* If a lot of studies examined your question, we provide you with summaries of just the
meta-studies and literature reviews.
** Note that the information provided here may not be complete. Seek the advice of a professional for medical questions.
Journal Retracts 1998 Paper Linking Autism to Vaccines.
Year Published: 2010
Source: New York Times
A prominent British medical journal on Tuesday retracted a 1998 research paper that set off a sharp decline in vaccinations in Britain after the paper's lead author suggested that vaccines could cause autism. The retraction by The Lancet is part of a reassessment that has lasted for years of the scientific methods and financial conflicts of Dr. Andrew Wakefield, who contended that his research showed that the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine may be unsafe. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Childhood vaccines and autism--much ado about nothing?
Year Published: 2010
The increased diagnoses of autism and developmental disorders in recent decades, together with the childhood vaccination program, has led to the hypothesis that vaccination in general, and the measles, mumps, and rubella virus live vaccine, and vaccines that contain mercury, in particular, cause autism. It has been hypothesized that intestinal infection caused by live virus vaccines change the permeability of the intestinal wall, and subsequently, the passage of peptides through the intestinal wall to the blood, and from there to the brain. It has been suggested that the accumulation of these peptides in the central nervous system causes autism. Studies that investigated this theory did not find an association between vaccine administration and between digestive system symptoms and autism. According to a second hypothesis, an organomercury compound (Thimerosal), used as a preservative in vaccines that do not include live viruses, is a cause of autism. Like the former, this hypothesis has been well researched, and refuted. Some studies have in fact found an increase in autism diagnosis among children who were vaccinated after Thimerosal was removed from the vaccine preparation. Recent studies have refuted the theory that the consecutive administration of vaccines weakens the young immune system in children, and leads to an autoimmune process that causes autism. The etiology of autism is still unknown, with research continuing from different directions. The extensive research conducted so far indicates that childhood vaccination is not a cause of the sharp increase in autism diagnoses in recent decades.
Vaccines and Autism: A Deadly Manufactroversy
Year Published: 2009
Source: Skeptic (Altadena, Calif.)
The writer discusses the manufactured controversy over the supposed link between vaccines and autism.
A clear consensus has been reached by the scientific community: Vaccines do not cause autism. There is no actual controversy over this issue, but there is a manufactured controversy created by junk science, dishonest researchers, professional misconduct, outright fraud, lies, misrepresentations, irresponsible reporting, unfortunate media publicity, poor judgment, a few maverick doctors, and celebrities who think they are wiser than the whole of medical science. The writer describes the 3
main stages that have led to the current situation: a scare over the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, a scare over mercury and thimerosal, and a scare over vaccines in general.
Vaccines and Autism: A Tale of Shifting Hypotheses
Year Published: 2009
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Although child vaccination rates remain high, some parental concern persists that vaccines might cause autism.
Three specific hypotheses have been proposed: (1) the combination measles-mumps-rubella vaccine causes autism by damaging the intestinal lining, which allows the entrance of encephalopathic proteins; (2) thimerosal, an ethylmercury-containing preservative in some vaccines, is toxic to the central nervous system; and (3) the simultaneous administration of multiple vaccines overwhelms or weakens the immune system. We will discuss the genesis of each of these theories and review the relevant epidemiological evidence. A worldwide increase in the rate of autism diagnoses—likely driven by broadened diagnostic criteria and increased aware-ness—has fueled concerns that an environmental exposure like vaccines might cause autism. Theories for this putative asso-ciation have centered on the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, thimerosal, and the large number of vaccines currently administered. However, both epidemiological and biological studies fail to support these claims. MMR
Science under Attack: Vaccines and Autism
Year Published: 2009
Warning: Because much of this story is presented in chronological order, the reader sometimes has to read through a few chapters to learn that all the claims are bogus. If their credibility is questionable, their testimony should not be heard by a jury. [...] far, although cases claiming that vaccines cause autism have been brought against vaccine manufacturers in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, all have been dismissed by judges who found the plaintiffs' experts to be less than credible. CN - 0000
Vaccines and Autism: Evidence Does Not Support a Causal Association
Year Published: 2007
Source: Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
A suggested association between certain childhood vaccines and autism has been one of the most contentious vaccine safety controversies in recent years. Despite compelling scientific evidence against a causal association, many parents and parent advocacy groups continue to suspect that vaccines, particularly measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs), can cause autism.
Vaccines and the changing epidemiology of autism
Year Published: 2006
Source: Child: Care, Health and Development
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of autism has been rather confusing, with very variable published prevalence figures and no clear incidence data. The cause of autism is unclear; vaccines have been incriminated.
METHODS: Literature review and interpretation.
RESULTS: The recorded prevalence of autism has increased considerably in recent years. This reflects greater recognition, with changes in diagnostic practice associated with more trained diagnosticians; broadening of diagnostic criteria to include a spectrum of disorder; a greater willingness by parents and educationalists to accept the label (in part because of entitlement to services); and better recording systems, among other factors. The cause(s) of autism remains unclear. There is a strong genetic component which, along with prenatally determined neuro-anatomical/biochemical changes, makes any post-natal 'cause' unlikely.
CONCLUSIONS: There has (probably) been no real increase in the incidence of autism. There is no scientific evidence that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine or the mercury preservative used in some vaccines plays any part in the aetiology or triggering of autism, even in a subgroup of children with the condition.
MMR vaccine does not cause autism
Year Published: 2006
Source: Immunization Action Coalition
There is no scientific evidence that MMR vaccine causes autism. The question about a possible link between MMR vaccine and autism has been extensively reviewed by independent groups of experts in the U.S. including the National Academy of Sciences1 Institute of Medicine. These reviews have concluded that the available epidemiologic evidence does not support a causal link between MMR vaccine and autism. The suggestion that MMR vaccine might lead to autism had its origins in research by Andrew Wakefield, a gastroenterology, in the United Kingdom. In 1998, Wakefield and colleagues published an article in The Lancet claiming that the measles vaccine virus in MMR caused inflammatory bowel disease, allowing harmful proteins to enter the bloodstream and damage the brain. The validity of this finding was later called into question when it could not be reproduced by oth- er researchers. In addition, the findings were further discredited when an investigation found that Wakefield did not disclose he was being funded for his research by lawyers seeking evidence to use against vaccine manufacturers. Wakefield was permanently barred from practicing medicine in the United Kingdom (www.neurodi- versity.com/wakefield_gmc_ruling.pdf) and The Lancet retracted the original article in 2010. The following list of articles published in peer-reviewed journals is provided so that parents and practitioners can themselves compare the balance of evidence about MMR vaccine and autism.
Review of Vaccines and autism.
Year Published: 2005
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Reviews the book and doctoral thesis, Vaccines and autism by Kreesten Meldgaard Madsen (2004). The thesis examines two hypothesis. It has been suggested that different vaccines cause autism. The wide-scale use of childhood vaccines has been reported to coincide with an apparent increase in the incidence of autism. The first hypothesis relates the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination to the development of autism. The second hypothesis connects the use of thimerosal-containing vaccines to the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and speech or language delay. Thimerosal has been used as an antimicrobial agent in vaccines since the 1930s. It is metabolized into organic mercury compounds, which are well established as nephro- and neurotoxicants. However, mercury poisoning and autism do not affect the same sites or cells of the brain. When reviewing the literature, no convincing scientific evidence exists to support a causal relationship between the MMR vaccine and the subsequent development of autism. The biological plausibility rests on tenuous grounds and there is a sound body of epidemiological evidence to refute the hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism
Year Published: 2004
This eighth and final report of the Immunization Safety Review Committee examines the hypothesis that vaccines, specifically the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines, are causally associated with autism. The committee reviewed the extant published and unpublished epidemiological studies regarding causality and studies of potential biologic mechanisms by which these immunizations might cause autism. The committee concludes that the body of epidemiological evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between the MMR vaccine and autism. The committee also concludes that the body of epidemiological evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism. The committee further finds that potential biological mechanisms for vaccine-induced autism that have been generated to date are theoretical only. The committee does not recommend a policy review of the current schedule and recommendations for the administration of either the MMR vaccine or thimerosal-containing vaccines. The committee recommends a public health response that fully supports an array of vaccine safety activities. In addition, the committee recommends that available funding for autism research be channeled to the most promising areas. The committee makes additional recommendations regarding surveillance and epidemiological research, clinical studies, and communication related to these vaccine safety concerns. Please see Box ES-1 for a summary of all conclusions and recommendations.
Does the MMR triple vaccine cause autism?
Year Published: 2004
Source: Evidence-Based Healthcare and Public Health
In recent years, there has been widespread public concern about the hypothesis that MMR triple vaccine may increase the risk of autism in children. In this review, we examine the background to, and implications of, this controversy. We then assess and explain, using a transparent and replicable method, all the scientific evidence for and against the hypothesis. We conclude that there are no grounds to suggest that MMR vaccine increases the risk of autism. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Addressing Parents' Concerns: Do Vaccines Cause Allergic or Autoimmune Diseases?
Year Published: 2003
Anecdotal case reports and uncontrolled observational studies in the medical literature claim that vaccines cause chronic diseases such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, chronic arthritis, and diabetes. Several biological mechanisms have been proposed to explain how vaccines might cause allergic or autoimmune diseases. For example, allergic diseases might be caused by prevention of early childhood infections (the hygiene hypothesis), causing a prolongation of immunoglobulin E-promoting T-helper cell type 2-type responses. However, vaccines do not prevent most common childhood infections, and large well-controlled epidemiologic studies do not support the hypothesis that vaccines cause allergies. Autoimmune diseases might occur after immunization because proteins on microbial pathogens are similar to human proteins (molecular mimicry) and could induce immune responses that damage human cells. However, wild-type viruses and bacteria are much better adapted to growth in humans than vaccines and much more likely to stimulate potentially damaging self-reactive lymphocytes. Consistent with critical differences between natural infection and immunization, well-controlled epidemiologic studies do not support the hypothesis that vaccines cause autoimmunity. Flaws in proposed biological mechanisms that explain how vaccines might cause chronic diseases are consistent with the findings of many well-controlled large epidemiologic studies that fail to show a causal relationship.
MMR and autism: Further evidence against a causal association