hands with an ethanol-containing disinfectant. After washing with soap and water the virus was detected in 3/9 (33.3%) test persons from the left hand and 1/9 (11.1%) cases from the right hand, whereas the virus was detected invariably by real-time RT-PCR from both hands after cleaning with alcohol hand rub (P-value <0.01). Both substances evaluated clinically were also tested in vitro for virucidal efficacy against Human rhinovirus2 (HRV2) using a standardized assay. Both tested substances were poor within the contact time used in the hand-cleaning test. In conclusion, thorough and conventional hand washing with water and soap can clean efficiently hands contaminated with the virus responsible for an extensive share of common cold episodes."
AUTHORS
Carita Savolainen-Kopra
Ali Amiryousefi
Tapani Hovi
Marja-Leena Simonen-Tikka
Thedi Ziegler
Terttu Korpela et al
PUBLISHED
2012 in Journal of Medical Virology

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Hand carriage of Candida occurs at lesser rates in hospital personnel who use antimicrobial hand disinfectant
"Background: The hands of hospital personnel are considered to be important for colonization and infection of patients with Candida spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different hand disinfectants in reducing the carriage of Candida species on the hands of hospital personnel.

Methods: A controlled study was conducted at Duzce University School of Medicine Hospital. Eighty hospital personnel were included in the trial. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to hand hygiene procedures: group 1, hand rubbing with alcohol-based solution; group 2, hand washing with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate; group 3, hand washing with 7.5% povidone-iodine; group 4, hand washing with plain soap and water. The hands of all participants were tested by culture with the broth wash technique.

Results: Hand carriage of Candida spp. was lower in the 4% chlorhexidine gluconate group (10.5%, p = 0.006), in the 7.5% povidone-iodine group (18.7%, p = 0.043), and in the alcohol-based hand rub group (21.1%, p = 0.048) compared to the group washing hands with plain soap and water (50%).

Conclusions: The use of hand disinfectant containing antimicrobial agents is more effective than hand washing with water and soap in reducing carriage of Candida on the hands of hospital personnel. It is recommended that hospital personnel use an antimicrobial hand disinfectant in units where there is a high risk of Candida infection.

"
AUTHORS
Irfan Sencan
Selma Cakir
Sukru Oksuz
Cigdem Ozaydin
Idris Sahin
Abdulkadir Kucukbayrak et al
PUBLISHED
2014 in Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases

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Hand hygiene among general practice dentists: a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices.
"Background: Hand hygiene (HH) is a primary practice used to reduce the risk and spread of infection. The authors conducted a study to examine the self-reported knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practice dentists (GPDs) regarding HH and factors associated with HH and skin condition.

Methods: The authors mailed a four-page closed-ended questionnaire to a random sample of active GPDs drawn from a list supplied by the New York State Dental Association. The authors classified eight GPDs as ineligible, leaving a net sample of 352. They received 234 responses, for a response rate of 66 percent.

Results: At the start of the practice day, 71 percent of GPDs often/almost always/always washed with soap but never/almost never disinfected with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Twenty-two percent often/almost always/always washed with soap and disinfected with alcohol-based hand sanitizers. GPDs with good/excellent knowledge of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings were more likely to report acceptable HH behavior. Approximately one-third of GPDs had limited/ moderate knowledge of the CDC HH guideline.

Conclusions: Most GPDs use soap and water for HH frequently, and a smaller number of GPDs use alcohol-based hand sanitizers for HH frequently. Results show that 25 percent of GPDs or fewer maintain inadequate HH. Knowledge of the CDC HH guideline needs to be heightened. Practice Implications. Further education of the dental community is warranted to improve HH compliance, efficacy of HH practices and skin health.

"
AUTHORS
Carol Kunzel
Bin Cheng
Elaine Larson
Keith Da Silva
Aaron Schwartz
Ronnie Myers
PUBLISHED
2008 in Journal of the American Dental Association (1939)

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Comparison of two methods for assessing the removal of total organisms and pathogens from the skin.
"A standard hand-wash sampling technique was compared with a simple finger-streak sampling method in assessing the relative effectiveness of a number of alternative preparations used for disinfecting the surgeon's hands (alcoholic 0.5% chlorhexidine, alcoholic 0.1% tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol, a 4% chlorhexidine detergent solution, aqueous 0.5% chlorhexidine, 2% 'Irgasan' detergent solution and, as control, bar soap). There was a fairly good correlation between the results of assessment by the two methods after a single disinfection and after six disinfections, three on one day and three on the next. Significant differences were shown in 21 comparisons between treatments when the hand-wash sampling test was used, and 16 of these comparisons also showed a significant difference by the finger-streak test. Staphylococcus aureus was found in hand samplings from 5 out of 8 nurses in the Burns Unit of Birmingham Accident Hospital by the hand-wash sampling method and from 2 of the same 8 nurses by the finger-streak method; the numbers were small, and no Staph. aureus were isolated from the same hands after 1 min. wash in 70% ethyl alcohol. Similar sampling on 29 nurses in other wards showed Staph. aureus on 3 nurses (one in large numbers) by the hand-wash technique and on 1 nurse by the finger-streak test; in only 1 nurse whose hands showed Staph. aureus before disinfection was the organism found, by hand-wash sampling, after disinfection. Parallel sampling of nurses' hands after washing with soap and water and after disinfection with 95% ethanol showed larger numbers of Staph. aureus in a hospital for skin diseases than in a general hospital, and a lower incidence and somewhat lower density of Staph. aureus after ethanol treatment than after washing with soap and water; Gram-negative bacilli, on the other hand, were commoner on hands in the general than in the skin hospital, and present in much smaller numbers after disinfection with ethanol than after washing with soap and water. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed the frequent recurrence on the hands of some nurses of multi-resistant Staph. aureus with resistance patterns similar to those found in infective lesions in some of the patients; different sensitivity patterns were usually found in staphylococci isolated from the nose. Even in wards where many patients were infected, carriage by nurses' hands of a particular strain of Staph. aureus did not seem to last for more than a few days."
AUTHORS
M D Wilkins
E J Lowbury
H A Lilly
G A Ayliffe
J Varney
K Bridges
PUBLISHED
1975 in The Journal of hygiene

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Efficient inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by WHO-recommended hand rub formulations and alcohols
"AbstractThe recent emergence of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 is a major burden for health care systems worldwide. It is important to address if the current infection control instructions based on active ingredients are sufficient. We therefore determined the virucidal activity of two alcohol-based hand rub solutions for hand disinfection recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as commercially available alcohols. Efficient SARS-CoV-2 inactivation was demonstrated for all tested alcohol-based disinfectants. These findings show the successful inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 for the first time and provide confidence in its use for the control of COVID-19.ImportanceThe current COVID-19 outbreak puts a huge burden on the world’s health care systems. Without effective therapeutics or vaccines being available, effective hygiene measure are of utmost importance to prevent viral spreading. It is therefore crucial to evaluate current infection control strategies against SARS-CoV-2. We show the inactivation of the novel coronavirus for the first time and endorse the importance of disinfectant-based hand hygiene to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission."
AUTHORS
Mitra L. Gultom
Stephanie Pfaender
Eike Steinmann
Daniela Niemeyer
Daniel Todt
Silvio Steiner et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection
"AbstractThe emergence of the novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China has caused a worldwide epidemic of respiratory disease (COVID-19). Vaccines and targeted therapeutics for treatment of this disease are currently lacking. Here we report a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 (and SARS-CoV). This cross-neutralizing antibody targets a communal epitope on these viruses and offers potential for prevention and treatment of COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Dubravka Drabek
Frank J.M. van Kuppeveld
Berend-Jan Bosch
Wentao Li
Chunyan Wang
Bart L. Haagmans et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Protecting healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 infection: practical indications
"The World Health Organization has recently defined the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection a pandemic. The infection, that may cause a potentially very severe respiratory disease, now called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has airborne transmission via droplets. The rate of transmission is quite high, higher than common influenza. Healthcare workers are at high risk of contracting the infection particularly when applying respiratory devices such as oxygen cannulas or noninvasive ventilation. The aim of this article is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the correct use of “respiratory devices” in the COVID-19 emergency and protect healthcare workers from contracting the SARS-CoV-2 infection."
AUTHORS
Stefano Nava
Paolo Palange
Lara Pisani
Valentina Leo
Cecilia Cisternino
Martina Ferioli
PUBLISHED
2020 in European Respiratory Review

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Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants
"Background: Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous.

Aim: To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant against human enteric and respiratory viruses and to compare efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant and handwashing with soap and water against norovirus.

Methods: Efficacies of a propanol and an ethanol-based hand disinfectant against human enteric and respiratory viruses were tested in carrier tests. Efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant and handwashing with soap and water against noroviruses GI.4, GII.4, and MNV1 were tested using finger pad tests.

Findings: The alcohol-based hand disinfectant reduced the infectivity of rotavirus and influenza A virus completely within 30s whereas poliovirus Sabin 1, adenovirus type 5, parechovirus 1, and MNV1 infectivity were reduced <3 log10 within 3 min. MNV1 infectivity reduction by washing hands with soap and water for 30s (>3.0 ± 0.4 log10) was significantly higher than treating hands with alcohol (2.8 ± 1.5 log10). Washing with soap and water for 30s removed genomic copies of MNV1 (>5 log10), noroviruses GI.4 (>6 log10), and GII.4 (4 log10) completely from all finger pads. Treating hands with propanol-based hand disinfectant showed little or no reduction to complete reduction with mean genomic copy reduction of noroviruses GI.4, GII.4, and MNV1 being >2.6, >3.3, and >1.2 log10 polymerase chain reaction units respectively.

Conclusions: Washing hands with soap and water is better than using alcohol-based hand disinfectants in removing noroviruses from hands.

"
AUTHORS
M. Koopmans
M.H. Zwietering
W.C. Hazeleger
R.R. Beumer
E. Tuladhar
E. Duizer
PUBLISHED
2015 in Journal of Hospital Infection

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Literature review
COVID-19: An International Public Health Concern
"This review presents a synopsis on the current COVID-19 pandemic, with focus on preventive measures. COVID-19 is a new viral infection, and is in form of a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA Coronavirus which belongs to an expanded group of viruses which were identified six decades ago. Importantly, the new COVID-19 belongs to the group of SARS-CoV, and it originated in bats but infected humans through smuggled pangolins. At first, the mode of transmission of infection was animal-to-person, but person-to-person and community transmission of the virus has been confirmed in many parts of the world. With an incubation period of between two-fourteen days, signs and symptoms of infection are mild to high respiratory illness; characterized with cough, breathing problems (shortness of breath), high temperature (Fever), tiredness (Fatigue) and nausea. Presently, no vaccines or specific treatment is available for COVID-19, in light of the aforementioned; prevention is the only substantial and less expensive option. With the envisaged explosive community transmission of COVID-19 in the coming weeks in places with limited daily testing, especially in African countries, it is recommended among many that social distancing which includes avoiding any form of contact with people; either through greetings, hugging or shaking of hands and large gatherings, avoid contact with animal items, dead or alive animals, sick and dead people from areas experiencing COVID-19 epidemic, and basic hygienic practices like thorough washing of hands with clean water and antiseptic soap for the duration of at least twenty seconds should be practiced always. However, in the absence of the aforementioned, an alcohol-based hand gel should be used on the hands frequently. Furthermore, health care workers should adhere strictly to the standard preventive measures in areas of heightened COVID-19 epidemic."
AUTHOR
Israel Oluwasegun Ayenigbara
PUBLISHED
2020 in Central Asian Journal of Global Health

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Handwashing in Finland.
"To prevent skin problems we have recommended in Finland that hospital personnel should avoid soap or other detergents for handwashing and instead use alcoholic preparations containing emollients such as 2% glycerol. Alcohol with emollient disinfection is used frequently in hospitals and it causes fewer complaints of skin dryness than washing with soap. However, there are still members of staff who have hand skin problems. Our studies conducted during winter have shown that when these persons used emulsion for hand cleansing, instead of washing with soap, skin deterioration was much less, allowing alcoholic disinfection of the hands whenever necessary, without impairment of the disinfecting effect of alcohol."
AUTHOR
J Ojajärvi
PUBLISHED

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Highly regarded source
Combining drinking water treatment and hand washing for diarrhoea prevention, a cluster randomised controlled trial
"Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of point of use water treatment with flocculent-disinfectant on reducing diarrhoea and the additional benefit of promoting hand washing with soap.

Methods: The study was conducted in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan, where diarrhoea is a leading cause of childhood death. Interventions were randomly assigned to 47 neighbourhoods. Households in 10 neighbourhoods received diluted bleach and a water vessel; nine neighbourhoods received soap and were encouraged to wash hands; nine neighbourhoods received flocculent-disinfectant water treatment and a water vessel; 10 neighbourhoods received disinfectant-disinfectant water treatment and soap and were encouraged to wash hands; and nine neighbourhoods were followed as controls. Field workers visited households at least once a week from April to December 2003 to promote use of the interventions and to collect data on diarrhoea.

Results: Study participants in control neighbourhoods had diarrhoea on 5.2% of days. Compared to controls, participants living in intervention neighbourhoods had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea: 55% (95% CI 17%, 80%) lower in bleach and water vessel neighbourhoods, 51% (95% CI 12%, 76%) lower in hand washing promotion with soap neighbourhoods, 64% lower (95% CI 29%, 90%) in disinfectant-disinfectant neighbourhoods, and 55% (95% CI 18%, 80%) lower in disinfectant-disinfectant plus hand washing with soap neighbourhoods.

Conclusions: With an intense community-based intervention and supplies provided free of cost, each of the home-based interventions significantly reduced diarrhoea. There was no benefit by combining hand washing promotion with water treatment.

"
AUTHORS
Ward Billhimer
Bruce Keswick
Robert M. Hoekstra
Stephen P. Luby
Mubina Agboatwalla
John Painter et al
PUBLISHED
2006 in Tropical Medicine & International Health

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Literature review
Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis among health care workers by using evidence-based hand hygiene practices: a review.
"Irritant contact dermatitis is often found on the hands of healthcare workers and is generally caused by frequent hand washing, gloves, aggressive disinfectants or detergents. Alcohols have only a marginal irritation potential, although they may cause a burning sensation on pre-irritated skin. A burning sensation when using alcohols therefore, suggests that the skin barrier is already damaged. Two options for hand hygiene are generally available in clinical practice: (1) hand washing with some type of soap and water or (2) hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. Most clinical situations require the use of an alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination, which is especially useful for reducing the nosocomial transmission of various infectious agents. Washing one's hands should be the exception, to be performed only when they are visibly soiled or contaminated with proteinaceous material, or visibly soiled with blood or other body fluids. The overall compliance rate in hand hygiene is around 50%, which is far too low. In addition, healthcare workers quite often wash their hands with soap and water, when they should use an alcohol-based hand rub. This not only adds to the degree of skin irritation, but is also potentially dangerous for patients, due to the low efficacy of hand washing when compared to hand disinfection with alcohol rubs. Adhering to evidence-based hand hygiene protocols and following international guidelines on hand hygiene practices therefore, can help prevent irritant contact dermatitis among healthcare workers."
AUTHORS
Harald Löffler
Günter Kampf
PUBLISHED

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease Care in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era: The Humanitas, Milan, Experience
"Abstract
The outbreak of the COVID-19 caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV2, is rapidly spreading worldwide. This is the first pandemic caused by a coronavirus in history. More than 150 000 confirmed cases worldwide are reported involving the SARS-CoV2, with more than 5000 COVID-19-related deaths on March 14, 2020. Fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath, generalised myalgia, malaise, drowsiness, diarrhoea, confusion, dyspnoea, and bilateral interstitial pneumonia are the common symptoms. No therapies are available, and the only way to contain the virus spread is to regularly and thoroughly clean one’s hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water, to maintain at least 1 m [3 feet] distance from anyone who is coughing or sneezing, to avoid touching eyes, nose, and mouth, and to stay home if one feels unwell. No data are available on the risk of COVID-19 and outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients. Outbreak restrictions can impact on the IBD care. We aim to give a viewpoint on how operationally to manage IBD patients and ensure quality of care in the current pandemic era."
AUTHORS
Alessandra Zilli
Daniela Gilardi
Federica Furfaro
Mariangela Allocca
Silvio Danese
Antonino Spinelli et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Crohn's and Colitis

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Potent Antiviral Activities of Type I Interferons to SARS-CoV-2 Infection
"The ongoing historic outbreak of COVID-19 not only constitutes a global public health crisis, but also carries a devastating social and economic impact. The disease is caused by a newly identified coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is an urgent need to identify antivirals to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we report the remarkable sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 to recombinant human interferons α and β (IFNα/β). Treatment with IFN-α at a concentration of 50 international units (IU) per milliliter drastically reduces viral titers by 3.4 log or over 4 log, respectively, in Vero cells. The EC50 of IFN-α and IFN-β treatment is 1.35 IU/ml and 0.76 IU/ml, respectively, in Vero cells. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is more sensitive than many other human pathogenic viruses, including SARS-CoV. Overall, our results demonstrate the potent efficacy of human Type I IFN in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 infection, a finding which could inform future treatment options for COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Cheng Huang
Slobodan Paessler
Junki Maruyama
Natalya Bukreyeva
Emily K. Mantlo
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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When Darkness Becomes a Ray of Light in the Dark Times: Understanding the COVID-19 via the Comparative Analysis of the Dark Proteomes of SARS-CoV-2, Human SARS and Bat SARS-Like Coronaviruses
"AbstractRecently emerged coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2 (also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or Wuhan coronavirus) is a causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is rapidly spreading throughout the world now. More than 9,00,000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and more than 47,000 COVID-19-associated mortalities have been reported worldwide till the writing of this article, and these numbers are increasing every passing hour. World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the SARS-CoV-2 spread as a global public health emergency and admitted that the COVID-19 is a pandemic now. The multiple sequence alignment data correlated with the already published reports on the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and indicated that this virus is closely related to the bat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-like coronavirus (bat SARS-like CoV) and the well-studied Human SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV). The disordered regions in viral proteins are associated with the viral infectivity and pathogenicity. Therefore, in this study, we have exploited a set of complementary computational approaches to examine the dark proteomes of SARS-CoV-2, bat SARS-like, and human SARS CoVs by analysing the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in their proteins. According to our findings, SARS-CoV-2 proteome contains very significant levels of structural order. In fact, except for Nucleocapsid, Nsp8, and ORF6, the vast majority of SARS-CoV-2 proteins are mostly ordered proteins containing less intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs). However, IDPRs found in SARS-CoV-2 proteins are functionally important. For example, cleavage sites in its replicase 1ab polyprotein are found to be highly disordered, and almost all SARS-CoV-2 proteins were shown to contain molecular recognition features (MoRFs), which are intrinsic disorder-based protein-protein interaction sites that are commonly utilized by proteins for interaction with specific partners. The results of our extensive investigation of the dark side of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome will have important implications for the structural and non-structural biology of SARS or SARS-like coronaviruses.SignificanceThe infection caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes severe respiratory disease with pneumonia-like symptoms in humans is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic. No in-depth information on structures and functions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins is currently available in the public domain, and no effective anti-viral drugs and/or vaccines are designed for the treatment of this infection. Our study provides the first comparative analysis of the order- and disorder-based features of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome relative to human SARS and bat CoV that may be useful for structure-based drug discovery."
AUTHORS
Rajanish Giri
Christopher J. Oldfield
Kundlik Gadhave
Bhuvaneshwari R. Gehi
Meenakshi Shegane
Taniya Bhardwaj et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Systematic Comparison of Two Animal-to-Human Transmitted Human Coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
"After the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the world in 2003, human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been reported as pathogens that cause severe symptoms in respiratory tract infections. Recently, a new emerged HCoV isolated from the respiratory epithelium of unexplained pneumonia patients in the Wuhan seafood market caused a major disease outbreak and has been named the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus causes acute lung symptoms, leading to a condition that has been named as “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and of SARS-CoV caused widespread fear and concern and has threatened global health security. There are some similarities and differences in the epidemiology and clinical features between these two viruses and diseases that are caused by these viruses. The goal of this work is to systematically review and compare between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in the context of their virus incubation, originations, diagnosis and treatment methods, genomic and proteomic sequences, and pathogenic mechanisms."
AUTHORS
Jiabao Xu
Yunlong Wang
Xiangqian Guo
Wan Zhu
Longxiang Xie
Tieshan Teng et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Viruses

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Structural Basis of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and Anti-COVID-19 Drug Discovery from Medicinal Plants
"The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019 raised global health concerns. The viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme, which controls coronavirus replication and is essential for its life cycle, is a proven drug discovery target in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Recent studies revealed that the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 is very similar to that of SARS-CoV. Therefore, herein, we analysed the 3CLpro sequence, constructed a 3D homology model, and screened it against a medicinal plant library containing 32,297 potential anti-viral phytochemicals/traditional Chinese medicinal compounds. Our analyses revealed that the top nine hits may serve as potential anti- SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules for further optimisation and drug development to control COVID-19."
AUTHORS
Muhammad Tahir ul Qamar
Mubarak A. Alamri
Ling-Ling Chen
Safar M. Alqahtani
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Highly regarded source
COVID-19 Pandemic, Corona Viruses, and Diabetes Mellitus
" The pandemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, is causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Older age and presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity significantly increases the risk for hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. In this Perspective, informed by the studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome, MERS-CoV, and the current literature on SARS-CoV-2, we discuss potential mechanisms by which diabetes modulates the host-viral interactions and host-immune responses. We hope to highlight gaps in knowledge that require further studies pertinent to COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. "
AUTHORS
Ranganath Muniyappa
Sriram Gubbi
PUBLISHED
2020 in American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism

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An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
" The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threating respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true. "
AUTHOR
David A. Schwartz
PUBLISHED
2020 in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

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COVID-19: A Conundrum to Decipher
"OBJECTIVE: Recent worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a current, ongoing life-threatening crisis and international public health emergency. The early diagnosis and management of the disease remains a major challenge. In this review, we aim to summarize the updated epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad search of the literature was performed in &amp;ldquo;PubMed&amp;rdquo; &amp;ldquo;Medline&amp;rdquo; &amp;ldquo;Web of knowledge&amp;rdquo;, and &amp;ldquo;Google Scholar&amp;rdquo; World Health Organization-WHO&amp;rdquo; using the keywords &amp;ldquo;severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus&amp;rdquo;, &amp;ldquo;2019-nCoV&amp;rdquo;, &amp;ldquo;COVID-19, &amp;ldquo;SARS&amp;rdquo;, &amp;ldquo;SARS-CoV-2&amp;rdquo; &amp;ldquo;Epidemiology&amp;rdquo; &amp;ldquo;Transmission&amp;rdquo; &amp;ldquo;Pathogenesis&amp;rdquo; &amp;ldquo;Clinical Characteristics&amp;rdquo;. We reviewed and documented the information obtained from literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical appearances of SARS-CoV-2 infection.RESULTS: The global cases of COVID-19 as of April 2, 2020 have risen to more than 900,000 and morbidity has reached more than 47,000. The incidence rate for COVID-19 has been predicted to be higher than the previous outbreaks of other coronavirus family members, including those of SARS-CoV and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The main clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic stages to severe lower respiratory infection in the form of pneumonia. Most of the patients also presented with fever, cough, sore throat, headache, fatigue, myalgia and breathlessness.Individuals at higher risk for severe illness include elderly people and patients with a weakened immune system or that are suffering from a underlying chronic medical condition like hypertension, diabetes, cancer, respiratory illness or cardiovascular diseases.CONCLUSIONS: SARS-Cov-2 has emerged as a worldwide threat, currently affecting 170 countries and territories across the globe. There is still much to be understood regarding SARS-CoV-2 about its virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies; this knowledge will be essential to both manage the current pandemic and to conceive comprehensive measures to prevent such outbreaks in the future."
AUTHORS
Bharat Sontakke
Ashlesh Patil
Vaishnavi Deshmukh
Arvind Pandey
Satyendra C. Tripathi
Vishwajit Deshmukh et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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SARS vaccines: where are we?
"In this review, the current state of vaccine development against human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, focusing on recently published data is assessed. We discuss which strategies have been assessed immunologically and which have been evaluated in SARS coronavirus challenge models. We discuss inactivated vaccines, virally and bacterially vectored vaccines, recombinant protein and DNA vaccines, as well as the use of attenuated vaccines. Data regarding the correlates of protection, animal models and the available evidence regarding potential vaccine enhancement of SARS disease are discussed. While there is much evidence that various vaccine strategies against SARS are safe and immunogenic, vaccinated animals still display significant disease upon challenge. Current data suggest that intranasal vaccination may be crucial and that new or combination strategies may be required for good protective efficacy against SARS in humans."
AUTHORS
Kristina E Rehm
Rachel L Roper
PUBLISHED

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Coronaviruses and their therapy
"Coronaviruses may cause respiratory, enteric and central nervous system diseases in many species, including humans. Until recently, the relatively low burden of disease in humans caused by few of these viruses hampered development of coronavirus specific therapeutics. However, the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has prompted the discovery of such drugs. Subsequent studies in animal models demonstrated the efficacy of SARS-CoV specific monoclonal antibodies, pegylated-interferon-alpha and siRNAs against SARS-CoV. Furthermore, several antivirals shown to be effective against other viruses were tested in vitro. Because of availability and shown efficacy, the use of interferons may be considered should SARS-CoV or a related coronavirus (re)-emerge. The more recent design of wide-spectrum inhibitors targeting the coronavirus main proteases may lead to the discovery of new antivirals against multiple coronavirus induced diseases."
AUTHORS
Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus
Bart L. Haagmans
PUBLISHED
2006 in Antiviral Research

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The antiviral action of common household disinfectants and antiseptics against murine hepatitis virus, a potential surrogate for SARS coronavirus
"Background: The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infected over 8000 people and killed 774. Transmission of SARS occurred through direct and indirect contact and large droplet nuclei. The World Health Organization recommended the use of household disinfectants, which have not been previously tested against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), to disinfect potentially contaminated environmental surfaces. There is a need for a surrogate test system given the limited availability of the SARS-CoV for testing and biosafety requirements necessary to safely handle it. In this study, the antiviral activity of standard household products was assayed against murine hepatitis virus (MHV), as a potential surrogate for SARS-CoV.

Methods: A surface test method, which involves drying an amount of virus on a surface and then applying the product for a specific contact time, was used to determine the virucidal activity. The virus titers and log reductions were determined by the Reed and Muench tissue culture infective dose (TCID)50 end point method.

Results: When tested as directed, common household disinfectants or antiseptics, containing either 0.050% of triclosan, 0.12% of PCMX, 0.21% of sodium hypochlorite, 0.23% of pine oil, or 0.10% of a quaternary compound with 79% of ethanol, demonstrated a 3-log reduction or better against MHV without any virus recovered in a 30-second contact time.

Conclusion: Common household disinfectants and antiseptics were effective at inactivating MHV, a possible surrogate for SARS-CoV, from surfaces when used as directed. In an outbreak caused by novel agents, it is important to know the effectiveness of disinfectants and antiseptics to prevent or reduce the possibility of human-to-human transmission via surfaces.

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AUTHORS
Diane Boesenberg
Quinn Vega
Christine Dellanno
PUBLISHED
2009 in American Journal of Infection Control

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Literature review
Chloroquine as a Potential Treatment and Prevention Measure for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus: A Review
"There is a long trail of research studies testing the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of chloroquine and its derivatives in treating and preventing infection by various coronavirus species. More recent findings have highlighted the possibility of treating patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. This review describes the mechanism of coronavirus infection, the mechanism of action of chloroquine, and summarizes the available literature highlighting the efficacy of chloroquine as an anti-coronavirus agent. These findings should encourage the wider scientific community to conduct thorough research on the possible efficacy of chloroquine and its derivatives in treating and preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection."
AUTHOR
John Kearney
PUBLISHED
2020 in MDPI AG

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Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy and skin safety of a novel color additive in combination with chlorine disinfectants
FUNDERS
United States Agency for International Development Fighting Ebola Grand Challenge
"Objective: A novel color additive colorizes chlorine disinfectants blue to improve visibility and enhance spray surface coverage, and it fades to colorless to indicate elapsed contact time. We investigated its interactions with 3 chlorine disinfectants to determine if the additive would adversely affect the disinfectants' antimicrobial efficacy or skin safety.

Methods: We tested 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 0.2% calcium hypochlorite, and 0.5% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) alone versus with color additive. An independent laboratory tested efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, and human coronavirus 229E. An independent laboratory also tested direct skin irritation.

Results: Chlorine disinfectants with and without color additive achieved equal levels of efficacy against the tested pathogens. Against S. aureus, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite with and without color additive met Environmental Protection Agency criteria for disinfection success. Against human coronavirus 229E, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite alone failed disinfection success criteria, whereas 0.5% sodium hypochlorite with color additive achieved full viral inactivation (≥4.50 log

Conclusions: This color additive can be combined with chlorine disinfectants without adversely affecting antimicrobial efficacy or skin safety.

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AUTHORS
Katherine Jin
Kevin Tyan
Aaron M. Kyle
Jason Kang
PUBLISHED
2018 in American Journal of Infection Control

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[Detection of RNA of SARS coronavirus in hospital sewage].
"Objective: In order to explore the existence of SARS coronavirus (Co-V) and/or its RNA in sewage of hospitals administered SARS patients.

Methods: A novel electropositive filter was used to concentrate the SARS-CoV from the sewage of two hospitals administered SARS patients in Beijing, including twelve 2,500 ml sewage samples from the hospitals before disinfection, and ten 25,000 ml samples after disinfection; as well as cell culture, RT-PCR and sequencing of gene to detect and identify the viruses from sewage.

Results: There was no live SARS-CoV detected in the sewage in this study. The nucleic acid of SARS-CoV had been found in the 12 sewage samples before disinfection from both hospitals by semi-nested PCR. After disinfection, SARS-CoV RNA could only be detected from the samples from the 309th Hospital, and the others were negative.

Conclusion: It provides evidence that there is no live SARS-Cov in the sewage from hospitals with SARS patients though SARS-CoV RNA can be detected.

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AUTHORS
Zhong Li
Jin-Song Li
Bang Yi
Min Jin
Xiu-Mei Zhu
Fu-Huan Chao et al
PUBLISHED
2004 in Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]

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Compounds with therapeutic potential against novel respiratory 2019 coronavirus
"Currently, the expansion of the novel human respiratory coronavirus (known as: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-2019, or 2019-nCoV) has stressed the need for therapeutic alternatives to alleviate and stop this new epidemic. The previous epidemics of high-morbidity human coronaviruses, such as the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, prompted the characterization of compounds that could be potentially active against the currently emerging novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The most promising compound is remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleotide analog prodrug currently in clinical trials for treating Ebola virus infections. Remdesivir inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in tissue cultures, and it displayed efficacy in non-human animal models. In addition, a combination of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors, lopinavir/ritonavir, and interferon beta (LPV/RTV-INFb) were shown to be effective in patients infected with SARS-CoV. LPV/RTV-INFb also improved clinical parameters in marmosets and mice infected with MERS-CoV. Remarkably, the therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir appeared to be superior to that of LPV/RTV-INFb against MERS-CoV in a transgenic humanized mice model. The relatively high mortality rates associated with these three novel human coronavirus infections, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, has suggested that pro-inflammatory responses might play a role in the pathogenesis. It remains unknown whether the generated inflammatory state should be targeted. Therapeutics that target the coronavirus alone might not be able to reverse highly pathogenic infections. This minireview aimed to provide a summary of therapeutic compounds that showed potential in fighting SARS-CoV-2 infections."
AUTHOR
Miguel Angel Martinez
PUBLISHED
2020 in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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Literature review
Therapeutic Options for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – possible lessons from a systematic review of SARS-CoV therapy
"The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been detected in a number of countries in the Middle East and Europe with an apparently high mortality rate. It is phylogenetically related to the SARS coronavirus and has also been associated with severe respiratory illness as well as nosocomial transmission in healthcare settings. Current international recommendations do not support any specific therapies; however, there are a number of agents, which were used during the SARS epidemic of 2003. It is possible that these might be active against the related MERS coronavirus. We have reviewed the literature on the safety and efficacy of therapies used in patients with SARS with a view to their potential use in patients with MERS-CoV infections. "
AUTHORS
Alimuddin Zumla
Ziad A. Memish
Khurram Mohammed
Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq
Hisham Momattin
PUBLISHED
2013 in International Journal of Infectious Diseases

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Stability and inactivation of SARS coronavirus
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00430-004-0219-0
AUTHORS
W. Preiser
G. Bauer
B. Morgenstern
H. F. Rabenau
J. Cinatl
H. W. Doerr
PUBLISHED
2004 in Medical Microbiology and Immunology

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Preparation and evaluation of anti-SARS coronavirus IgY from yolks of immunized SPF chickens
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently discovered viral disease, characterized by fever, cough, acute fibrinous pneumonia and high infectivity. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were immunized with inactivated SARS coronavirus and their eggs were harvested at regular intervals. Yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was extracted using the water dilution method, followed by further purification on a Sephadex G-75 column. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot and neutralization test results showed that the IgY obtained was of a high purity and had a strong reactive activity with a neutralization titer of 1:640. Lyophilization and stability tests showed that lyophilized anti-SARS coronavirus IgY had promising physical properties, with no significant reduction in reactive activity and good thermal stability. All these data suggest that the anti-SARS coronavirus IgY could be a new useful biological product for specific antiviral therapy against SARS."
AUTHORS
Chao-Yang Fu
Xiao-Mei Wang
He Huang
Xian-Gang Kong
Yong-Gang Liu
Jing-Peng Li et al
PUBLISHED
2006 in Journal of Virological Methods

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PIKA provides an adjuvant effect to induce strong mucosal and systemic humoral immunity against SARS-CoV.
"Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a deadly infectious disease caused by SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Inactivated SARS-CoV has been explored as a vaccine against SARS-CoV. However, safe and potent adjuvants, especially with more efficient and economical needle-free vaccination are always needed more urgently in a pandemic. The development of a safe and effective mucosal adjuvant and vaccine for prevention of emergent infectious diseases such as SARS will be an important advancement. PIKA, a stabilized derivative of Poly (I:C), was previously reported to be safe and potent as adjuvant in mouse models. In the present study, we demonstrated that the intraperitoneal and intranasal co-administration of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine together with this improved Poly (I:C) derivative induced strong anti-SARS-CoV mucosal and systemic humoral immune responses with neutralizing activity against pseudotyped virus. Although intraperitoneal immunization of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine alone could induce a certain level of neutralizing activity in serum as well as in mucosal sites, co-administration of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine with PIKA as adjuvant could induce a much higher neutralizing activity. When intranasal immunization was used, PIKA was obligatorily for inducing neutralizing activity in serum as well as in mucosal sites and was correlated with both mucosal IgA and mucosal IgG response. Overall, PIKA could be a good mucosal adjuvant candidate for inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine for use in possible future pandemic."
AUTHORS
Hui-min Yan
Jing-yi Yang
Yao-qing Chen
Di-han Zhou
Yan Zhang
Wei-wei Gai
PUBLISHED

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Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARS-CoV-1
"A novel human coronavirus, now named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, referred to as HCoV-19 here) that emerged in Wuhan, China in late 2019 is now causing a pandemic. Here, we analyze the aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 and compare it with SARS-CoV-1, the most closely related human coronavirus.2 We evaluated the stability of HCoV-19 and SARS-CoV-1 in aerosols and on different surfaces and estimated their decay rates using a Bayesian regression model"
AUTHORS
Natalie Thornburg
Dylan Morris
Brandi Williamson
Myndi Holbrook
Trenton Bushmaker
Neeltje van Doremalen et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1
"A novel human coronavirus that is now named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (formerly called HCoV-19) emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and is now causing a pandemic. We analyzed the aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 and compared it with SARS-CoV-1, the most closely related human coronavirus."
AUTHORS
Williamson BN
Gamble A
Holbrook MG
Morris DH
Bushmaker T
van Doremalen N et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in New England Journal of Medicine

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Amotosalen photochemical inactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in human platelet concentrates
"A novel human coronavirus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in epidemic form in early 2003 in China and spread worldwide in a few months. Every newly emerging human pathogen is of concern for the safety of the blood supply during and after an epidemic crisis. For this purpose, we have evaluated the inactivation of SARS-coronavirus (CoV) in platelet concentrates using an approved pathogen inactivation device, the INTERCEPT Blood System. Apheresis platelet concentrates (APCs) were inoculated with approximately 10(6) pfu mL(-1) of either Urbani or HSR1 isolates of SARS-CoV. The inoculated units were mixed with 150 microm amotosalen and illuminated with 3 J cm(-2) UV-A light. The viral titres were determined by plaque formation in Vero E6 cells. Mixing SARS-CoV with APC in the absence of any treatment decreased viral infectivity by approximately 0.5-1 log10. Following photochemical treatment, SARS-CoV was consistently inactivated to the limit of detection in seven independent APC units. No infectious virus was detected after treatment when up to one-third of the APC unit was assayed, demonstrating a mean log10-reduction of >6.2. Potent inactivation of SARS-CoV therefore extends the capability of the INTERCEPT Blood System in inactivating a broad spectrum of human pathogens including recently emerging respiratory viruses."
AUTHORS
D. Pinna
E. Vicenzi
L. Lin
S. Rossini
A. Sampson-Johannes
G. Poli et al
PUBLISHED
2005 in Transfusion Medicine

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Heat inactivation of serum interferes with the immunoanalysis of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2
"The detection of serum antibodies to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is emerging as a new tool for the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis. Since many coronaviruses are sensitive to heat, heating inactivation of samples at 56 ℃ prior to testing is considered a possible method to reduce the risk of transmission, but the effect of heating on the measurement of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is still unclear. By comparing the levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before and after heat inactivation of serum at 56 ℃ for 30 minutes using a quantitative fluorescence immunochromatographic assay, we shown that heat inactivation significantly interferes with the levels of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The IgM levels of all the 34 serum samples (100%) from COVID-19 patients decreased by an average level of 53.56%. The IgG levels were decreased in 22 of 34 samples (64.71%) by an average level of 49.54%. Similar changes can also be observed in the non-COVID-19 diseases group (n=9). Of note, 44.12% of the detected IgM levels were dropped below the cut-off value after heating, suggesting heat inactivation can lead to false-negative results of these samples. Our results indicate that heat inactivation of serum at 56 ℃ for 30 minutes interferes with the immunoanalysis of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Heat inactivation prior to immunoanalysis is not recommended and the possibility of false-negative results should be considered if the sample was pre-inactivated by heating."
AUTHORS
Lei Zheng
Qian Wang
Dan Ding
Ye Zhang
Yongyu Rui
Dehua Sun et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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Stability of bovine coronavirus on lettuce surfaces under household refrigeration conditions.
"Fecal suspensions with an aerosol route of transmission were responsible for a cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) cases in 2003 in Hong Kong. Based on that event, the World Health Organization recommended that research be implemented to define modes of transmission of SARS coronavirus through sewage, feces, food and water. Environmental studies have shown that animal coronaviruses remain infectious in water and sewage for up to a year depending on the temperature and humidity. In this study, we examined coronavirus stability on lettuce surfaces. A cell culture adapted bovine coronavirus, diluted in growth media or in bovine fecal suspensions to simulate fecal contamination was used to spike romaine lettuce. qRT-PCR detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 6.6 × 10⁴ to 1.7 × 10⁶ throughout the experimental period of 30 days. Whereas infectious viruses were detected for at least 14 days, the amount of infectious virus varied, depending upon the diluent used for spiking the lettuce. UV and confocal microscopic observation indicated attachment of residual labeled virions to the lettuce surface after the elution procedure, suggesting that rates of inactivation or detection of the virus may be underestimated. Thus, it is possible that contaminated vegetables may be potential vehicles for coronavirus zoonotic transmission to humans."
AUTHORS
Marli S P Azevedo
Yongbin Zhang
Lisa Mullis
Linda J Saif
Xuming Zhang
PUBLISHED
2012 in Food Microbiology

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Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza.
"Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a "no-cost" intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission."
AUTHORS
Gregory C Gray
Selim Kiliç
PUBLISHED
2007 in Turk Silahli Kuvvetleri koruyucu hekimlik bulteni

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Symptomatic Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Previously Healthy Young Adults Living in a Crowded Military Environment
"Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a potentially important cause of acute respiratory illness in many populations, including military recruits receiving basic training. Understanding the full impact of RSV infection is challenging because of difficulties in diagnosis and the limitations of past epidemiologic studies. In this study, we set out to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of RSV infection and infection caused by other common viral agents in a population of previously healthy young adults, namely, military recruits receiving basic training.

Methods: In addition to standard viral culture techniques, we employed serologic testing and a recently described, novel, highly sensitive real-time PCR and a molecular beacon probe assay for the detection of RSV infection.

Results: Among 256 military trainees with respiratory symptoms, RSV infection was identified in 11% by means of serologic testing and real-time PCR. Viral culture identified adenovirus in 48% of symptomatic recruits, influenza viruses in 11%, parainfluenza virus 3 in 3%, and enterovirus in <1%. The majority of recruits with RSV infection experienced a nonproductive cough, sore throat, and nasal congestion, and almost half reported symptoms of wheeze or shortness of breath. Almost all (94%) of the recruits lost > or =1 day(s) from training because of illness.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the challenges of diagnosis and clinical significance of RSV infection in symptomatic young adults. RSV may account for 11% of clinically important respiratory illnesses in this population, which is as much as 25% of previously undiagnosed illness. These results have implications for treatment and prevention of RSV in young adults.

"
AUTHORS
A. W. Hawksworth
B. J. Alsip
M. A. K. Ryan
M. K. O'Shea
G. C. Gray
PUBLISHED
2005 in Clinical Infectious Diseases

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HAND WASHING AND RESPIRATORY ILLNESS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN MILITARY TRAINING
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1097/00019048-200201000-00023
PUBLISHED
2002 in Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice

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Two fatal cases of adenovirus-related illness in previously healthy young adults--Illinois, 2000.
"Adenoviruses are common pathogens that often are associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal illness and/or conjunctivitis in young persons. Adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7 have caused outbreaks of self-limited febrile respiratory illness in young adults in basic military training. During the 1950s and 1960s, up to 10% of recruits were infected with adenovirus, and these pathogens were responsible for approximately 90% of pneumonia hospitalizations. Beginning in 1971, all military recruits received oral, live, enteric-coated vaccines that were licensed by the Food and Drug Administration as safe and effective in preventing illness from adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7. In 1996, the sole manufacturer ceased production of adenoviral vaccines and, as supplies dwindled during the next few years, outbreaks of adenoviral respiratory illness reemerged in military settings. Since 1999, approximately 10%-12% of all recruits have become ill with adenovirus infection in basic training, similar to the prevaccine era. This report describes the first two deaths probably associated with adenovirus infection identified in military recruits since the vaccines became unavailable. The military has requested proposals for a new adenovirus vaccine manufacturer; however, these deaths suggest that efforts by policymakers and pharmaceutical companies to reestablish adenoviral vaccine production should be intensified."
PUBLISHED
2001 in MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report

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Large Epidemic of Respiratory Illness Due to Adenovirus Types 7 and 3 in Healthy Young Adults
"After 25 years of successful control through immunization, respiratory infections due to adenoviruses have reemerged to threaten the health of young adults in the military. Shortly after the loss of adenovirus vaccine supplies, a large outbreak of respiratory illness was observed at the United States Navy's sole basic training center. Laboratory testing confirmed 541 cases of adenovirus infection, including 378 cases due to serotype 7 and 132 cases due to serotype 3. This outbreak was remarkable because of its unique serotype distribution and the large amount of data available to describe demographic factors associated with infection. This was the largest outbreak of respiratory illness due to adenovirus types 7 and 3 documented in recent history, and it portends even greater challenges for young adults in the military in the postvaccine era."
AUTHORS
A. W. Hawksworth
J. A. McKeehan
M. A. K. Ryan
M. D. Malasig
B. Smith
G. C. Gray
PUBLISHED
2002 in Clinical Infectious Diseases

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[Features of morbidity community-acquired pneumonia among young recruits].
"Were examined 3338 military personnel of the combined training center. 183 of them diagnosed community-acquired pneumonia, in 3155 focal and infiltrative changes in lung tissue were not identified. The analisys of prevalence been made among young recruits of the acute respiratory illness before arriving in part and at the assembly point, foci of chronic infection, smoking, low body weight. 511 military personnel arrived at the training center in the disease state with symptoms of acute respiratory illness. Examined the relationship these risk factor to the development of community-acquired pneumonia in this category of servicemen."
AUTHORS
A A Mikhailov
A V Gordienko
P A Davydov
M S Kozlov
D U Serdukov
PUBLISHED
2015 in Voenno-meditsinskii zhurnal

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Respiratory syncytial virus: an important cause of acute respiratory illness among young adults undergoing military training.
"Background: Military recruits receiving training are vulnerable to acute respiratory disease and a significant proportion of illness is due to unidentified pathogens. While some countries use surveillance programs to monitor such illness, few data exist for recruits of the British Armed Forces.

Objectives: Through active surveillance of approximately 1000 Royal Navy trainees during 2001, we sought to describe and determine the aetiology of acute respiratory illness.

Methods: Standard viral culture was used together with serology and a novel highly sensitive real-time PCR and molecular beacon probe assay for RSV detection.

Results: Among 54 Royal Navy recruits with respiratory symptoms adenovirus was identified in 35%, influenza viruses in 19% and RSV in 14% of this group. All of the recruits were absent from training for almost a week, most of whom were confined to the sickbay.

Conclusions: This study is the first to document adenovirus and RSV as important causes of acute respiratory illness among Royal Navy trainees. The study findings demonstrate the clinical significance and challenges of diagnosing RSV infection in young adults.

"
AUTHORS
Christopher Pipkin
Patricia A Cane
Matthew K O'Shea
Gregory C Gray
PUBLISHED
2008 in Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

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Infection control assessment after an influenza outbreak in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions.
"Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of infection control among staff in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions.

Design: Self-administered survey.

Setting: Residential care facility (facility A).

Participants: Facility A staff ([Formula: see text]).

Methods: We distributed a survey to staff at facility A. We classified staff with direct care responsibilities as clinical (ie, physicians, nurses, and therapists) or nonclinical (ie, habilitation assistants, volunteers, and teachers) and used χ(2) tests to measure differences between staff agreement to questions.

Results: Of 248 surveys distributed, 200 (81%) were completed; median respondent age was 36 years; 85% were female; and 151 were direct care staff (50 clinical, 101 nonclinical). Among direct care staff respondents, 86% agreed they could identify residents with respiratory symptoms, 70% stayed home from work when ill with respiratory infection, 64% agreed that facility administration encouraged them to stay home when ill with respiratory infection, and 72% reported that ill residents with respiratory infections were separated from well residents. Clinical and nonclinical staff differed in agreement about using waterless hand gel as a substitute for handwashing (96% vs 78%; [Formula: see text]) and whether handwashing was done after touching residents (92% vs 75%; [Formula: see text]).

Conclusions: Respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control could be improved, especially among nonclinical staff. Facilities caring for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions should encourage adherence to infection control best practices among all staff having direct contact with residents.

"
AUTHORS
Nimalie D Stone
Loren Rodgers
Shannon L Page
Alejandro Azofeifa
Michael A Jhung
Georgina Peacock et al
PUBLISHED
2013 in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

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Respiratory syncytial virus: an important cause of acute respiratory illness among young adults undergoing military training
You can view the abstract at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2007.00029.x
AUTHORS
Christopher Pipkin
Matthew K. O’Shea
Patricia A. Cane
Gregory C. Gray
PUBLISHED
2007 in Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

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The COVID-19 pandemic: Important considerations for contact lens practitioners
"A novel coronavirus (CoV), the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2), results in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As information concerning the COVID-19 disease continues to evolve, patients look to their eye care practitioners for accurate eye health guidance. There is currently no evidence to suggest an increased risk of contracting COVID-19 through contact lens (CL) wear compared to spectacle lens wear and no scientific evidence that wearing standard prescription spectacles provides protection against COVID-19 or other viral transmissions. During the pandemic there will potentially be significant changes in access to local eyecare. Thus, it is imperative CL wearers are reminded of the steps they should follow to minimise their risk of complications, to reduce their need to leave isolation and seek care. Management of adverse events should be retained within optometric systems if possible, to minimise the impact on the wider healthcare service, which will be stretched. Optimal CL care behaviours should be the same as those under normal circumstances, which include appropriate hand washing (thoroughly with soap and water) and drying (with paper towels) before both CL application and removal. Daily CL cleaning and correct case care for reusable CL should be followed according to appropriate guidelines, and CL exposure to water must be avoided. Where the availability of local clinical care is restricted, practitioners could consider advising patients to reduce or eliminate sleeping in their CL (where patients have the appropriate knowledge about correct daily care and access to suitable lens-care products) or consider the option of moving patients to daily disposable lenses (where patients have appropriate lens supplies available). Patients should also avoid touching their face, including their eyes, nose and mouth, with unwashed hands and avoid CL wear altogether if unwell (particularly with any cold or flu-like symptoms)."
AUTHORS
Mark Willcox
Jason Nichols
Philip Morgan
Karen Walsh
Lyndon Jones
PUBLISHED
2020 in Contact Lens and Anterior Eye

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Side effects of using disinfectants to fight COVID-19
"Coronavirus refers to a group of widespread viruses. The name refers to the specific morphology of these viruses because their spikes look like a crown under an electron microscope. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered crown-shaped virus. Human-to-human transmission of the coronavirus is through coughing, sneezing, discharge from the nose and mouth. The virus can be transmitted from 1 to 2 meters through coughing or sneezing. Another way of transmission is by hand contact with the environment and virus-infected surfaces. Various substances are used to disinfect the body and surfaces. However, improper and unsafe use of these disinfectants can lead to other toxic effects in people that can be far more dangerous than the virus itself."
AUTHORS
Hanns Moshammer
Alireza Mosavi jarrahi
Ayda Fallah Asadi
Saeed Yari
PUBLISHED
2020 in Asian Pacific Journal of Environment and Cancer

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Highly regarded source
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A primer for emergency physicians
"Introduction: Rapid worldwide spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic.

Objective: This review article provides emergency physicians with an overview of the most current understanding of COVID-19 and recommendations on the evaluation and management of patients with suspected COVID-19.

Discussion: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for causing COVID-19, is primarily transmitted from person-to-person through close contact (approximately 6 ft) by respiratory droplets. Symptoms of COVID-19 are similar to other viral upper respiratory illnesses. Three major trajectories include mild disease with upper respiratory symptoms, non-severe pneumonia, and severe pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Emergency physicians should focus on identifying patients at risk, isolating suspected patients, and informing hospital infection prevention and public health authorities. Patients with suspected COVID-19 should be asked to wear a facemask. Respiratory etiquette, hand washing, and personal protective equipment are recommended for all healthcare personnel caring for suspected cases. Disposition depends on patient symptoms, hemodynamic status, and patient ability to self-quarantine.

Conclusion: This narrative review provides clinicians with an updated approach to the evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected COVID-19.

"
AUTHORS
Brit Long
Alex Koyfman
Summer Chavez
Stephen Y. Liang
PUBLISHED
2020 in The American Journal of Emergency Medicine

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COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses
"The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize and comparatively analyze the emergence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection and previous human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We also discuss the approaches for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to cope with this viral outbreak."
AUTHORS
Nadia Bashir
Muhammad Adnan Shereen
Abeer Kazmi
Rabeea Siddique
Suliman Khan
PUBLISHED
2020 in Journal of Advanced Research

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Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma using a Coronavirus Antigen Microarray
"The current practice for diagnosis of COVID-19, based on SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing of pharyngeal or respiratory specimens in a symptomatic patient at high epidemiologic risk, likely underestimates the true prevalence of infection. Serologic methods can more accurately estimate the disease burden by detecting infections missed by the limited testing performed to date. Here, we describe the validation of a coronavirus antigen microarray containing immunologically significant antigens from SARS-CoV-2, in addition to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, common human coronavirus strains, and other common respiratory viruses. A comparison of antibody profiles detected on the array from control sera collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic versus convalescent blood specimens from virologically confirmed COVID-19 cases demonstrates complete discrimination of these two groups. This array can be used as a diagnostic tool, as an epidemiologic tool to more accurately estimate the disease burden of COVID-19, and as a research tool to correlate antibody responses with clinical outcomes."
AUTHORS
Jiin Felgner
Algis Jasinskas
Rie Nakajima
Aarti Jain
Rafael R de Assis
Manuel Battegay et al
PUBLISHED
2020 in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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