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Do fat children necessarily become fat adults?
Year Published: 2014
Source: Obesity Reviews
Background: On the pathways of adult obesity many normal weight children and adolescents become obese by adulthood. It is relatively less understood why some children remain fat and others become fat in the life course. Aims: Aims of this study are to examine the tracking of obesity from childhood to adolescent and then to adulthood and identify the main characteristics of the children who persist to remain obese and others who become obese by adulthood.
We systematically reviewed publications from four databases: Pubmed, Embase, BIOSIS and PsychINFO. We have also conducted analyses of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUPS) birth cohort study. MUSP collected relevant anthropometry data (N~2500) of parents and offspring (birth, 6-month, 5, 14 and 21 years) at different time points. We performed a meta-analysis of the longitudinal cohort studies using a bias-adjusted quality effect model. Three stages of life-childhood, adolescent and adulthood were considered. A transition model was developed to estimate the probability of remaining obese or becoming obese from one stage to others and examined what factors predict these transitions. Results Each of the three stages of life independently contribute to the development of adult obesity. There is an accumulation of risk across different periods of life. The continuity of obesity is stronger from adolescent to adulthood compared to childhood to adulthood. Change in parental obesity, life style, rapid weight gain, sleeping problems and family functioning are the major predictors of these changes.
Conclusions: Although most fat children remain fat, many normal weight children become fat by adulthood.
Do obese children become obese adults: childhood predictors of adult disease
Year Published: 2004
Source: Pediatric Endocrinology Review
Obesity is a multifactorial disorder influenced by genetic, behavioral, environmental and cultural factors. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in young people is increasing rapidly in both the developed and developing world and are considered today as a global epidemic. Recent studies show that obesity in adult life is heralded at birth and factors such as birth weight, adiposity rebound, socioeconomic status, early maturation and genetic predisposition may have a significant effect on the propensity to develop obesity in adulthood. Avoidance of accelerated weight gain in children should be investigated as a toll of adult obesity prevention. [References: 60]
Two decades of annual medical examinations in Japanese obese children: Do obese children grow into obese adults?
Year Published: 1997
Source: International Journal of Obesity
OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in frequency of obese children in Japan over two decades, the frequency of obese children who grow into obese adults and predictive factors for adult obesity.
DESIGN: Annual cross-sectional studies for 22 y (1974-1995) with a follow-up study.
SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional: Cumulatively 13,186 obese (% of standard body weight (SBW): > or = 120%) schoolchildren including 3158 extremely obese (> or = 140% of SBW) children out of 203,088 schoolchildren (age: 6-14 y) in Izumiohtsu City, Osaka, Japan. Follow-up: 151 initially obese children (initial age: 6-14 y and age at follow-up: 20-35 y) who lived in Izumiohtsu City.
Control: 3552 Japanese men and 4631 Japanese women (age: 20-35 y).
MEASUREMENTS: Cross-sectional: height, weight, trunk circumference, skin-fold thickness, blood pressure and blood biochemicals. Follow-up: height, weight, trunk circumference, skin-fold thickness during childhood, and body height and weight at follow-up.
Adulthood obesity: > or = 120% of the average body mass indices (BMI) of the controls.
RESULTS: Frequency of obese children increased from 5% to more than 10%, and that of extremely obese children increased from 1% to more than 2% during these 22 y. These increases were most prominent in the schoolboys aged 9-11 y. Prevalence of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in the extremely obese children did not change, and that of hypertension and abnormal liver function gradually decreased during these two decades. After coming of age, 32.2% of the initially obese boys (relative risk: 5.3) and 41.0% of the initially obese girls (relative risk: 6.7) remained obese. BMI, percentage of the SBW and skin-fold thickness at the biceps during childhood were significantly larger in currently-obese girls. Positive correlations were demonstrated between these variables and percentage SBW at follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity is increasing in Japan, especially in boys aged 9-11 y. Approximately 32% of the obese boys and 41% of the obese girls grow into obese adults, and the degree of obesity is a predictive factor for adult obesity.
Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature
Year Published: 1993
Source: Preventive medicine
Background. Obese children may be at increased risk of becoming obese adults. To examine the relationship between obesity in childhood and obesity in adulthood, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature published between 1970 and July 1992. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of obesity, and analytic methods used. Although the correlations between anthropometric measures of obesity in childhood and those in adulthood varied considerably among studies, the associations were consistently positive. Results. About a third (26 to 41%) of obese preschool children were obese as adults, and about half (42 to 63%) of obese school-age children were obese as adults. For all studies and across all ages, the risk of adult obesity was at least twice as high for obese children as for nonobese children. The risk of adult obesity was greater for children who were at higher levels of obesity and for children who were obese at older ages. Conclusion. The wide range of estimates in this literature are, in part, due to differences in study designs, definitions of obesity, ages at which participants were measured, intervals between measurements, and population and cultural differences.
Childhood antecedents of adult obesity. Do chubby infants become obese adults?
Year Published: 1976
Source: The New England journal of medicine
We investigated whether obese infants tend to become obese adults. Records of subjects born between 1945 and 1955 were reviewed to select three cohorts based on weight in the first six months of age, which exceeded the 90th percentile at least once, ranged between 25th and 75th percentiles or was below 10th percentile at least once. Three hundred and sixty-six subjects, now between 20 and 30 years of age, were located and their present height and weight determined. Thirty-six per cent of those exceeding the 90th percentile as infants were overweight adults, as compared to 14 per cent of the average age and light-weight infants. A significant increase (chi square = 17.2, p less than 0.001) in adult obesity was evident when the infant exceeded the 75th percentile that was independent of his height. Social class, educational level, and parental weight all correlated with adult weight (p less than 0.001). Sex and ordinal position of birth did not. The data suggest that infant weight correlates strongly with adult weight independently of other factors considered.
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